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Bsit sem 2 english (version   last)
 

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    Bsit sem 2 english (version   last) Bsit sem 2 english (version last) Document Transcript

    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills Aasma Naseer Page 1 Basic English Grammar with a description of traditional parts of speech in English along with Exercises to test the comprehension of the subject. AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills Contents Contents ............................................................................................. 2 SECTION I: USE OF GRAMMAR ........................................................... 6 CHAPTER 1: PHRASES, CLAUSES AND SENTENCE ..................................... 6 PHRASES....................................................................................................................................................................... 6 KINDS OF PHRASES ...................................................................................................................................... 6 CLAUSES ....................................................................................................................................................................... 7 Types of clauses................................................................................................................................................ 7 SENTENCE ................................................................................................................................................................... 8 PARTS OF A SENTENCE .............................................................................................................................. 8 TYPES OF SENTENCES ................................................................................................................................ 9 EXERCISES: TYPES OF SENTENCES ..................................................................................................10 EXERCISE: TYPES OF SENTENCES .....................................................................................................11 CHAPTER 2: Nouns .............................................................................. 12 Number of Nouns ................................................................................................................................................13 HOW TO MAKE PLURALS .........................................................................................................................13 GENDER .......................................................................................................................................................................15 FORMING NOUNS ...............................................................................................................................................15 EXERCISES ......................................................................................... 20 ( 1.1) EXERCISE - COMMON NOUNS ................................................................................................20 ( 1.2) EXERCISE - PROPER NOUNS ...................................................................................................20 ( 1.3) EXERCISE - ABSTRACT NOUNS.............................................................................................21 ( 1.4) EXERCISE - COLLECTIVE NOUNS ........................................................................................21 ( 1.5) EXERCISE - COUNTABLE & UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS ..........................................22 ( 1.6) EXERCISE - GENDER .......................................................................................................................22 ( 1.7) EXERCISE - FORMING NOUNS FROM NOUNS ..........................................................24 CHAPTER 2: Pronouns .......................................................................... 25 Relative Pronouns ...............................................................................................................................................27 AasmaNaseer Page Interrogative Pronouns ..................................................................................................................................25 2 Personal Pronouns..............................................................................................................................................25 BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills CASE ...............................................................................................................................................................................29 OTHER MINOR KINDS .....................................................................................................................................29 CHAPTER 3: Verbs ............................................................................... 32 COMPLEX CLASSIFICATION ................................................................ 33 Stative and Dynamic Verbs .......................................................................................................................33 Dynamic verbs .......................................................................................................................................................34 Stative verbs ...........................................................................................................................................................35 Functional Classification ...............................................................................................................................37 1. Helping Verbs .............................................................................................................................................38 2. Main Verbs.....................................................................................................................................................39 Linking verbs......................................................................................................................................................40 Regular and irregular verbs .................................................................................................................40 ENGLISH VERB TENSES -- TIME and ASPECT = MEANING ........................ 41 TIME ...........................................................................................................................................................................41 ASPECT ....................................................................................................................................................................41 MEANING ...............................................................................................................................................................42 ENGLISH VERB TENSES -- FORMS of the VERB........................................ 42 FORMS OF THE VERB and AUXILIARIES........................................................................................43 EXERCISES ......................................................................................... 43 (1.1) Verb Classification Quiz ..................................................................................................................43 Identify the verb type. ......................................................................... 43 (1.2) Can, Could, Be able to Quiz ....................................................................................................44 (1.3) EXERCISE - AUXILIARY VERBS .............................................................................................44 (1.4) EXERCISE - SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE .............................................................................46 (1.5) EXERCISE - PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE .............................................................46 (1.6) EXERCISE - PRESENT PERFECT TENSE ..........................................................................46 (1.7) EXERCISE - PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE.....................................47 ( 1.8) EXERCISE - PAST SIMPLE TENSE ......................................................................................47 AasmaNaseer Page ( 1.10) EXERCISE - PAST PERFECT TENSE ...............................................................................48 3 ( 1.9) EXERCISE - PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE......................................................................47 BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills ( 1.11) EXERCISE - PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE ..........................................48 (1.12) EXERCISE - AUXILIARY VERBS ..........................................................................................49 (1.13) EXERCISE AUXILLIARY VERBS ...........................................................................................49 CHAPTER 4: ADJECTIVES ..................................................................... 51 KINDS OF ADJECTIVE .....................................................................................................................................51 ADJECTIVE FORMATION ...............................................................................................................................52 COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES ...............................................................................................................53 FORMING ADJECTIVES ..................................................................................................................................54 ADJECTIVE ORDER ............................................................................................................................................57 ( 1.1) EXERCISE - COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES ................................... 59 Order of Adjectives............................................................................................................................................59 CHAPTER 5: ADVERBS ........................................................................ 61 Types of Adverbs.................................................................................................................................................61 Comparison of Adverbs .................................................................................................................................63 FORMING ADVERBS..........................................................................................................................................64 EXERCISE - TYPES OF ADVERBS ..........................................................................................................67 CHAPTER 6: PREPOSITIONS ................................................................. 69 TYPES OF PREPOSTION .................................................................................................................................69 1.1 EXERCISE - PREPOSITIONS ............................................................................................................69 1.2 EXERCISE - PREPOSITIONS ..........................................................................................................70 CHAPTER 7: CONJUNCTIONS ............................................................... 72 EXERCISE - CONJUNCTIONS....................................................................................................................73 CHAPTER 8: INTERJECTION .................................................................. 74 PART II: STUDY SKILLS ................................................................... 76 Chapter 9: LISTENING SKILLS .............................................................. 