• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Iap 04   internet history,tcpip
 

Iap 04 internet history,tcpip

on

  • 65 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
65
Views on SlideShare
65
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
1
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • Baseband : <br /> It utilizes the entire media bandwidth for a single channel. It is low cast, simpler to implement. Used mostly on LAN. Ethernet or CSMA / CD protocols are used. Token Ring / Token Bus protocols of ring and bus topologies. With the help of these media access protocols the whole bandwidth is shared. It has limitations in capacity( data carrying capacity ) and distance. Baseband is commonly used for digital signaling, although it can also be used for analog signals. <br /> Broadband : <br /> High speed gigabit connectivity. In broadband the entire media bandwidth can be divided into multiple channels. Since each channel can carry a different analog signal, there is simultaneous communication over a single line. It has FDM. They are faster than Baseband. It does not allow broadcasting. <br />
  • Baseband : <br /> It utilizes the entire media bandwidth for a single channel. It is low cast, simpler to implement. Used mostly on LAN. Ethernet or CSMA / CD protocols are used. Token Ring / Token Bus protocols of ring and bus topologies. With the help of these media access protocols the whole bandwidth is shared. It has limitations in capacity( data carrying capacity ) and distance. Baseband is commonly used for digital signaling, although it can also be used for analog signals. <br /> Broadband : <br /> High speed gigabit connectivity. In broadband the entire media bandwidth can be divided into multiple channels. Since each channel can carry a different analog signal, there is simultaneous communication over a single line. It has FDM. They are faster than Baseband. It does not allow broadcasting. <br />
  • Baseband : <br /> It utilizes the entire media bandwidth for a single channel. It is low cast, simpler to implement. Used mostly on LAN. Ethernet or CSMA / CD protocols are used. Token Ring / Token Bus protocols of ring and bus topologies. With the help of these media access protocols the whole bandwidth is shared. It has limitations in capacity( data carrying capacity ) and distance. Baseband is commonly used for digital signaling, although it can also be used for analog signals. <br /> Broadband : <br /> High speed gigabit connectivity. In broadband the entire media bandwidth can be divided into multiple channels. Since each channel can carry a different analog signal, there is simultaneous communication over a single line. It has FDM. They are faster than Baseband. It does not allow broadcasting. <br />
  • Baseband : <br /> It utilizes the entire media bandwidth for a single channel. It is low cast, simpler to implement. Used mostly on LAN. Ethernet or CSMA / CD protocols are used. Token Ring / Token Bus protocols of ring and bus topologies. With the help of these media access protocols the whole bandwidth is shared. It has limitations in capacity( data carrying capacity ) and distance. Baseband is commonly used for digital signaling, although it can also be used for analog signals. <br /> Broadband : <br /> High speed gigabit connectivity. In broadband the entire media bandwidth can be divided into multiple channels. Since each channel can carry a different analog signal, there is simultaneous communication over a single line. It has FDM. They are faster than Baseband. It does not allow broadcasting. <br />
  • Baseband : <br /> It utilizes the entire media bandwidth for a single channel. It is low cast, simpler to implement. Used mostly on LAN. Ethernet or CSMA / CD protocols are used. Token Ring / Token Bus protocols of ring and bus topologies. With the help of these media access protocols the whole bandwidth is shared. It has limitations in capacity( data carrying capacity ) and distance. Baseband is commonly used for digital signaling, although it can also be used for analog signals. <br /> Broadband : <br /> High speed gigabit connectivity. In broadband the entire media bandwidth can be divided into multiple channels. Since each channel can carry a different analog signal, there is simultaneous communication over a single line. It has FDM. They are faster than Baseband. It does not allow broadcasting. <br />

Iap 04   internet history,tcpip Iap 04 internet history,tcpip Presentation Transcript

