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  • 1. Assignment of Business Communications & Technical writing How can we improve our business communications? Submitted To: Submitted By: Roll No: Dated: 5th Sep, 2013 Ms. Aasma Naseer Uzma Khaliq BSITF12-M08
  • 2. Business Communications Define Business & Business Communications?  What is Business? Meaning Human beings are continuously engaged in some activity or other in order to satisfy their unlimited wants. Every day we come across the word 'business' or 'businessman' directly or indirectly. Business has become essential part of modern world. Business is an economic activity, which is related with continuous and regular production and distribution of goods and services for satisfying human wants. All of us need food, clothing and shelter. We also have many other household requirements to be satisfied in our daily lives. We met these requirements from the shopkeeper. The shopkeeper gets from wholesaler. The wholesaler gets from manufacturers. The shopkeeper, the wholesaler, the manufacturer are doing business and therefore they are called as Businessman.  Definition of Business: Business is defined as: "The regular production or purchase and sale of goods undertaken with an objective of earning profit and acquiring wealth through the satisfaction of human wants." Business is an occupation that is carried on with the acquired set of specialized skills and abilities and enables people to create valuable goods and services Thus, the term business means continuous production and distribution of goods and services with the aim of earning profits under uncertain market conditions.  Business Objectives: All business activity is self-interested and competitive, and this competition may benefit people and society when it leads resources to be employed in their most profitable use. Business Organizations are economic in nature but they also have human and social aspect associated with them. Some of the main economic of any business enterprise are:        Earning of satisfactory profits and fair return on investment for stakeholders. Creation of new customers and markets to sustain growth. Making innovations and improvements in goods and services. Providing employment opportunities. Supply of quality goods and services at reasonable costs. Avoidance of profiteering and unfair practices. Fair deal to employees in terms of wages and incentives.
  • 3.   Providing better working conditions and environment to the employees. Provide job satisfaction.  Features of Business: Characteristics or features of business are discussed in following points:1. Exchange of goods and services: All business activities are directly or indirectly concerned with the exchange of goods or services for money or money's worth. 2. Deals in numerous transactions: In business, the exchange of goods and services is a regular feature. A businessman regularly deals in a number of transactions and not just one or two transactions. 3. Profit is the main Objective: The business is carried on with the intention of earning a profit. The profit is a reward for the services of a businessman. 4. Business skills for economic success: Anyone cannot run a business. To be a good businessman, one needs to have good business qualities and skills. A businessman needs experience and skill to run a business. 5. Risks and Uncertainties: Business is subject to risks and uncertainties. Some risks, such as risks of loss due to fire and theft can be insured. There are also uncertainties, such as loss due to change in demand or fall in price cannot be insured and must be borne by the businessman. 6. Buyer and Seller: Every business transaction has minimum two parties that are a buyer and a seller. Business is nothing but a contract or an agreement between buyer and seller. 7. Connected with production: Business activity may be connected with production of goods or services. In this case, it is called as industrial activity. The industry may be primary or secondary. 8. Marketing and Distribution of goods: Business activity may be concerned with marketing or distribution of goods in which case it is called as commercial activity.
  • 4. 9. Deals in goods and services: In business there has to be dealings in goods and service. Goods may be divided into following two categories:Consumer goods: Goods which are used by final consumer for consumption are called consumer goods e.g. T.V., Soaps, etc. Producer goods: Goods used by producer for further production are called producers goods e.g. Machinery, equipments, etc. Services are intangible but can be exchanged for value like providing transport, warehousing and insurance services, etc. 10. To Satisfy human wants: The businessman also desires to satisfy human wants through conduct of business. By producing and supplying various commodities, businessmen try to promote consumer's satisfaction. 11. Social obligations: Modern business is service oriented. Modern businessmen are conscious of their social responsibility. Today's business is service-oriented rather than profit-oriented.  Business Communications: Communication: The word “communication” derived from the Latin word ‘communicare’ that means to impart, to participate, to share or to make common. It is a process of exchange of facts, ideas, and opinions and as a means that individual or organization share meaning and understanding with one another. In other words, it is a transmission and interacting the facts, ideas, opinion, feeling and attitudes.