76 What does it mean to really listen? ...................................................................................................76 STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE LISTENING SKILLS .......................................................................77 ACTIVE READING ................................................................................................................................................89 AasmaNaseer Page Chapter 10: READING SKILLS ............................................................... 85 4 TEN BAD LISTENING HABITS ..................................................................................................................80 BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills FOUR READING STRATEGIES ................................................................ 92 STEPS TO FOLLOW IN SKIMMING FOR THE MAIN IDEAS .......................... 94 CHAPTER 10: SKILLS FOR TAKING LECTURES & NOTES ........................... 96 1. Making the most of Lectures .............................................................................................................96 2. Taking notes .....................................................................................................................................................98 CHAPTER 11: TEN TIMELESS PERSUASIVE WRITING TECHNIQUES .......... 104 CHAPTER 12: SKILLS FOR EXAMS........................................................ 108 Revising for Exams ......................................................................................................................................... 108 Taking exams ...................................................................................................................................................... 113 CHAPTER 13: SKILLS FOR READING COMPREHENSION ......................... 115 What is reading comprehension ......................................................................................................... 115 Recognizing Organizational Patterns ............................................................................................. 115 Levels of Comprehension ......................................................................................................................... 116 Level One ........................................................................................................................................................... 116 Level Two ........................................................................................................................................................... 117 Level Three ....................................................................................................................................................... 117 Comprehension Skill Strategies.......................................................................................................... 117 Comprehension Skill Strategies: While You Are Reading ...................................... 118 Comprehension Skill Strategies: After You Read .......................................................... 118 Comprehension Skill Strategies: Summary........................................................................ 118 Exercise................................................................................................................................................................ 122 Page 5 COMPREHENSION PRACTCE .................................................................................................................. 122 AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills SECTION I: USE OF GRAMMAR PART 1: SENTENCE CHAPTER 1: PHRASES, CLAUSES AND SENTENCE PHRASES English phrases are groups of words, without both a subject and a verb, functioning as a single part of speech. This means that while an English phrase is made up of multiple words (all of which have their own function), all of the words work together to perform one larger function. Example: We walked through the park. Through the park is a prepositional phrase. As a whole, the phrase is functioning as an adverb modifying the verb walked. Each word in the phrase has its own job too. ‗Through‘ is a preposition, ‗the‘ is an adjective, and ‗park‘ is a noun (the object of the preposition). But the important thing to note is that all of the words come together to work as one part of speech, an adverb. KINDS OF PHRASES Below are discussed a few very common kinds of English phrases. 1. VERB PHRASES: A verb phrase is a group of words that works as a verb in a sentence. To be a verb phrase, the verb must be made up of a main verb and at least one helping verb. Page 6 Example: Now I must jump into the muck. AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills 1. NOUN PHRASE A noun phrase is a group of words that works as a noun in a sentence. Example: we enjoy playing cricket. The boy wants to go home. 2. ADVERB PHRASE An adverb phrase is a group of words that works as an adverb in a sentence. Example: Nothing can live on the moon. (tells Where?) He has painted her in the brightest colors. (tells How?) 3. ADJECTIVE PHRASE An adjective phrase is a group of words that works as an adjective in a sentence. Example: He dwelt in a hut made of Wood. (He dwelt in a wooden hut.) The Rajput leader was a soldier full of hope and free from fear. (The Rajput leader was a hopeful and fearless soldier.) CLAUSES Clauses are groups of words with a subject and a verb. Example: They rested at sunset. (when: adverb phrase ) They rested when the evening came. (when: adverb clause) You may on the chair. (where: adverb phrase) There are two main types of clauses: AasmaNaseer Page Types of clauses 7 You may sit wherever you like. (where: adverb clause ) BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills Independent (principal or Main Clause) Dependent (Subordinate clause) 1. Independent These can stand alone. They express a complete thought. Example: They rested. (contains a subject and a verb and expresses a complete thought) 2. Subordinate These clauses cannot stand alone. They don't express a complete thought. They cannot stand alone as a sentence because they make up only a part of a sentence. They are sentence fragments. Example: when the evening came. (contains a subject and a verb but doesn‘t express a complete thought) SENTENCE A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought and makes complete sense. Examples: The boy is sitting in the corner of the room. Stone walls do not make a prison. PARTS OF A SENTENCE Every sentence is made of at least two parts: Examples: AasmaNaseer Page 2. A predicate (what someone is doing or what something is being done) 8 1. A subject (someone or something) BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills SUBJECTS PREDICATES The boy is sitting in the corner of the room. Stone walls do not make a prison. TYPES OF SENTENCES We use different sentence types each day because we have different purposes for our sentences. When we categorize sentences based on their purpose, there are fourdifferent types of sentences. 1. 2. 3. 4. Declarative or Assertive Interrogative Imperative Exclamatory 1. Declarative or Assertive A declarative sentence makes a statement, declaration or assertion.It is the most common type of sentence. Example: Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall.Every man has hid duties 2. Interrogative An Interrogative sentence makes a question. It ends in a question mark (?). Example: AasmaNaseer Page What is your favorite sport? 9 Where do you live? BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills 3. Imperative An imperative sentence expresses a command, request, appeal, suggestion or direction. Imperatives begin with a verb. Example: Be quiet. Have mercy upon us. 4. Exclamatory A sentence that expresses a strong feeling is called as An Exclamatory sentence. They end on an Exclamation mark (!). Example: How cold the night is! I just love Cats! EXERCISES: TYPES OF SENTENCES Page 1. Where is my shovel? 2. This is the most beautiful lawn I have ever seen. 3. Please pass the lemonade. 4. My arms ache from digging the flower beds! 5. It takes hard work to plant all of these flowers. 6. Could you please give me the hose? 7. I am going to climb that tree. 8. The view from the top of this tree is amazing. 9. I can't get down! 10. Please help me to climb down this tree. 10 Identify and label each sentence as declarative, interrogative, imperative, or exclamatory. AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills EXERCISE: TYPES OF SENTENCES Identify and label each sentence as declarative, interrogative, imperative, or exclamatory. Write the correct punctuation mark after each sentence. This summer, my family will travel to Greece I am so excited Do you know where Greece is Greece is home to many archaeological monuments You should read Greek mythology Greek mythology is full of adventures and legends Hercules, Achilles, and Peruses are all heroes found in Greek mythology 8. Ready mythology will get you excited about traveling 9. Would you enjoy a trip to Greece 10. Come with us Page 11 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills PART2: PARTS OF SPEECH CHAPTER 2: Nouns A noun is the name of a person, place, thing, idea or a state. Nouns are divided into five different kinds : -Proper Nouns Collective nouns Common Nouns Abstract Nouns Material Nouns A Proper Noun is the name of a particular person, place, or thing. eg : John ( person ); Palm Beach County ( place ); The Chinese ( people );Books ( thing ) A Common Noun is a name that can be given to any person or thing of the same kind. eg : Man, boy, table, dog A Collective Noun is singular in form though denoting more than one. eg : Herd, army, flock. A Material Noun is the name of a substance. eg : Milk, iron, wood. An Abstract noun is the name of a quality. Page 12 eg : Love, truth, color. AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills Number of Nouns 1. Number shows whether one is meant, or more than one. 2. There are two Numbers : -The Singular Number The Plural Number The Singular number denotes only one object. boy, girl The Plural number denotes more than one object. boys, girls. HOW TO MAKE PLURALS The Plural is generally formed by adding s to the Singular : pen pens book chair books chairs garden gardens When the noun ends in s, x, ch, or sh, the Plural is formed by adding es to the Singular : watch watches box boxes dish dishes 13 glasses Page glass AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills If the noun ends in y, and the y has consonant going before it, the Plural is formed by changing y into ies : duty duties army armies fly flies lady ladies But if the y has vowel going before it, the Plural is formed by simply adding s : -day days key keys boy boys monkey monkeys Most nouns ending in f or fe form the Plural by changing f or fe into ves calf calves life lives knife knives wife wives leaf leaves thief thieves If the noun ends in o, and the o is preceded by a consonant, the Plural is generally ( not always ) formed by adding es to the Singular : -cargo cargoes negro negroes hero heroes potato potatoes But if the o is preceded by a vowel, the Plural is formed by simply adding s to the singular : -- cuckoo cuckoos curio studio studios Some nouns from their Plurals irregularly : AasmaNaseer curios 14 bamboos Page bamboo BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills man men tooth teeth woman women mouse mice foot feet ox oxen goose geese child children Some Nouns have the same form in the Plural as in the Singular : deer deer fish fish sheep sheep dozen dozen ( dozens ) GENDER Nouns have two major types of genders: 1.Masculine Gender – The masculine gender is used for all males. Example: boy, man 2. Feminine Gender – The feminine gender is used for all females. Example: girl, woman FORMING NOUNS AasmaNaseer Nouns Widowhood Friendship Kingdom Page Nouns Widow Friend King 15 Nouns can be formed from nouns, verbs and adjectives. They are formed by adding certain letters to them. BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills Adjectives Clean Sad Beautiful Nouns Cleanliness Sadness Beauty NOUNS VERBS ADJECTIVES absent act