  • Internet Architecture and Protocols University of education township campus lahore, Pakistan Lecture 04 Overview of Internet Architecture Internet Architecture and Protocols, University of education township campus lahore, Pakistan 1
  • Layered Architecture • Design Philosophy of Layered Architecture – The complex task of communication is broken into simpler sub-tasks or modules – Each layer performs a subset of the required communication functions – Each layer relies on the next lower layer to perform more primitive functions – Each layer provides services to the next higher layer – Changes in one layer should not require changes in other layers – Helps in troubleshooting and identifying the problem Internet Architecture and Protocols, University of education township campus lahore, Pakistan 2
  • TCP/IP PROTOCOL SUITE The layers in the TCP/IP protocol suite do not exactly match those in the OSI model. The original TCP/IP protocol suite was defined as having four layers: host-to-network, internet, transport, and application. However, when TCP/IP is compared to OSI, we can say that the TCP/IP protocol suite is made of five layers: physical, data link, network, transport, and application. 3
  • TCP/IP and OSI model 4
  • ADDRESSING Four levels of addresses are used in an internet employing the TCP/IP protocols: physical, logical, port, and specific. Topics discussed in this section: Physical Addresses Logical Addresses Port Addresses Specific Addresses 5
  • Addresses in TCP/IP 6
  • Relationship of layers and addresses in TCP/IP 7
  • Example-1 In Figure a node with physical address 10 sends a frame to a node with physical address 87. The two nodes are connected by a link (bus topology LAN). As the figure shows, the computer with physical address 10 is the sender, and the computer with physical address 87 is the receiver. 8
  • Physical addresses 9
  • Example-2 Most local-area networks use a 48-bit (6-byte) physical address written as 12 hexadecimal digits; every byte (2 hexadecimal digits) is separated by a colon, as shown below: 07:01:02:01:2C:4B A 6-byte (12 hexadecimal digits) physical address. 10
  • Example -3 Figure shows a part of an internet with two routers connecting three LANs. Each device (computer or router) has a pair of addresses (logical and physical) for each connection. In this case, each computer is connected to only one link and therefore has only one pair of addresses. Each router, however, is connected to three networks (only two are shown in the figure). So each router has three pairs of addresses, one for each connection. 11
  • IP addresses 12
  • The physical addresses will change from hop to hop, but the logical addresses usually remain the same. 13
  • Internet Protocol Stack Application Transport Network Data Link Physical Internet Architecture and Protocols, University of education township campus lahore, Pakistan 14
  • TCP/IP Protocol Suite • Application Layer – Responsible for supporting network applications – Protocols include: HTTP. SMTP, FTP etc. • Transport layer (End-to-end Communication) – Two transport layer protocols (TCP and UDP) – Transports messages between client and applications server • Network Layer (Host-to-host Communication) – Routing of datagrams from one host to another – IP works on this layers • Data link Layer (Node-to-node Communication) – Logical interface between end system and network – Examples: Ethernet, PPP, ATM and Frame technologies Relay • Physical Layer – Transmission medium – Signal rate and encoding Internet Architecture and Protocols, University of education township campus lahore, Pakistan 15
  • OSI verses TCP/IP Model 16
  • Data Encapsulation and PDU 17
  • Data Encapsulation and PDU Protocol Data Unit (PDU) A unit of data which is specified in a protocol of a given layer and which consists of protocol-control information and possibly user data of that layer ↗It refers generically to a group of information added or removed by a particular layer of the OSI model ↗Each layer uses the PDU to communicate and exchange information ↗The PDU information is only read by the peer layer on the receiving device and then stripped off, and data is handed over to the next upper layer ↗Layer 1 (Physical Layer) PDU is the bit ↗Layer 2 (Data Link Layer) PDU is the frame ↗Layer 3 (Network Layer) PDU is the packet ↗Layer 4 (Transport Layer) PDU is the segment ↗Layer 5 and above are referred to as data 18
  • Data Encapsulation and PDU 19
  • Data Encapsulation and PDU 20
  • PDUs in TCP/IP Internet Architecture and Protocols, University of education township campus lahore, Pakistan 21
  • Some Protocols in TCP/IP Suite Internet Architecture and Protocols, University of education township campus lahore, Pakistan 22
  • History of Internet • In 1960s the telephone network was the worlds most dominant communication network • Uses Circuit switching which is appropriate for voice traffic by supporting constant data rates • With the increasing importance of computers, the need for interconnecting different geographically dispersed computers was realized. • Three research groups laid the foundations of packet switching notion for computers communications: – MIT (Leonard Kleinrock) – Rand Institute (Paul Baran) – National Physical Laboratory (NPL) Internet Architecture and Protocols, University of education township campus lahore, Pakistan 23
