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Lecture 1 pm Lecture 1 pm Presentation Transcript

  • Lecture # 1
  • What is Project? • A project is an activity with specific goals which takes place over a finite period of time.
  • What is Project? • Project – temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or result • Temporary – Has a definite beginning and end – End is reached when • Project objectives have been achieved • It becomes clear that the project objectives will not or cannot be met • The need for the project is no longer exist
  • What is Project? – Projects are not ongoing efforts. – Temporary does not generally apply to the product, service or result created by project. • Unique Products, Services or Results – The presence of repetitive elements does not change the fundamental uniqueness of the project work – E.g many thousands of office buildings have been developed, but each individual facility is unique– different owner, different design, different location, different contractors and so on.
  • What is Project? • Progressive elaboration – Progressively: proceeding in steps – Elaborated: worked with care and detail • Scope of project should remain constant even as characteristics are “progressively elaborated”
  • What is Project? • A sequence of unique, complex, and connected activities having one goal or purpose and that must be completed by a specific time, within budget, and according to specification • Sequence of activities – Activity – a defined chunk of work – Inputs to activities, outputs from activities • Unique activities - Every project is somewhat different from all previous ones • Complex - Activities are not simple e.g. washing a car, buying groceries. Many people involved, usually scattered across departments and roles
  • What is a Project? • Connected activities – output of one is input to another • One goal – to write a software, to construct a building, to complete a degree • Specified time – must have a specified start and end time • Resource limits – limited number of people, money, or machines • According to Specification – deliverables must meet some functionality and quality parameters
  • Characteristics of a Project • Non-routine tasks are involved • Planning is required • Specific objectives are to be met or specified product is to be created • Pre-determined time span • Work involves several specialisms • Work is carried out in several phases • Resources that are available are constrained • Project is large or complex
  • Project Parameters • • • • • Scope Quality Cost Time Resources • Interdependent set of constraints, change in one causes change in others to restore equilibrium
  • Scope • A statement that defines the boundaries of the project • What will be done, will not be done • Foundation of all project work • Scope can change • Detect change and decide how to accommodate it in project plan
  • Quality • Two types of quality – Product quality – quality of the deliverable – Process quality – quality of project management process • A quality management program, to monitor work on project • Reduce wastage and rework, use resources efficiently • Complete project successfully, satisfy customer
  • Cost • • • • Budget established for project Customer offer Vs. supplier quote Project proposal includes quote Customer willing to spend only a limited amount • Cost increases if time is reduced or scope or quality is increased
  • Time • Customer specifies timeframe and deadline • Cost and time are inversely proportional, time can be reduced but cost will increase • Time cannot be stored, it is consumed whether we use it or not • Good project manager realizes this
  • Resources • Assets for supplier: people, equipment, physical facilities, materials, utilities • In IT projects, people are the main resource • Some resources have fixed cost others have variable cost – – – – – People – fixed or variable Equipment – fixed physical facilities – fixed Materials – variable Utilities - variable
  • Scope • Scope Creep (changes in the project that was not in the original plan) • Hope Creep (result of a project team member’s getting behind schedule but reporting that he or she is on schedule and hoping to get back on schedule at the next report date)
  • Scope • Effort Creep (result of the team member’s working but not making progress proportionate to the work expended. Every one of us has worked on a project that always seems to be 95% complete no matter how much effort is expended to complete it. • Feature Creep (results when the team members arbitrarily adds features and functions to the deliverable that they think the customer would want to have.
  • Project Vs. Operation • Characteristics shared by Project and operation are: – Performed by people. – Constrained by limited resources. – Planned, executed and controlled. • But – Operations are ongoing and repetitive where as projects are temporary and unique. – Purpose of project is to attain its objective and then terminate where as purpose of ongoing operation is to sustain the business.
  • Projects and Strategic Planning • Projects are typically authorized as a result of one or more of the following strategic considerations: – A market demand – An organizational need – A customer request – A technological advance – A legal requirement.
  • Project Management • Project Management: the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities in order to meet or exceed stakeholder needs and expectations from a defined project – balancing the following: – Scope, time, cost, and quality – Stakeholders’ expectations – Requirements (needs) vs. unidentified requirements (expectations)
  • Project Management • Project management is accomplished through the application and integration of the project management processes of initiating, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling and closing. • The project manager is the person responsible for accomplishing the project objectives.
  • Project Management • Project Management is the art of maximizing the probability that a project delivers its goals on Time, to Budget and at the required Quality.
  • Triplet Constraint • Project Scope • Time • Cost – High quality projects deliver the required product, service or result within scope, on time and within budget. – The relationship among these factor is such that if any one of three factors changes at least one other factor is likely to be affected.
  • References • PMBOK (3rd Edition) • Effective Project Management, 2nd Edition, Robert K. Wysocki, Robert Beck Jr., David B. Crane, John Wiley and Sons Inc., 2000