add agree angry arrive attend bad beautiful begin behave brave breathe bright broad brother busy child choose clean collect correct cruel dark AasmaNaseer NOUNS absence action addition agreement anger arrival attention badness beauty beginning behavior bravery breath brightness breadth brotherhood business childhood choice cleanliness collection correction cruelty darkness 16 Nouns Addition Failure Gift Page Verbs Add Fail Give BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH describe die divide do draw dry enjoy enter explain fail fat feed fit foolish free friend give glad good great grow happy hate heal high honest hungry imagine instruct invent invite judge kind AasmaNaseer depth description death division deed drawing dryness enjoyment entrance explanation failure fatness food fitness foolishness freedom friendship gift gladness goodness greatness growth happiness hatred health height honesty hunger imagination instruction invention invitation judgement kindness Page deep 17 An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH know laugh lazy leader lend like live long lose mad man marry Member mix mother move multiply neighbor new obey occupy permit please poet proud prove punish ready remember sad safe scholar AasmaNaseer kingdom, kingship knowledge laughter laziness leadership loan likeness life length loss madness manhood marriage membership mixture motherhood movement multiplication neighborhood newness obedience occupation permission pleasure poetry pride proof punishment readiness remembrance sadness safety scholarship Page king 18 An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills see sell sharp sick sit slow soft speak strong succeed sweet teach tell thick think thirsty tight true valuable warm weak wed weigh Page 19 wide wise young sight sale sharpness sickness seat slowness softness speech strength success sweetness teaching tale thickness thought thirst tightness truth value warmth weakness wedding weight width wisdom youth AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills EXERCISES ( 1.1) EXERCISE - COMMON NOUNS Identify the Common Nouns in the following sentences. 1. We arrived early at the station. 2. There are different species of fish. 3. The man was trying to steal his car. 4. They have gone to the zoo. 5. The baby is crying. 6. My mother is in the kitchen. 7. He threw some nuts to the monkeys. 8. The children are playing in the field. 9. That temple was built before I was born. 10. He has bought a new car. 11. My father likes to swim. 12. She won a trophy in a competition. 13. I like to ride on a camel. 14. Do birds eat meat? 15. He went to visit his uncle. 16. My brother wants to play with us. 17. Let me have a look at your puppy. 18. The taxi broke down. 19. The boys are playing noisily. 20. She is hanging out the clothes to dry. paris is the capital of france. williamshakespeare is a famous english author. ‗war and peace' was written by leotolstoy. the university of oxford offers degree courses at the highest AasmaNaseer Page 1. 2. 3. 4. 20 ( 1.2) EXERCISE - PROPER NOUNS Use capital letters for Proper Nouns in the following sentences. BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills level. 5. john's two dogs are named rover and boxer. 6. david will travel to france to do a degree course on the French revolution. 7. suez canal joins the red sea and the mediterranean sea. 8. republic of liberia is on the west coast of africa. 9. mick jagger is the lead singer of rolling stones 10. mountkilimanjaro is the highest mountain in africa. ( 1.3) EXERCISE - ABSTRACT NOUNS Form Abstract Nouns from the following. man, scholar, king know, sell, think long, strong, wise brother, lose, great ( 1.4) EXERCISE - COLLECTIVE NOUNS Fill in the blank s with suitable collective nouns. 1. A _____ of birds flew high in the sky. 2. They saw a _____ of lions at the zoo. 3. The farmer has a _____ of cattle on his farm. 4. He ate a _____ of grapes today. 5. Our friend shows us a _____ of stamps. 6. We saw a _____ of sheep on our way home. AasmaNaseer Page 8. She bought a _____ of bananas from the market. 21 7. Police have arrested a _____ of thieves. BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills 9. The _____ of pupils are listening attentively to their teacher. 10. You can put the _____ of tools in that box. ( 1.5) EXERCISE - COUNTABLE & UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS Complete each sentence by choosing the correct word. 1. There is so (many, much) smoke coming out of the chimney. 2. There are (plenty of, a large amount of) fish in the pond. 3. (A little, A few) minutes is all it takes for him to shave. 4. The postman put (a great deal of, a lot of) letters into the bag. 5. He threw (a little, some) nuts to the monkeys. 6. She uses only (a few, a little) cooking oil in her cooking. 7. My hens lay (a large amount of, several) eggs very day. 8. (A great deal of, A large number of) dust has collected on the desk. 9. We saw (a large amount of, many) cows grazing in the field. 10. The butcher sells (a large amount of, a large number of) meat. ( 1.6) EXERCISE - GENDER Change the nouns in bold from the feminine to the masculine. 3. The daughter is more talkative than her mother. AasmaNaseer Page 2. The lady has several mares on her farm. 22 1. My aunt visits her niece every week-end. BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills 4. Does any actress like to play the role of the princess? 5. Their queen is a widow. 6. The manageress is still a spinster. 7. In the movie, the tigress was killed by the heroine. 8. His daughter-in-law is a postmistress. 9. The countess has one sister. 10. The authoress is writing a book about the empress. Change the nouns in bold from the masculine to the feminine. 11. The bridegroom thanked the priest. 12. His brother works as a waiter. 13. The dog barked at the milkman. 14. A cock was killed by a fox. 15. The manservant has worked many years for the duke. 16. Her husband is a conductor. 17. He was a postman before he became a postmaster. 18. The lad wants to be a monk. 19. The sultan owns a stallion. Page 23 20. Her father-in-law is a landlord. AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills ( 1.7) EXERCISE - FORMING NOUNS FROM NOUNS Fill in the blanks with abstract nouns from the nouns in brackets. 1. I had a very happy ______ (child). 2. I forgot to renew my _____ (member) in the sailing club. 3. We formed a deep and lasting _____ (friend). 4. He hopes to take over the _____ (leader) of the party. 5. There are lots of nice people in the _____ (neighbor). 6. In the _____ (king) of Thailand, the king commands the respect of every citizen. 7. She seems to be enjoying _____ (mother). Page 24 8. He had barely reached _____ (man) when he married. AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills CHAPTER 2: Pronouns Pronoun is a word used instead of a noun. Pronouns are divided into following major kinds: a) Personal Pronounsb) Interrogative Pronouns c)Relative Pronouns Personal Pronouns The Personal Pronouns are used to distinguish the three persons. a. The First Person denotes the person speaking . I we me us myself ourselves The second Person denoted the person spoken to you you yourself yourselves The third Person denotes the person or thing spoken of she it they him her it them himself herself itself themselves Interrogative Pronouns AasmaNaseer Page 25 he BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills 1. Interrogative Pronounsask questions. 2. The interrogative pronouns are : -- who, whose, whom which and what. a) Who, whose, and whom refer to person. Examples : Who said so ? Whose book is this ? Whom do you love ? b) Which refers to persons or things Examples :Which of these boys will win the prize ? Which of these books do you like best ? c) What refers to lower animals and things. Examples :Q : What have you seen in the mountain? A : I have seen a tiger. Q : What did he buy ? Page Note -- All interrogative pronouns have the same form for the plural as for the singular 26 A : He bought a house. AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills Relative Pronouns A Relative Pronouns represents a preceding word. This preceding word is called the Antecedent. eg : The man who is in the garden is my uncle. In this sentence, the word " who " is a relative pronoun, because it represents the preceding word " man ". Therefore, " man " is the Antecedent of " who ". The relative Pronouns are : -- who , whose, whom , which that, and what. Who and whom refer persons. The man who came is a doctor. The man whom you love is kind. Whose refers both to persons and things. The lady whose box is lost is her daughter. The book whose cover is red is mine. The boy that( or who ) won the prize is clever. AasmaNaseer Page That is often used for " who, " " whom " or " which " but never for ' whose. " 27 Which refers to lower animals and thing. BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills The man that( or whom ) you saw is my brother. This is the house that( or which ) Chang bought. What is equal to " that which " or " the thing which " . It contains the meaning of both the relative pronoun and its antecedent. I do not know what( that which ) he bought. I do not know what( the thing which ) he bought. Page 28 Note : - All relative pronouns have the singular and plural alike. AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills CASE Personal Pronouns Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns Reflexive Pronouns subject form object form possessive adjective possessive pronoun I me My Mine Myself you you Your Yours Yourself he him His His Himself she her Her Hers Herself It it Its Its Itself we us Our Ours Ourselves you you Your Yours Yourselves they them Their Theirs Themselves OTHER MINORKINDS DEMONSTRATIVE pronouns refer to a thing already noted by the speaker, or to indicate a thing clearly. hers, mine, your, our, their, thine, his, its AasmaNaseer Page POSSESSIVE pronouns declare the ownership of a person or thing. 29 this, that, these, those BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills REFLEXIVE pronouns are formed by adding -self or -selves to certain pronouns. myself, yourself, itself, themselves, himself, herself, ourselves, yourself EMPHATIC pronouns are used to mark an emphasis. They are similar to the set of reflexive pronouns. Myself, yourself, itself, themselves, himself, herself, ourselves, yourselves, yourselves, itself. The distinction between RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE pronouns is shown in this example. 'WHO walked over the grass?' ... INTERROGATIVE pronoun 'The man WHO walked over the grass' ... RELATIVE pronoun The distinction between REFLEXIVE and EMPHATIC pronouns is shown in this example. 'The boy saw HIMSELF in the mirror.' ... REFLEXIVE pronoun 'I know the boy HIMSELF.' ... EMPHATIC pronoun Remember that a pronoun always replaces a noun. If the word is attached to a noun, as in 'THIS book' it is being used as an adjective. Page all, another, any, anybody, anyone, anything, each, everybody, everyone, everything, few, many, nobody, none, one, several, some, somebody, someone. 30 An INDEFINITE PRONOUN refers to something that is not definite or specific or exact. AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills These indefinite pronouns can also be used as indefinite adjectives in some cases. Examples All are welcome to attend the concert. Mary gave the book to another. I don't have any. Does anybody have a clue? Anyone can play that game. Peter didn't see anything suspicious. Each brought a dish to pass. Everybody left town for the weekend. Everyone enjoyed the movie. Everything is taken care of. Few visited that park. Many called for information. Jennifer told nobody her secret. None came forward to claim the prize. One could see the mountains from miles away. Several signed the card. The room is too gloomy for some. Somebody called the store. Page 31 Joe gave the form to someone. AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills CHAPTER 3: Verbs A Verb says something about a person or thing. Verbs are divided into three different kinds : (structurally) a. Transitive Verbs b. Intransitive Verbs c. Auxiliary Verbs An Intransitive Verbdoes not require an object to complete its meaning. Examples : -( a ) He sleeps ( b ) We go. No object can come after such verbs as " sleep ", " go " etc A Transitive Verb requires an object to complete its meaning. Examples : -a. The hunter killed a bear. b. The scholar learned his lesson. AasmaNaseer Page In ( b ) " lesson " is the object of " learned ". 