  • History of Internet • Idea of Packet Switching • Principles of Packet Switching were conceived in 1957 by Paul Baran and others. • 1961--- First Paper by him on Packet Switching • 1964--- First Book on Internet in which Idea of Packet Switching was declared more efficient than Circuit Switching • Paul Baran used first time Digital Computer Technology for Communication between Switching Networks and divided the data into “Message Blocks” and reassembled at destination with some error detection technique • Dynamic Routing of these Message Blocks was also proposed by Baran • 1968--- First Packet Switching Network was designed and Implemented Internet Architecture and Protocols, University of education township campus lahore, Pakistan 24
  • The Internet’s Infancy: 1960s • DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Project Agency) was established as an outcome of the Sputnik1 launch in 1957 by NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), formally known as ARPA • Computers in the form of Network was visualized and Implemented for data communication by Taylor • 1966--- First Wide Area Computer Network was developed • 1967--- First Packet Switching Router in the form of IMP (Interface Message Processor) was proposed; about a size of refrigerator • 1968--- BBN designed IMPs and established the protocols allowing IMPs to communicate with each other. Internet Architecture and Protocols, University of education township campus lahore, Pakistan 25
  • The Internet’s Infancy: 1960s • 1969--- Network Working Group (NWG) was formed to ensure the stability of communication protocols. Steve Crocker wrote first minutes of meetings • IMP1: The first node of the ARPANET – http://www.lk.cs.ucla.edu/LK/Inet/birth.html • The IMPs (Interface Message Processors) connected both host computers and other IMPs and functioned to: – – – – – Receive data Check for errors Retransmit, if error exists Route the packets Verify that packet are sent to intended receivers Internet Architecture and Protocols, University of education township campus lahore, Pakistan 26
  • The Internet’s Infancy: 1960s • This documents was called RFC (Request for Comments) to take suggestions from peoples; later it became a Standard • NWG designed first host-to-host protocols for host to IMP and computer to computer communication • 1969--- Device Drivers were proposed to enable communication between different operating systems and hardware • The destination IMPs used hop-by-hop acknowledgements. Since the source systems were different, so a software had to be designed to enable them to communicate, which is called a device driver Internet Architecture and Protocols, University of education township campus lahore, Pakistan 27
  • The Internet Early Years: 1970s • 1970--- NCP (Network Control Protocol) was designed; used Stop and Wait flow control.It was the first host-to-host communication protocol that is used between the ARPANET end systems • 1972--- Idea of Open-Architecture Network was floated • 1973--- TCP (Transmission Control Flow Control) was designed for data transmission and Checksum was used for error detection Internet Architecture and Protocols, University of education township campus lahore, Pakistan 28
  • The Internet Early Years: 1970s • Protocol Stack APPLICATION NCP DEVICE DRIVER IMP Internet Architecture and Protocols, University of education township campus lahore, Pakistan 29
  • The Internet Growth Begins: 1970 - 1980s • 1973--- Ethernet was proposed as a LAN Technology • 1974 --- First Ethernet protocol was developed • 1978 --- IP was proposed for Addressing purposes • 1980--- TCP/IP Protocol Suite was designed • UNET: First TCP/IP product was introduced for Ethernet • BSD (Berkeley Software Division) Unix Operating System was introduced • 1st January 1983--- It was decided to replace NCP to TCP/IP for all Networks that gives birth to INTERNET • 1983--- FTP, SMTP, DNS were introduced Internet Architecture and Protocols, University of education township campus lahore, Pakistan 30
  • The Internet Growth Begins: 1980s • UDP comes into play for Real time Applications like Voice and Video • 1984--- USENET modified for Newsgroups • 1986--- All Super Computers were connected to form a Backbone Network called NSFNET which started from 56Kbps and in 1988 was converted to T1 Line I.e., 1.544Mbps • 1988--- First Internet Worm was invaded effecting around 60,000 Hosts • 1992--- WWW was created by Berners-Lee who also created First Web Server and Browser (Also designed HTTP later) • 1993--Clinton received first email at president@Whitehouse.gov • 1993---- First Real Web Browser called MOSAIC was introduced Internet Architecture and Protocols, University of education township campus lahore, Pakistan 31
  • Internet Privatization: 1990s • 1994--- E-business started at Internet • NSFNET decided to Privatize Internet by creating 4 NAPs (Network Access Points) and giving permission to ISPs to connect to NAPs • 1995--- NSF Created High Speed Backbone Network Service to provide high-bandwidth connectivity (155 to 622Mbps) among NSF’s SCCs (Super Computer Centers) • Internet2 was Created by Connecting all Top 100 Universities to these SCCs via GigaPOPs (Gigabits point of presence) • Internet2: It is Hybrid Network whose Members are Major Universities and Research Organizations. • Several Access Speed Transitions from 56Kbps Modem to ISDN (64-128Kbps), DSL Asymmetric Service to Cable Modems etc. Internet Architecture and Protocols, University of education township campus lahore, Pakistan 32