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Lecture of IAP:
Network is create for the sharing purpose.
We may share the idea..
We can share anything.
In general life,
Basic purpose of networking is sharing.
Similarly we also used the computer network.
We may used the some component that is some devices or some nodes.
Hardware and software we share in computer network.
Network is a collection of some devices for the purpose of sharing i.e hardware sharing and sofware
How we share s/w and h/w resouces??
Ans:sofware is does not mean the sofware
Software may be in the form of file..
We used computer sofware.
We send easily data instead of corrier or post..
Because in which , more cost is required
So now we used the software for sending purpose.
With sharing , cost is reduced…
With these website, we purpushed orginal books from these sides.
These website have three times more than revenue the budget of pakistan in 2007.
In these website , more than people as compared to population of pakistan.
With the help of any network or sofware , we send the files in sofware.
Basic just two devices
Persoanl area network (PAN)
We create the network.
And share the printers for the multple people..
It is one example..
SAN (storage area network)
Store data at the back end of the gmail, google, facebook,
We can create the multple accounts.
We can store data in
For different function, we used the fifferent servers,
For the files upload, we used FTP.
Physcail layer of any network is called topology.
Class is a network.
Physical arrangemtn is a chair is called toplogy.
If white board is west side, then arrangemtn is changed
Then four posiblites we used for the arrangement for topology.
Cental cable is coaxial cable
We donot used the centralized device
When we tranmist the data ,
Terminators if not used , then collosion is done.
Bus topology is not used moslty.
No device is used
Data is travel is both direction.
Because we can’t use the centralized devcice.
two computer tranmist data at the same times.
Switch 24 devices connect
Centralized devices is not used.
TOKEN: is like a pass.
It is softare file that moves at the end of the network.
It is smalles file.
To avoid the collsion we use the token.
TOKEN capture these system, alnd attach data , and token go toward the destination addrs and copy it
And system no 1 relase the token and then other system use the token.
We donot use the devices, and we donto have the token machinism.
If we send the data from 1 to 4.
We used the signal for talking purpose.
Signal means “we want to talk to someone or we send the data or
We pass different signals to solve the objective in paper point of viewi
In the shape of signal, we send the data.
Electric signal is used to transfer the elctricity
Data is tranmissted in the form of electromegnatic signal
Voice+ data , in signal is tranmsitted.
Sinal is conversion of data, or is the conversion of shape
Data is go first of all
Differnce b/w Hub and switch::
Braodcasting device and switch is unicasting device.
What is broadcasting and unicasting device???
Hub Is uninteligent device and swithc Is intelligent device.
Hub have no address of connecting devices because it broadcast the message.
Does contain the address of connecting devices. In hub.
Switch Is unicast the data on the basis of the MAC address.
Switch saved the address.
Switch create the table for mac address.
Hub donot create the table for address.
Switch match the MAC address.
In network tranmission is secured, switch mac table saved the mac address.
MAC address work on the based
Router creating the routing table.
Mac is not changeable.
Ip addrss Is a logical ..it is changeable.
Router main purpose is to tranmit the data or packet forwards.
In router , ip address is matched.