32 In ( a ) " bear " is the object of " killed ". BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills Transitive Verb has two voice : -a TheActive voice b. The Passive voice Note : - An Intransitive verb from its nature cannot have voices. An Auxiliary Verb is used to helpanother verb. ( a ) I shall go. ( b ) We have come. Note : A verb that is helped by an auxiliary verb is called a Principal verb In a." shall " is an auxiliary verb used to help the verb " go " to form a future time. In b. " have " is an auxiliary verb used to help the verb " come " to express a time partly past and partly present. COMPLEX CLASSIFICATION AasmaNaseer Page Verbs in English can be classified into two categories: stative verbs and dynamic verbs. Dynamic verbs (sometimes referred to as "action verbs") usually describe actions we can take, or things that happen; stative verbs usually refer to a state or condition which is not changing or likely to change. The 33 Stative and Dynamic Verbs BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills difference is important, because stative verbs cannot normally be used in the continuous (BE + ING) forms. This will explain the differences between the two types of verb, and give lots of examples of each kind. Dynamic verbs There are many types of dynamic verbs, but most of them describe activities or events which can begin and finish. Here are some examples: (action verbs) Examples play Activity She plays tennis every Friday. She's playing tennis right now. melt Process The snow melts every spring. The snow is melting right now. momentary action When one boxer hits another, brain damage can result. (This suggests only ONE punch.) When one boxer is hitting another, brain damage can result. (This suggests MANY repeated punches.) hit Dynamic verbs, as you can see from the table above, can be used in the simple and perfect forms (plays, played, has AasmaNaseer 34 Type Page Dynamic Verb BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills played, had played) as well as the continuous or progressive forms (is playing, was playing, has been playing, had been playing). Stative verbs Stative verbs usually refer to a state or condition which is quite static or unchanging. They can be divided into verbs of perception or cognition (which refer to things in the mind), or verbs of relation (which describe the relationships between things). Here are some examples: Type Examples hate perception I hate chocolate. believe perception She believes in UFOs. contain relation The box contains 24 cans of soda. own relation Yong owns three motorbikes. Page Note that we CANNOT use these verbs in the continuous (progressive) forms; you CAN'T say "*Yong is owning three cars." Owning is a state, not an action, so it is always in the simple form. 35 Stative Verb AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills Example verbs Here some common stative and dynamic verbs. The lists may help you to understand what types of verbs are likely to be stative and what types are commonly dynamic. Dynamic Verbs love hate like see hear sound think (meaning "have an opinion") mind (meaning "care about") recognize seem have (meaning "own") prefer doubt consist of mean eat drink go type read write listen speak watch say grow work sleep cook talk Page 36 Stative Verbs AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills Functional Classification Referring to functions a verb can perform we also divide verbs into two broad classifications: 1. Helping verbs 2. Main verbs In the following table we see example sentences with helping verbs and main verbs. Notice that all of these sentences have a main verb. Only some of them have a helping verb. helping verb main verb John likes coffee. You lied to me. They are happy. The children Are playing. We Must go now. I Do want any. Page 37 not AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills 1. Helping Verbs Helping verbs have no meaning on their own. They are necessary for the grammatical structure of a sentence, but they do not tell us very much alone. Helping verbs are also called "auxiliary verbs". We usually use helping verbs with main verbs. They "help" the main verb (which has the real meaning). There are only about 15 helping verbs in English, and we divide them into two basic groups: I. II. Primary helping verb Modal helping verbs Primary helping verbs (3 verbs) These are the verbs be, do, and have. Note that we can use these three verbs as helping verbs or as main verbs. On this page we talk about them as helping verbs. We use them in the following cases: be o o to make continuous tenses (He is watching TV.) to make the passive (Small fish are eaten by big fish.) have o to make perfect tenses (I have finished my homework.) o to make negatives (I do not like you.) to ask questions (Do you want some coffee?) to show emphasis (I do want you to pass your exam.) to stand for a main verb in some constructions (He speaks faster than she does.) do o o Page 38 o AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills Modal helping verbs (10 verbs) We use modal helping verbs to "modify" the meaning of the main verb in some way. A modal helping verb expresses necessity or possibility, and changes the main verb in that sense. These are the modal verbs: can, could may, might will, would, shall, should must ought to Semi-modal verbs (3 verbs) The following verbs are often called "semi-modals" because they are partly like modal helping verbs and partly like main verbs: need dare used to Here are examples using modal verbs: I can't speak Chinese. John may arrive late. Would you like a cup of coffee? You should see a doctor. I really must go now. 2. Main Verbs Main verbs are also called "lexical verbs". Page 39 Main verbs have meaning on their own (unlike helping verbs). There are thousands of main verbs, and we can classify them in several ways. AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills Linking verbs A linking verb does not have much meaning in itself. It "links" the subject to what is said about the subject. Usually, a linking verb shows equality (=) or a change to a different state or place (>). Linking verbs are always intransitive (but not all intransitive verbs are linking verbs). Mary is a teacher. (mary = teacher) Tara is beautiful. (tara = beautiful) That sounds interesting. (that = interesting) The sky became dark. (the sky > dark) The bread has gone bad. (bread > bad) Regular and irregular verbs This is more a question of vocabulary than of grammar. The only real difference between regular and irregular verbs is that they have different endings for their past tense and past participle forms. For regular verbs, the past tense ending and past participle ending is always the same: -ed. For irregular verbs, the past tense ending and the past participle ending is variable, so it is necessary to learn them by heart. regular verbs: participle base, past tense, One verb could be irregular, transitive and dynamic; another verb could be regular, transitive and stative. past look, looked, looked work, worked, worked AasmaNaseer Page buy, bought, bought cut, cut, cut do, did, done 40 irregular verbs: base, past tense, past participle BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills ENGLISH VERB TENSES -- TIME and ASPECT = MEANING TIME 1. There are three times that can be indicated by verb tenses in English: present (or "non-past" -- the "default" time) past future These times refer to the relationship of the "story" to the speaker (or writer). ASPECT 2. There are three "aspects" that can be expressed: simple (the "default" aspect -- the time of focus) perfect (completion -- before the time of focus) progressive (or continuous) (duration -- in progress at the time of focus) (one verb phrase can indicate both perfect and progressive aspect) Page 41 These aspects refer to the relationship between the events inside the "story." AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills MEANING These three times and three aspects (four, including perfect progressive) can be combined to express 9 (or 12) "verb tenses:" ENGLISH VERB TENSES -- FORMS of the VERB There are theoretically 6 forms of the verb in English: V ("no-s" form) Vs ("s"-form) We like pizza I eat pizza I am/ they are hungry. He likes pizza. She eats pizza. He is hungry. They liked pizza. She ate pizza. He was/they were hungry. Ved ("past" form) V (simple or "dictionary" form) like eat be ( "-ing form" or present participle) liking eating being ( past participle) liked eaten been Ving (simple past) (require auxiliaries to form finite verb phrases) Page 42 Vd/tn (simple present) AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills FORMS OF THE VERB and AUXILIARIES Simple negatives and questions and all passive, progressive, and perfect verb phrases are formed by combining one of the following three auxiliary verbs or a modal auxiliary verb with a simple verb form, a present participle, or a past participle. The auxiliary shows the time (and number) and the combination of the auxiliary and the verb form show the aspect: (main verb) BE +adj +noun +prep.phrase (or place) + Ving = (pres.particip.) progressive (main verb) + noun (main H verb) + noun A DO (auxiliary) (auxiliary) + V + Vdtn =passive (past particip.) V + = Vdtn = simple E (auxiliary) (past perfect tenses part.) EXERCISES (1.1) Verb Classification Quiz AasmaNaseer Page 1. The grocery clerk will carry your bags out for you. 2. The mail arrived after I left. 3. I have already done my homework. 4. That book you recommended sounds interesting. 5. I prefer cream rather than milk. 6. Jerry studies for three hours every day. 7. We looked at all of the art in the museum. 8. Would you take a picture for us? 9. I don't want to fight about who gets the car. 10. She seemed like an interesting person. 43 Identify the verb type. BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills (1.2) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Can, Could, Be able to Quiz _____ He understand what you were talking about? My sister _____ play tennis now. I _____ walk when I was less than a year old. (Polite) _____ you tell me what time it is, please? My grandfather _____ walk without any help last night. How long have you _____ drive? I'll _____ help you later. Can you help me? I _____ never understand this. Will Man _____ live forever one day? (1.3) EXERCISE - AUXILIARY VERBS AasmaNaseer Page Fill in the blanks with ‘does' or ‘do'. 11. _____ you know him? 12. That _____ not mean I _____ not like her. 13. Please _____ not smoke here. 14. _____ anybody know the answer? 15. They _____ not want to play. 16. It _____ not matter where you put it. 17. He _____ the measuring and we _____ the cutting. 18. Those sheep _____ not belong to that farmer. 19. My feet _____ not get tired easily. 20. Everyone here _____ not know about it. 44 Fill in the blanks with ‘is' or ‘are'. 1. The rose _____ a beautiful flower. 2. His two sons _____ still small. 3. My brother _____ doing his degree at that university. 4. Dogs _____ the most faithful animals. 5. There _____ a lot of ants on the tree. 6. That chair _____ comfortable to sit on. 7. The equator _____ an imaginary line round the earth. 8. The natives of this island _____ a friendly people. 9. We _____ waiting for the bus. 10. _____ your mother sleeping now? BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills Fill in the blanks with ‘has' or ‘have'. 21. He _____ a law degree. 22. They _____ gone to the cinema. 23. Only one of the students _____ failed the test. 24. I _____ come here to borrow your book 25. "_____ you ever done online banking?" 26. "We _____ not done our homework yet." 27. Each of you _____ to pay a dollar. 