Cpm analysis

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  • 1. Software Project Scheduling GANTT Chart and Critical Path Method
  • 2. Lecture Objectives To Comprehend project scheduling by understanding: •Critical Path Method •GANTT chart
  • 3. Project Planning basics • A "Project" is a set of activities which ends with specific accomplishment and which has (1) Nonroutine tasks, (2) Distinct start/finish dates, and (3) Resource constraints (time/money/people/equipment). • "Tasks" are activities which must be completed to achieve project goal. • "Milestones" are important checkpoints or interim goals for a project.
  • 4. • A “work breakdown statement (WBS)” is a categorized list of tasks with an estimate of resources required to complete the task. WBS # Task Description Duration Resources 5 Requirements Gathering 5.1 Understanding Problem Scope 2 John 5.2 Requirements Analysis 4 Peter 5.3 Develop Prototype 3 Fred
  • 5. Introduction • A Gantt chart is a graphical representation of the duration of tasks against the progression of time • Gantt charts are bar graphs that help plan and monitor project development or resource allocation on a horizontal time scale.
  • 6. • Gantt Charts are useful tools for planning and scheduling projects o Gantt charts allow you to assess how long a project should take. o Gantt charts lay out the order in which tasks need to be carried out. o Gantt charts help manage the dependencies between tasks. o Gantt charts determine the resources needed
  • 7. • Gantt charts are useful tools when a project is under way. o Gantt charts monitor progress. You can immediately see what should have been achieved at a point in time. o Gantt charts allow you to see how remedial action may bring the project back on course.
  • 8. Critical Path Method • Used to determine Shortest Path w.r.t. Duration • Project activities and their relationships • Total Duration and Slacks counting ( Total Slack & Free Slack) • Good practice to identify activities which critical and which are not critical •Two Techniques (AOA & AON)
  • 9. CPM Rules: • Each node must have at least one successor except to terminal node • Each node must have at least one predecessor except to First node •Only one initial and one terminal node • Arrow only shows precedence, no relationship with duration
  • 10. CPM Attribute to be calculated: (In Forward Walk, We fix ES=0 for first activity) ES (K) = max [ EF (J): J is an immediate predecessor of K ] EF (K) = ES (K) + L (K) If there are more than one predecessor ES (K) = max { EF(pred 1), EF (pred 2)}
  • 11. CPM Attribute to be calculated: (In Backward Walk LF of last activity is set = EF) LF (K) = min [ LS (J): J is an immediate successor of K ] LS (K) = LF (K) - L (K) If there are more than one successor LF (K) = min { LS(succ. 1), EF (succ. 2)}
  • 12. CPM Slacks: • TS (K) = LS (K) – ES (K) •FS (K) = min [ES (J) : J is successor of K] – EF (K) • Activities having total slack zero will make critical path
  • 13. Example: Activity Predecessor Duration A 0 5 B 0 3 C A 8 D A, B 7 E 0 7 F C, D, E 4 G F 5
  • 14. CPM Activity A B C D E F G EF 5 3 13 12 7 17 22 ES 0 0 5 5 0 13 17 LF 5 6 13 13 13 17 22 LS 0 3 5 6 6 13 17 TS 0 3 0 1 6 0 0 FS 0 2 0 1 6 0 0
  • 15. Make a network diagram Activity Time Preceding (days) Activity A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q 6 2 2 3 8 5 9 3 2 3 10 1 10 3 5 4 5 ----A B, E C, F, D -P, H B, E G D I, J, K L, Q M, N A G