  • 5. Communication may be defined as interchange of thought or information between two or more persons to bring about mutual understanding and desired action. It is the information exchange by words or symbols. It is the exchange of facts, ideas and viewpoints which bring about commonness of interest, purpose and efforts.  Role of communication in Business: The term business communication is used for all messages that we send and receive for official purpose like running a business, managing an organization, conducting the formal affairs of a voluntary organization and so on. Business communication is marked by formality as against personal and social communication. The success of any business to a large extent depends on efficient and effective communication All such communication impacts business. Done with care, such communication can promote business interests. Otherwise, it will portray the organization in poor light and may adversely affect the business interest. Communication is the life blood of any organization and its main purpose is to effect change to influence action. In any organization the main problem is of maintaining effective communication process. The management problem generally results in poor communication. Serious mistakes are made because orders are misunderstood. The basic problem in communication is that the meaning which is actually understood may not be what the other intended to send. It must be realized that the speaker and the listener are two separate individuals having their own limitations and number of things may happen to distort the message that pass between them. When people within the organization communicate with each other, it is internal communication. They do so to work as a team and realize the common goals. It could be official or unofficial. Modes of internal communication include face-to-face and written communication. Memos, reports, office order, circular, fax, video conferencing, meeting etc. are the examples of internal communication. When people in the organization communicate with anyone outside the organization it is called external communication. These people may be clients or customers, dealers or distributors, media, government, general public etc. are the examples of external communication.     Communication is the life blood of the business. No business can develop in the absence of effective communication system. Communication is the mortar that holds an organization together, whatever its business or its size. When people within the organization communicate with each other, it is internal communication and when people in the organization communicate with anyone outside the organization it is called external communication. Ability to work well in teams, to manage your subordinates and your relationship with seniors, customers and colleagues depends on your communication skill.  Purposes of Business Communications: 1. For instruction 2. For integration
  • 6. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. For information For evaluation For direction For teaching For influencing For image For employees orientation How can we improve our Business Communication? Describe major types of business communication? Improving Business Communication Skills: Good relations among members of a business are critical for success Good communication skills are an important element for the development of good relationships Poor communications starve a relationship while good communications nourish it. This is true regardless of whether you are a member of a committee looking at starting a business or a member of a team operating a business. So, improving communication skills is important for success. But this doesn’t just happen. Both the receiver and the sender must work at developing verbal and listening skills. Keys to Effective Communication: Below are keys to effective communications. But just reading these points will not improve your communication skills. You must practice them. Practice them until they become habits.  Give your attention: When someone starts to talk to you, stop what you are doing and thinking. Face the person and devote your whole attention to what and how it is being said.  Listen, not just hear: One of the keys to good communication is the willingness to listen for meaning in what the other person says and not just for the words. Watch facial expressions and body language.  Don't let your mind wander: While the person is talking, do not think about your answer or response. Listen until the person is finished, and then decide what you are going to say.  Check for accuracy: When the person is finished talking, paraphrase back to the person what was said to you. If you heard right, then respond to that statement or question.  Be aware of other's needs: You need to be aware of the needs of the other business associates. Each person has different needs that should be considered and respected. Although each of us has differing needs, all of us have a need for trust, responsibility, praise, security, sense of belonging, and recognition.
  • 7.          Ask, don't tell: demonstrate equality - Do this by asking for advice or asking a person to do something. This shows you respect the other person as a peer or equal. Telling often implies a superior/subordinate relationship, such as boss vs. employee. Keep an open mind: Do not criticize, pass judgment, or preach. It is extremely important to learn to make objective evaluations about ideas, people, and situations. You are making a value judgment when you attach your values, beliefs, or needs to an appraisal. Offer advice, don't give advice: Learn to offer in-sights, advice, and expertise without being forceful. It is wrong to say “this is how you should handle it” or “this is what you should do.” It is better to say “what do you think about this way,” or “I suggest us” However; sometimes it is not appropriate to even soft-pedal advice. You should offer it only if asked for. Develop trust: Trust is the product of open and honest communications. So it is important that good communication channels exist. Also, trust is an essential ingredient of teamwork. If trust exists among business associates, teamwork and cooperation are much easier to achieve. Create feelings of equity: People share a sense of equality if all parties are informed, trust exists, and work is based on cooperation. For business ventures to succeed, all the parties must feel that they are equals. If one party feels left out or feels like a subordinate, success becomes less likely. Develop comfortable relations: Tension and stress are normal in any relationship. However, the level of tension and stress can be reduced in businesses that develop teamwork and trust through open and honest communication. Become genuinely interested in others: All of us have a need to feel important and be understood. One of the ways we feel important is if others are interested in us. So talk in terms of the other persons’ interests and try to understand another point of view. If we expect others to understand us, we must first understand them. Motivate others: There are several ways to motivate people. Both negative and positive reinforcement are effective. But in the long run, negative reinforcement like criticism or punishment often creates a desire for revenge. Too often we think of positive reinforcement as receiving more income, but other positive reinforcements that require little effort are praise, trust, interest, and recognition. Keep a sense of humor: Laugh at the goofy things that happen. Laugh off little annoyances. Smile at every opportunity. Seeing the humor in a situation can often defuse it. Major Types of Business Communication: There are two types of business communication in an organization:   Internal Communication External Communication