28. There _____ been no complaint so far. 29. Does he _____ a bicycle? 30. What _____ she got to say about this? Choose the correct word for each sentence. 31. The earth _____ (go, goes) round the sun. 32. He _____ (go, goes) to school by bus. 33. I often _____ (go, goes) to the library. 34. She wants to _____ (go, goes) to the library? 35. She does not _____ (go, goes) to the library? 36. Oh, she does _____ (go, goes) to the library. 37. He often _____ (go, goes) to the cinema. 38. Every one of us must _____ (go, goes) to school. 39. Every one of us usually _____ (go, goes) to school early. 40. He too has to _____ (go, goes) to school. Page 45 Choose the correct word for each sentence. 41. She _____ (read, reads) every day. 42. I _____ (drink, drinks) milk every day. 43. We _____ (like, likes) to swim. 44. My neighbours _____ (talk, talks) to us every day. 45. He _____ (speak, speaks) good English. 46. They _____ (work, works) in that factory. 47. One of us _____ (live, lives) near the hospital. 48. Those deer in the zoo _____ (look, looks) hungry. 49. Everyone of the postmen _____ (ride, rides) a bicycle. 50. The black dog can _____ (bark, barks) very loudly. AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills (1.4) EXERCISE - SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE Use the Simple Present tense of the words in brackets. 1. It _____ (hurt) to know what he said. 2. I sometimes _____ (play) football with my friends. 3. My sister _____ (want) to be a teacher. 4. We _____ (like) to do our homework together. 5. His father _____ (smoke) a pipe. 6. Does your mother _____ (cook) every day? 7. The train _____ (leave) in an hour. 8. He _____ (wash) his car on Sundays. 9. My friend _____ (ride) a bike to work. 10. They often _____ (swim) in the river. (1.5) EXERCISE - PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE Use the Present Continuous tense of the words in brackets. 1. We are too late. The train _____ (leaving). 2. Look at what he _____ (do). 3. My father _____ (go) to Paris next month. 4. She says she _____ (cook) for dinner this evening. 5. I think she _____ (write) a letter at the moment. 6. Why _____ he _____ (break) up those boxes? 7. He _____ (come) on the one o'clock train tomorrow. 8. They _____ (widen) the road. 9. One of you _____ always _____ (complain) about something. 10. Do you not understand what I _____ (say)? AasmaNaseer Page Use the Present Perfect tense of the words in brackets. 1. We _____ (not see) her since we last met her. 2. He _____ (teach) us for two years and is still teaching us. 3. She _____ (already throw) away her old dresses. 4. I _____ already _____ (tell) them to hurry up. 5. _____ you _____ (be) to see your old uncle recently? 6. My parents _____ (never be) to London. 7. They _____ (just meet) your brother. 8. Our baby _____ (sleep) for more than eight hours. 9. I _____ not _____ (choose) the one I want yet. 10. You _____ (not eat) your dinner yet. 46 (1.6) EXERCISE - PRESENT PERFECT TENSE BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills (1.7) EXERCISE - PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE Use the Present Perfect Continuous tense of the words in brackets. 1. They _____ (visit) their parents since they shifted out. 2. She _____ (talk) for an hour and when is she going to stop? 3. His friends _____ (wait) for him since 7 o'clock. 4. What _____ you _____ (do) since this morning? 5. I have found it. I _____ (search) for it for two days. 6. He _____ (eat) here for one week and he is not coming back. 7. We _____ (see) each other regularly since we became friends. 8. Why _____ you _____ (keep) this matter a secret? 9. Her mother _____ (pray) for good luck at that temple. 10. My sister _____ (try) to write a book since last year. ( 1.8) EXERCISE - PAST SIMPLE TENSE Use the Past Simple tense of the words in brackets. 1. She _____ (cut) her finger last night. 2. We _____ (go) for a ride and _____ (come) home late. 3. Her former husband always _____ (drink) heavily. 4. He _____ (lend) me some money last week. 5. There _____ (are) lots of people at the party. 6. My father _____ (lose) his car keys this morning. 7. She often_____ (quarrel) with her neighbour. 8. The vagrant _____ (lay) a mat on the pavement and _____ (sleep) on it. 9. I _____ (meet) my uncle on Sunday afternoon. 10. _____ (can) you please help me carry this? AasmaNaseer Page Use the Past Continuous tense of the words in brackets. 1. While I _____ (wait) for you, I fell asleep. 2. He _____ (swim) at 4 o'clock yesterday. 3. Some students _____ (not listen) while the teacher _____ (speak). 47 ( 1.9) EXERCISE - PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills 4. We _____ (play) football when it started to rain. 5. When I _____ (walk) home, I saw a dog barking at the postman. 6. She and her friends _____ (shop) yesterday evening. 7. When they arrived, I _____ (bathe). 8. While one worker _____ (paint), another _____ (mix) some paint. 9. What _____ you _____(do) when I was not at home? 10. They _____ (jog) early this morning. ( 1.10) EXERCISE - PAST PERFECT TENSE Use the Past Perfect tense of the words in brackets. 1. After we _____ (see) the movie, we went for a ride. 2. He _____ already _____ (leave) when we arrived. 3. I _____ just _____ (shut) the door when the telephone rang. 4. They ate the food that I _____ (buy). 5. She _____ (eat) her lunch when I reached home. 6. My father _____ (drink) a glass of milk before he slept. 7. "I fell down". He said that he _____ down. 8. "I cut my finger". She said that she _____ her finger. 9. I arrived at the cinema after the film _____ (start). 10. The train _____ already _____ (go) when we reached the station. ( 1.11) EXERCISE - PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE Use the Past Perfect Continuous tense of the words in brackets. Page 48 1. She _____ (sleep) before she was woken by the loud thunder. 2. The patient _____ (groan) when the doctor arrived. 3. The little boy _____ (play) with fire before he was burnt. 4. _____ you _____ (try) to get me before I called? 5. What _____ the child _____ (do) before she was scolded by her other? AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills (1.12) EXERCISE - AUXILIARY VERBS Fill in the blanks with ‘was' or ‘were'. 1. He _____ here five minutes ago. 2. This _____ the dress she wore last week. 3. They _____ still young when their parents died. 4. One of the eggs _____ broken. 5. There _____ some oranges on the table. 6. _____ you tired after the game? 7. She _____ not at home when I called. 8. Yesterday I saw a rainbow as I _____ driving home. 9. We _____ supposed to arrive early but the train was late. 10. Those _____ people who helped the victims. (1.13) EXERCISE AUXILLIARY VERBS AasmaNaseer Page 1. You seem to be having trouble there. _________ I help you? a) Would b) Will c) Shall 2. I don't have enough money to buy lunch. __________ you lend me a couple of dollars? a) May b) Could c) Shall 3. That ice is dangerously thin now. You ________ go iceskating today. a) mustn't b) might not c) would mind not to 4. It's way past my bedtime and I'm really tired. I ________ go to bed. a) should b) ought c) could 49 From the choices provided after each sentence select the verb that would correctly complete the sentence. BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH AasmaNaseer Page 5. He ______________ have committed this crime. He wasn't even in the city that night. a) might b) shouldn't c) couldn't 6. John is over two hours late already, He ___________ missed the bus again. a) should have b) must have c) will have 7. I'm really quite lost. _______________ showing me how to get out of here? a) Would you mind b) Would you be c) Must you be 8. That bus is usually on time. It _________ to be here any time now. a) might b) has c) ought 9. I read about your plane's near disaster. You ____________ terrified! a) might have been b) must have been c) shall have been 10. It's the law. They ____________ have a blood test before they get married. a) might b) could c) have to 11. Professor Villa, we've finished our work for today. _________ we leave now, please? a) May b) Can c) Must 50 An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills CHAPTER 4: ADJECTIVES An adjective is a word that tells us something about a noun, that is, about a person, an animal, a thing or a place. For example: She is a pretty girl. A giraffe has a long neck. The table is round. That is an old temple. KINDS OF ADJECTIVE AasmaNaseer Page 1. An adjective which tells us about the quality of the noun. For example: the blue sky, a big house, a square table, a cold morning. 2. An adjective which tells us about the quantity of the noun. For example: The zoo has many animals. The pen has not much ink left. 3. An adjective which tells us about the ownership of the noun. For example: That is my dog. Those are their bicycles. 4. An adjective which poses question in an ‗interrogative‘ manner. For example: Which school do you go to? Whose car is this? 5. An adjective which specifies a noun. For example: This boy is a member of the club. That girl is my sister. 6. Adjectives which end in ‗-ing‘, e.g. an interesting film, an amazing player, an annoying habit, 7. Adjectives which end in ‗-ed, e.g. the damaged goods, the escaped prisoners, improved version 51 There are various kinds of adjectives: BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills ADJECTIVE FORMATION Adding ‗y‘.Drop ‗e‘. Add ‗ful‘.* Change ‗y‘ to ‗i‘. Add ‗ous‘ or ‗ious‘. *Drop ‗y‘. Add ‗less‘. Anger care mountain aim ease* doubt danger end Greed peace industry harm ice* beauty* mystery* sense Oil pity* glory* use Add ‗al‘. * Drop ‗e‘. Add ‗able‘. Add ‗ic‘.*Drop ‗y‘. Add ‗ive‘. music accept acrobat attract nation comfort artist effect person enjoy photograph act nature* fashion sympathy* instruct agriculture* respect robot progress Adjectives can be formed from Nouns. Noun Adjective accident accidental danger dangerous length long star starry wind windy Adjectives can be formed from Verbs. enjoy enjoyable help helpful obey obedient play playful talk talkative 52 Adjective Page Verb AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills Adjectives can be formed from Adjectives. Adjective Adjective comic comical Correct corrective Elder elderly Red reddish Comparison of adjectives We use the Positive degree to compare two equalnouns. For example: His house is as big as my house. We use the Comparative degree to compare two unequalnouns. For example: His house is bigger than my house. We use the Superlative degree to compare three or more Nouns. For example: His house is the biggest in the neighbourhood. Superlative Bold bolder boldest Deep deeper deepest Near nearer nearest Rich richer richest Tall taller tallest Positive Comparative Superlative careful more careful most careful 53 Comparative Page Positive AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills enjoyable more enjoyable most enjoyable forgetful more forgetful most forgetful useful more useful most useful wonderful more wonderful most wonderful Positive Comparative Superlative bad worse worst good better best little less least FORMING ADJECTIVES NOUNS VERBS ADJECTIVES Accident accidental adventure adventurous Boy boyish Care careful Caution cautious centre central child childish choose choosy circle circular collect collective coward cowardly danger dangerous describe AasmaNaseer descriptive 54 comfortable Page comfort BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills distance distant enjoy enjoyable faith faithful fame famous father fatherly fool foolish forget forgetful fortune fortunate friend friendly girl girlish gold golden harm harmful hate hateful height high help helpful hero heroic hope hopeful imagine imaginary joy joyful law lawful length long love lovable mercy merciful mine my mischief mischievous mountain mountainous music musical nation national nature natural noise noisy north northern obey AasmaNaseer obedient 55 manly Page man BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills parent parental peace peaceful person personal pity pitiful please pleasant poison poisonous pride proud prosper prosperous quarrel quarrelsome science scientific sense sensible silk silky skill skilful smoke smoky sorrow sorrowful south southern storm stormy strength strong study studious success successful sun sunny talk talkative thirsty thirsty thought thoughtful trouble troublesome truth truthful value valuable victory victorious war warlike water watery wave wavy west western AasmaNaseer 56 terrible Page terror BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills winter wintry wisdom wise wood wooden wool woolen year yearly youth young Adjective Order In English, it is common to use more than one adjective before a noun -- for example, "He's a silly young fool," or "she's a smart, energetic woman." When you use more than one adjective, you have to put them in the right order, according to type. This page will explain the different types of adjectives and the correct order for them. The basic types of adjectives Opinion An opinion adjective explains what you think about something (other people may not agree with you). Examples: silly, beautiful, horrible, difficult An age adjective tells you how young or old something or someone is. Examples: 57 Age Page Size A size adjective, of course, tells you how big or small something is. Examples: large, tiny, enormous, little AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills ancient, new, young, old Shape A shape adjective describes the shape of something. Examples: square, round, flat, rectangular Colour A colour adjective, of course, describes the colour of something. Examples: blue, pink, reddish, grey Origin An origin adjective describes where something comes from. Examples: French, lunar, American, eastern, Greek Purpose A purpose adjective describes what something is used for. These adjectives often end with "-ing". Examples: sleeping (as in "sleeping bag"), roasting (as in "roasting tin") Page 58 Material A material adjective describes what something is made from. Examples: wooden, metal, cotton, paper AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills Some examples of adjective order Opinion Size a silly Age Shape Colour Origin Material Purpose young a huge a small English round man metal red bowl sleeping bag ( 1.1) EXERCISE - COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES AasmaNaseer Page Order of Adjectives 59 Pick the correct words in the brackets. 1. My father is as (strong, stronger, strongest) as his father. 2. She is (pretty, prettier, prettiest) than her sister. 3. You are not as (tall, taller, tallest) as your brother. 4. That pond is the (shallow, shallower, shallowest) in this area. 5. That has to be the (interesting, more interesting, most interesting) film I have seen. 6. Which university offers (the good, the better, the best) degree courses?. 7. This clown is not as (funny, funnier, funniest) as the other one. 8. He is easily the (bad, worse, worst) player in the team. 9. The second half of the play was (little, less, the least) interesting. 10. What is (far, farther, the farthest) distance you have ever run? BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills Add adjectives to the following sentences. Use at least two of the adjectives in the list...or use your own. 1. The (ferocious, big, black, angry)bear threatened our hiking party. ________________________________________________________ 2. Seamus came from a (quiet, peaceful, Canadian) town. _______________________________________________________ 3. My father was a (tall, honest, skinny)Norwegian. ________________________________________________________ 4. Geoff arrived in (running, ugly, ancient) a pair of shoes. ________________________________________________________ 5.Renata was holding a(chubby, new-born, pink) baby. ________________________________________________________ 6. Steve hated the (glass, enormous, souless)buildings in the city. ________________________________________________________ 7. Vincent loves his (lovely, woolen, warm) gloves. ________________________________________________________ 8. The custodian was proud of his (linoleum, clean, beautiful) floor. ________________________________________________________ 9. Bartholomew was surprised by a(ugly, tiny, quick-footed) mouse. Page ________________________________________________________ 60 ________________________________________________________ 10.We laughed when Lou arrived wearing (polyester, orange, tight) pants. AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills CHAPTER 5: ADVERBS An adverb adds more to the meaning of a verb, an adjective or another adverb. EXAMPLES 1. I called you last night. (called=verb; last night=adverb) 2. Your dress is very beautiful. (beautiful=adjective; very=adverb) 3. The rain stopped quite suddenly. (suddenly=adverb; quite=adverb) 4. Types of Adverbs 1. Adverb of Time This shows when an action or something is done or happens. It answers the question ―When?‖ It is either placed at the beginning or at the end of a sentence. Example: I phoned you yesterday. / I saw her walking along the river last week. 2. Adverb of Place Thisshows where an action or something is done or happens. It answers the question ―Where?‖ It is placed after the verb. Example: I live here. / He fell down. AasmaNaseer Page This shows how an action or something is done. It answers the question ―How?‖ It is usually placed just after the verb. 61 3. Adverb of Manner BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills Example: She sleeps soundly. / He drives quickly. 4. Adverb of Degree or Quantity This answers the questions, ―To what degree?‖ or ―How much?‖ It is usually placed before the adjective and the adverb. Example: It is too dark for us to see anything. / Last night it rained very heavily.. 5. Adverb of Frequency This answers the question ―How often?‖ Example: He will never have finished in time. / We always go to school by bus. 6. Affirmative Adverb (yes) and Adverb of negation (No) Example: yes, surely, certainly, indeed, by all means, no, not at all, by no means. 7. Interrogative Adverb (Question) For example: When? Where? How? Why? How much/often? 8. Relative Adverb AasmaNaseer Page Example: The time when he arrived. / The scene where the accident occurred. / He knows how to do it. / The reason why he left. 62 when, where, how, why These words are the same in form as Interrogative Adverbs; but they are not questions. BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills Comparison of Adverbs Similar to the comparison of adjectives, adverbs have three degrees of comparison – the Positive, the Comparative and the Superlative. Most adverbs which end in ‗-ly‘ form the Comparative with ‗more‘ and the Superlative with ‗most‘. Positive Comparative Superlative Comfortably more comfortably most comfortably Happily more happily most happily Kindly more kindly most kindly Loudly more loudly most loudly Noisily more noisily most noisily Forming Adverbs Adverbs can be formed from nouns, adjectives and verbs. Most adverbs end in ‗-ly‘. Nouns Adjectives Verbs Adverbs Beauty beautifully Success successfully angry angrily foolish foolishly continually know knowingly Page 63 continue AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills FORMING ADVERBS VERBS ADJECTIVES accident ADVERBS accidentally actual actually angry angrily annual annually attention attentively bad beauty badly beautifully boast boastfully brave bravely brief briefly bright brightly busy busily careful carefully careless carelessly cheer cheerfully clean cleanly clear clearly clever cleverly comfort comfortably complete continue completely continually cruel cruelly dangerous dangerously day daily dearly dim dimly dirty dirtily double doubly dull AasmaNaseer dully 64 dear Page NOUNS BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills easy enjoy easily enjoyably entire faith entirely faithfully fatal fear fatally fearfully fierce fiercely first firstly foolish foolishly forget forgetfully free fright freely frightfully general generally glad gladly grace gracefully gradual gradually happy happily hard hardly hate hatefully heavy heavily help helpfully hope hopefully horror horribly hurry hurriedly infect infectiously joy joyfully kind know kindly knowingly lately lazy lazily light lightly loud loudly 65 late AasmaNaseer lastly Page last BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills luck luckily mad madly magic magically merry merrily month monthly natural naturally near nearly neat neatly needless needlessly nice nicely night nightly noise noisily obey obediently one once open openly pain painfully part partly patient peace patiently peacefully please pleasantly pretty prettily proud proudly pure purely quick quickly quiet quietly rare rarely ready readily rough roughly sad sadly safe safely shake shakily shame shamefully AasmaNaseer 66 politely Page polite BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills silent silently simple simply sincere sincerely skill skilfully sleep sleepily slow slowly sound soundly special specially success successfully sudden suddenly sweet sweetly swift swiftly terrible terribly true truly truthful truthfully wise wisely year yearly EXERCISE - TYPES OF ADVERBS Choose the most suitable adverb in bold to fill each blank: angrily, enough, never, outside, yesterday 1. She left _____ for the university where she is doing a degree course. 2. We are standing _____ his house waiting for him. 3. He told us _____ not to walk on the grass. Page 5. She will _____ be happy in that job. 67 4. I am not strong _____ to help him carry that box. AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills down, last week, often, quickly, rarely 6. _____, I saw him walking to the church. 7. My father is _____ late for work. 8. He drove _____ to avoid being late. 9. I _____ play badminton with my sister. 10. This is the place where he fell_____. always, just, nearly, online, unusually 11. It took _____ two hours to get here. 12. They were _____ very friendly. 13. He has _____ strong hands. 14. She has _____ completed her degree course. Page 68 15. This dictionary went _____ in 2003. AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills CHAPTER 6: PREPOSITIONS Prepositions are words placed before Nouns and Pronouns. They are used to show time, position and direction. TYPES OF PREPOSTION Examples of Prepositions showing time: My birthday falls in September. Most shops are closed on Sunday. I have an appointment at 9 o'clock. Examples of Prepositions showing position: He is standing at the door. The glass is on the table. The cat is sleeping under the chair. Examples of Prepositions showing direction: She got into the taxi. The girl is walking towards her mother. I have to go to town. Other examples of expressions using prepositions: The picture was drawn by his brother. She likes to go out with her friends. They say I walk like my father. Her parents give her a box of sweets. AasmaNaseer Page Fill in the blanks with these words: against, at, by, for, from, in, like, near, of, on, to, up, with. 1. She is doing a degree course _____ a university. 2. His trousers were washed _____ the washing machine. 3. We had to climb slowly _____ the hill. 4. His house looks _____ a temple. 69 1.1 EXERCISE - PREPOSITIONS BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills 5. How many _____the members will join the trip? 6. Don't lean that ladder _____ the wall. 7. I don't usually feel tired _____ the morning. 8. Have you heard anything _____ him yet? 9. My house is quite _____ to your school. 10. Put this _____ your drawer and do not let anyone see it. 11. A university is where you study _____ a degree. 12. Which of these roads will lead _____ the church? 13. He sometimes quarrels _____ the neighbour. 14. I think there is a salesman _____ the door. 15. Her next birthday will be _____ a Sunday. 16. Even the new drug could not cure him _____ his illness. 17. He was given a ten-year prison sentence _____ armed robbery. 18. The cat likes to rub its head _____ my legs. 19. The store was robbed because there was no guard _____ duty. 20. My father has a car _____ yours. 21. His sister holds a degree _____ physics _____ Oxford. 