  • 8.  Internal Communication: Communication within an organization is called “Internal Communication”. It includes all communication within an organization. It may be informal or a formal function or department providing communication in various forms to employees. Effective internal communication is a vital mean of addressing organizational concerns. Good communication may help to increase job satisfaction, safety, productivity, and profits and decrease grievances and turnover.  7 Ways to Improve Internal Communication at Your Business: Internal communication is important for any organization to function effectively. Employees should feel that they can easily communicate with their team members as well as upper management, because this contributes to productivity and overall results. The following list includes actionable steps for improving internal communication: 1. Make “Sticky” Information Accessible: Every organization has its own set of internal knowledge, or “sticky” information, that all employees come to understand. It can take time to learn how the company does things, from protocol for preparing client-facing documents to other types of best practices. Help employees learn this information faster by including it as a part of training and by creating internal documents to be used for reference. 2. Make the Mission and Vision Clear: Take the time to explain the company values and mission, whether as part of corporate training or as a regular reminder to employees. When employees are unified in their understanding of the company goals, they will be able to communicate with one another more effectively in order to reach them. 3. Strengthen Connections: Not only should communication be improved between team members who work together, but between employees and their managers. Make sure to address this during management training programs. Managers who take the time to get to know their employees and are willing to listen to them will find it easier to communicate and keep direct reports on task. When employees feel that managers are able to address their individual concerns, they are more likely to feel connected. 4. Create Open Dialogue: Keep employees up-to-date on company changes, progress and future plans. This could be through a bi-monthly newsletter or at company meetings. Furthermore, allow employees to be involved in this discussion. Encourage questions and comments, and show that all ideas are welcome. Employees are more likely to communicate well when they feel they have a
  • 9. part in where the company is headed. 5. Encourage Information Sharing: Provide an online platform for knowledge sharing. Employees are likely reading about industry news and trends on a regular basis, so offer them a place to share this information. By having an opportunity to show what they know, employees will be eager to stay involved in this endeavor. Not only will this create more energy and purpose behind communication, but the sharing of valuable insights will be helpful to business. 6. Online Project Management Tools: There are many types of online tools that can be used to facilitate communication. These tools can help keep track of a project’s progress so that everyone knows what is left to be done. While face-to-face communication is always important, online tools can aid in this process by saving time and helping to document the work. 7. Plan External Events: Create opportunities for employees to meet outside of the office. Nothing hinders communication more than when there are employees in the company who haven’t truly met one another. Plan a holiday party or a happy hour after work. This also gives employees something to look forward to, which can facilitate improved engagement and stronger communication.  Under Internal Business Communication types there come; 1) Upward Communication 2) Downward Communication 3) Horizontal/Literal communication Upward Communication: Upward communication is the flow of information from subordinates to superiors, or from employees to management. Without upward communication, management works in a vacuum, not knowing if messages have been received properly, or if other problems exist in the organization. By definition, communication is a two-way affair. Yet for effective two-way organizational communication to occur, it must begin from the bottom. Upward Communication is a mean for staff to:      Exchange information Offer ideas Express enthusiasm Achieve job satisfaction Provide feedback
  • 10. Downward Communication: Information flowing from the top of the organizational management hierarchy and telling people in the organization what is important (mission) and what is valued (policies). Downward communication generally provides enabling information – which allows a subordinate to do something. e.g.: Instructions on how to do a task. Downward communication comes after upward communications have been successfully established. This type of communication is needed in an organization to:          Transmit vital information Give instructions Encourage 2-way discussion Announce decisions Seek cooperation Provide motivation Boost morale Increase efficiency Obtain feedback Both Downward & Upward Communications are collectively called “Vertical Communication” Horizontal/Literal communication: Horizontal communication normally involves coordinating information, and allows people with the same or similar rank in an organization to cooperate or collaborate. Communication among employees at the same level is crucial for the accomplishment of work. Horizontal Communication is essential for:      Solving problems Accomplishing tasks Improving teamwork Building goodwill Boosting efficiency  External Communication: Communication with people outside the company is called “external communication”. Supervisors communicate with sources outside the organization, such as vendors and customers.
  • 11. It leads to better;            Sales volume Public credibility Operational efficiency Company profits It should improve Overall performance Public goodwill Corporate image Ultimately, it helps to achieve Organizational goals Customer satisfaction In businesses there are a few main forms of communication. The most common and used is phone communication, where you speak to someone else. The second most common is email; this is what is used to send a letter from one computer to another. Email in many ways has replaced faxes. Memos are another form that is sometime just simple notes, updates, changes or other items. Other forms include training manuals, bulletins and face to face.  Effective business communication: Effective business communication is an important aspect of your business' success. Without it, misunderstandings and confusion regarding work assignments and tasks may occur, leading to a loss of productivity. Communication is also important when dealing with the marketplace in areas such as customer service and marketing. Effective communication helps build your image in your local community through public relations. Effective business communication tip: In any business, you should not deliver negative “surprises” to your employees, customers, or investors. In the business in crisis, there can’t be any surprises. Regular constant communication, even if bad news prevents any surprises.  5 Things to Practice for Effective Communication Skills: 1. Body Language     Making eye contact. Nodding occasionally to acknowledge a strong point in the conversation. Standing with hands clasped in front of you, never crossing your arms. Not displaying nervous ticks such as wringing hands, picking at your nails, or anything that the person communicating with you will view as a distraction from their conversation.
  • 12. 2. 3. 4. 5. Speech and Attentiveness Communication Consistency Patience Practicing Effective Communication Skills.

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