22. The new factory is expected to come online _____ May. 23. If you go _____ a river you go towards its source. 24. Many of us eat _____ fork and spoon. 25. The mob stoned her _____ death. AasmaNaseer Page Fill in the blanks with these words: about, across, after, along, among, behind, beside, off, since, through, under, without. 1. The referee ordered two players _____ the field. 2. I could see her _____ the window. 3. He sings whenever he is _____ the influence of alcohol. 4. We have not met _____ early last year. 5. She came up and sat _____ me. 6. Police want to know all _____ it and are calling for witnesses. 7. Innocent civilians were _____ the casualties. 8. Please shut the door _____ you. 70 1.2 EXERCISE - PREPOSITIONS BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills Page 71 9. How long can you survive _____ light or heating? 10. Who is looking _____ you when your parents are not in? 11. She was carrying her handbag _____ her arm. 12. We parked the car _____ the fence. 13. He had to push his way _____ the crowd to get in. 14. The robbers jumped _____ the train while it was still moving. 15. We enjoy driving _____ the highway. 16. Books were scattered _____ the room. 17. We are not allowed to talk _____ ourselves 18. He has completed this degree course _____ too much trouble. 19. There is only one bridge _____ this river. 20. Do you believe in life _____ death? AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills CHAPTER 7: CONJUNCTIONS Conjunctions are words that connect words, sentences, phrases, or clauses. Examples of conjunction are: 'and', 'but', 'or', 'while', 'because', 'since', 'unless', 'although', and many more. Conjunctionsjoining words: Example: I have a car and a house. Conjunctionsjoining phrases: Example: The fisherman is happy walking along the beach and carrying a bucketfull of fish. Conjunctions joining sentences: ¨ He walked to his car. He got into it.. He walked to his car and got into it. ¨ Will you have tea? Will you have coffee? Will you have tea or coffee? ¨ She is tired. She cannot sleep. She is tired but she cannot sleep. Conjunctions can join nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs. He joked and we laughed. (Joining two verbs) AasmaNaseer Page I have a pen and a book. (Joining two nouns) 72 Example: BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills She is beautiful and tall. (Joining two adjectives) He eats quickly and noisily. (Joining two adverbs) EXERCISE - CONJUNCTIONS Fill in the blanks with these words: although, and, because, but, or, since, so, unless, until, when. 1. Things were different _____ I was young. 2. I do it _____ I like it. 3. Let us wait here _____ the rain stops. 4. You cannot be a lawyer _____ you have a law degree. 5. That was years _____ years ago. 6. She has not called _____ she left last week. 7. I saw him leaving an hour _____ two ago. 8. This is an expensive _____ very useful book. 9. We were getting tired _____ we stopped for a rest. 10. He was angry _____ he heard when happened. 11. Walk quickly _____ you will be late. 12. He had to retire _____ of ill health. 13. We will go swimming next Sunday _____ it's raining. 14. I heard a noise _____ I turned the light on. 15. Would you like a coffee _____ tea? 16. Do you know _____ she will arrive? 17. _____ the car is old it still runs well. 19. I would like to go _____ I am too busy. Page 20. She will die _____ the doctors operate immediately. 73 18. Do you want a pen _____ a bit of paper? AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills CHAPTER 8: INTERJECTION Hi! That's an interjection. An interjection is a word that shows emotion. It is not grammatically related to the rest of the sentence. Interjections are usually one to two words that usually come at the beginning of a sentence. They can show happiness , sadness , anger, surprise, or any other emotion. Interjection is a big name for a little word. EXAMPLES: Interjection Meaning Example Hmm expressing hesitation, doubt or disagreement "Hmm. I'm not so sure." oh, o expressing surprise "Oh! You're here!" expressing pain "Oh! I've got a toothache." expressing pleading "Oh, please say 'yes'!" ouch expressing pain "Ouch! That hurts!" Ah expressing pleasure "Ah, that feels good." expressing realization "Ah, now I understand." expressing resignation "Ah well, it can't be helped." Page Example: Wow! I won a free ticket to Australia! 74 Interjections are usually punctuated with an exclamation mark or a comma. We Use an exclamation mark if the emotion is very strong. AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills Use a comma if the emotion is not as strong. Example: Wow, I have a sandwich with coffee for lunch. IMPORTANT: Not every introductory word that is followed by an exclamation mark or a comma is an interjection. It is a word that shows emotion. So, if a word in the beginning of the sentence does not show emotion, it is probably not an interjection. Example: Maria! Come and see the lion! Names like this one are not interjections. They are nouns because they name of People. Names also don't fit our definition of an interjection because they do not show emotion. The tone of voice that you say them in may show emotion, but the name itself does not. Example: Stop! The lion will eat you! Page 75 The word stop is not an interjection. It is a verb because it shows action. AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills PART II:STUDY SKILLS Chapter 9: LISTENING SKILLS We were given two ears but only one mouth. This is because God knew that listening was twice as hard as talking. People need to practice and acquire skills to be good listeners, because a speaker cannot throw you information in the same manner that a dart player tosses a dart at a passive dartboard. Information is an intangible substance that must be sent by the speaker and received by an active listener. We probably spend more time using our listening skills than any other kind of skill. Like other skills, listening takes practice. What does it mean to really listen? Real listening is an active process that has two basic steps. 1. Hearing 2. Understanding Hearing. Hearing is the first part of listening process and consists of perception of sound. Understanding. The next part of listening happens when you Page 76 attach meanings to what you hear. AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE LISTENING SKILLS The average college student spends about 14 hours per week in class listening (or perhaps I should say "hearing"--there is a difference!) to lectures. See if you can improve your listening skills by following some of the strategies below: 1. Maintain eye contact with the instructor. Of course you will need to look at your notebook to write your notes, but eye contact keeps you focused on the job at hand and keeps you involved in the lecture. Give your full attention on the person who is speaking. Don't look out the window or at what else is going on in the room. 2. Focus on content, not delivery. Have you ever counted the number of times a teacher clears his/her throat in a fifteen minute period? If so, you weren't focusing on content. Make sure your mind is focused, too. It can be easy to let your mind wander if you think you know what the person is going to say next, but you might be wrong! If you feel your mind wandering, change the position of your body and try to concentrate on the speaker's words. 3. Avoid emotional involvement. When you are too emotionally involved in listening, you tend to hear what you want to hear--not what is actually being said. Try to remain objective and open-minded. 4. Avoid distractions. Don't let your mind wander or be distracted by the person shuffling papers near you. If the classroom is too hot or too cold try to remedy that situation if you can. The solution may require lecture is not a passive act--at least it shouldn't be. You need to AasmaNaseer Page 5. Treat listening as a challenging mental task. Listening to an academic 77 that you dress more appropriately to the room temperature. BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills concentrate on what is said so that you can process the information into your notes. 6. Stay active by asking mental questions. Active listening keeps you on your toes. Here are some questions you can ask yourself as you listen. What key point is the professor making? How does this fit with what I know from previous lectures? How is this lecture organized? 7. Let yourself finish listening before you begin to speak! You can't really listen if you are busy thinking about what you want say next. 8. Use the gap between the rate of speech and your rate of thought. You can think faster than the lecturer can talk. That's one reason your mind may tend to wander. All the above suggestions will help you keep your mind occupied and focused on what being said. You can actually begin to anticipate what the professor is going to say as a way to keep your mind from straying. Your mind does have the capacity to listen, think, write and ponder at the same time, but it does take practice. 9. Give your full attention on the person who is speaking. Don't look out the window or at what else is going on in the room. 10. Make sure your mind is focused, too. It can be easy to let your mind wander if you think you know what the person is going to say next, but you might be wrong! If you feel your mind wandering, change the position of your body and try to concentrate on the speaker's words. 11. Let the speaker finish before you begin to talk. Speakers appreciate having the chance to say everything they would like to say 12. Let yourself finish listening before you begin to speak! You can't really listen if you are busy thinking about what you want say next. AasmaNaseer Page listening, even if you really are. 78 without being interrupted. When you interrupt, it looks like you aren't BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills 13. Listen for main ideas. The main ideas are the most important points the speaker wants to get across. They may be mentioned at the start or end of a talk, and repeated a number of times. Pay special attention to statements that begin with phrases such as "My point is..." or "The thing to remember is..." 14. Ask questions. If you are not sure you understand what the speaker has said, just ask. It is a good idea to repeat in your own words what the speaker said so that you can be sure your understanding is correct. For example, you might say, "When you said that no two zebras are alike, did you mean that the stripes are different on each one?" 15. Give feedback. Sit up straight and look directly at the speaker. Now and then, nod to show that you understand. At appropriate points you may also smile, frown, laugh, or be silent. These are all ways to let the speaker know that you are really listening. Remember, you listen with your face as well as your ears! Thinking fast Remember: time is on your side! Thoughts move about four times as fast as speech. With practice, while you are listening you will also be able to think about what you are hearing, really Page 79 understand it, and give feedback to the speaker. AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills TEN BAD LISTENING HABITS Several years ago I identified what seemed to me to be the ten worst listening habits in America today. Though my discussion of them here is in relation to the ways they may affect us in a formal listening situation, the effects of these habits can be just as devastating in less formal listening situations at home, at school, in business or social groups. 1. Calling the Subject Dull Bad listeners often finds a subject too dry and dusty to command their attention and they use this as an excuse to wander off on a mental tangent. Good listeners may have heard a dozen talks on the same subject before, but they quickly decide to see if the speaker has anything that can be of use to them. The key to good listening is that little three-letter word use. Good listeners are sifters, screeners, and winnowers of the wheat from the chaff. They are always hunting for something practical or worthwhile to store in the back of their mind to put to work in the months and years ahead. G.K. Chesterton said many years ago that in all this world there is no such thing as an uninteresting subject, only uninterested people. Page It's the indoor sport of most bad listeners to find fault with the way a speaker looks, acts, and talks. Good listeners may make a few of the same criticisms but they quickly begin to pay attention to what is said, not how it is said. After a few minutes, good listeners become oblivious to the speaker's mannerisms or his/her faults in delivery. They know that the message is ten times as important as the clothing in which it comes garbed. 80 2. Criticizing the Speaker AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills 3. Getting Overstimulated Listening efficiency drops to zero when the listeners react so strongly to one part of the presentation that they miss what follows. At the University of Minnesota we think this bad habit is so critical that, in the classes where we teach listening, we put at the top of every blackboard the words: Withhold evaluation until comprehension is complete -- hear the speaker out. It is important that we understand the speaker's point of view fully before we accept or reject it. 4. Listening Only For Facts I used to think it was important to listen for facts. But I've found that almost without exception it is the poor listeners who say they listen for facts. They do get facts, but they garble a shocking number and completely lose most of them. Good listeners listen for the main ideas in a speech or lecture and use them as connecting threads to give sense and system to the whole. In the end they have more facts appended to those connecting threads than the catalogers who listen only for facts. It isn't necessary to worry too much about fact as such, for facts have meaning only when principles supply the context. 5. Trying To Outline Everything AasmaNaseer Page Good listeners are flexible. They adapt their note taking to the organizational pattern of the speaker-they may make an outline, they may write a summary, they may list facts and principles -- but whatever they do they are not rigid about it. 81 There's nothing wrong with making an outline of a speech -provided the speaker is following an outline method of presentation. But probably not more than a half or perhaps a third of all speeches given are built around a carefully prepared outline. BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills 6. Faking Attention The pose of chin propped on hand with gaze fixed on speaker does not guarantee good listening. Having adopted this pose, having shown the overt courtesy of appearing to listen to the speaker, the bad listener feels conscience free to take off on any of a thousand tangents. Good listening is not relaxed and passive at all. It's dynamic; it's constructive; it's characterized by a slightly increased heart rate, quicker circulation of the blood, and a small rise in bodily temperature. It's energy consuming; it's plain hard work. The best definition I know of the word attention is a "collection of tensions that can be resolved only by getting the facts or ideas that the speaker is trying to convey." 7. Tolerating Distraction Poor listeners are easily distracted and may even create disturbances that interfere with their own listening efficiency and that of others. They squirm, talk with their neighbors, or shuffle papers. They make little or no effort to conceal their boredom. Good listeners try to adjust to whatever distractions there are and soon find that they can ignore them. Certainly, they do not distract others. 8. Choosing Only What's Easy Page 82 Often we find the poor listeners have shunned listening to serious presentations on radio or television. There is plenty of easy listening available, and this has been their choice. The habit of avoiding even moderately difficult expository presentations in one's ensure-time listening can handicap anyone who needs to use listening as a learning tool. AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills 9. Letting Emotion-Laden Words Get In The Way It is a fact that some words carry such an emotional load that they cause some listeners to tune a speaker right out: such as, affirmative action and feminist-they are fighting words to some people. I sometimes think that one of the most important studies that could be made would be the identification of the one hundred greatest trouble-making words in the English language. If we knew what these words were, we could ring them out into the open, discuss them, and get them behind us. It's so foolish to let a mere symbol for something stand between us and learning. 10. Wasting the Differential between Speech and Thought Speed Americans speak at an average rate of 125 words per minute in ordinary conversation. A speaker before an audience slows down to about 100 words per minute. How fast do listeners listen? Or, to put the question in a better form, how many words a minute do people normally think as they listen? If all their thoughts were measurable in words per minute, the answer would seem to be that an audience of any size will average 400 to 500 words per minute as they listen. Page However, with training in listening, the difference between thought speed and speech speed can be made a source of tremendous power. Listeners can hear everything the speaker says and not what s/he omits saying; they can listen between the lines and do some evaluating as the speech progresses. To do this, to exploit this power, good listeners must automatically practice three skills in concentration: 83 Here is a problem. The differential between the speaker at 100 words per minute and the easy thought speed of the listener at 400 or 500 words per minute is a snare and a pitfall. It lures the listener into a false sense of security and breeds mental tangents. AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills Anticipating the next point.Good listeners try to anticipate the points a speaker will make in developing a subject. If they guess right, the speaker's words reinforce their guesses. If they guess wrong, they'll have to do some thinking to discover why they and the speaker failed to agree. In either case, their chances of understanding and remembering what was said is nearly double what it would have been if they had simply listened passively. Identifying supporting material.Good listeners try to identify a speaker's supporting material. After all, a person can't go on making points without giving listeners some of the evidence on which the conclusions are based, and the bricks and mortar that have been used to build up the argument should be examined for soundness. Page 84 Recapitulating.With the tremendous thought speed that everyone has, it is easy to summarize in about five seconds the highlights covered by a speaker in about five minutes. When the speaker stops to take a swallow of water or walks over to the blackboard to write something or even takes a deep breath, the experienced listener makes a mental summary. Half a dozen summaries of the highlights of a fifty-minute talk will easily double the understanding and retention important points in a talk. AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills Chapter 10: READING SKILLS SIX READING MYTHS MYTH 1: I HAVE TO READ EVERY WORD Many of the words used in writing grammatically correct sentences actually convey no meaning. If, in reading, you exert as much effort in conceptualizing these meaningless words as you do important ones, you limit not only your reading speed but your comprehension as well. MYTH 2: READING ONCE IS ENOUGH Skim once as rapidly as possible to determine the main idea and to identify those parts that need careful reading. Reread more carefully to plug the gaps in your knowledge. Many college students fell that something must be wrong with their brain power if they must read a textbook chapter more than once. To be sure, there are students for whom one exposure to an idea in a basic course is enough, but they either have read extensively or have an excellent background or a high degree of interest in the subject. AasmaNaseer Page Good reading is selective reading. It involves selecting those sections that are relevant to your purpose in reading. Rather than automatically rereading, take a few seconds to quiz yourself on the 85 For most students in most subjects, reading once is not enough. However, this is not to imply that an unthinking Pavlovian-like rereading is necessary to understand and retain materials. Many students automatically regress or reread doggedly with a selfpunishing attitude. ("I didn't get a thing out of that paragraph the first time, so if I punish myself by rereading it maybe I will this time.") This is the hardest way to do it. BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills material you have just read and then review those sections that are still unclear or confusing to you. The most effective way of spending each study hour is to devote as little time as possible to reading and as much time as possible to testing yourself, reviewing, organizing, and relating the concepts and facts, mastering the technical terms, formulas, etc., and thinking of applications of the concepts-in short, spend your time learning ideas, not painfully processing words visually. MYTH 3: IT IS SINFUL TO SKIP PASSAGES IN READING Many college students feel that it is somehow sinful to skip passages in reading and to read rapidly. We are not sure just how this attitude develops, but some authorities have suggested that it stems from the days when the Bible was the main book read, savored, and reread. Indeed, the educated person was one who could quote long passages from these books from memory. AasmaNaseer Page The idea that you cannot skip but have to read every page is oldfashioned. Children, however, are still taught to feel guilty if they find a novel dull and out it down before finishing it. I once had a student who felt she could not have books in her home unless she had read every one of them from cover to cover. Studies show that this is the reason many people drop Book-of-the-Month Club subscriptions; they begin to collect books, cannot keep up with their reading, and develop guilty feelings about owning books they have not had time to read. 86 Today proliferation of books and printed matter brought about by the information explosion creates a reading problem for everyone. Furthermore, much of this printed material offers considerably less than Shakespeare or the Bible in meaning or style. You must, of course, make daily decisions as to what is worth spending your time on, what can be glanced at or put aside for future perusal, and what can be relegated to the wastebasket. BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills The idea that some books are used merely for reference purposes and are nice to have around in case you need them seems to be ignored in our schools. Sir Francis Bacon once said that some books are to be nibbled and tasted, some are to be swallowed whole, and a few need to be thoroughly chewed and digested no matter how trivial the content. No wonder many people dislike reading. MYTH 4: MACHINES ARE NECESSARY TO IMPROVE MY READING SPEED The best and most effective way to increase your reading rate is to consciously force yourself to read faster. Machines are useful as motivators, but only because they show you that you can read faster without losing understanding. Remember that they are inflexible, unthinking devices that churn away at the same rate regardless of whether the sentence is trivial or vital, simple or difficult. They are limited too, for if you are practicing skimming, you are looking for main ideas so that you can read more carefully. Since these may not be located in a definite pattern (e.g. one per line) nor be equally spaced so that the machine can conveniently time them, machines may actually slow you down and retard the speed with which you locate the ideas that you need for understanding. If you find yourself in need of a pusher, use a 3x5 card as a pacer, or use your hand, or your finger. However, there is one caution you should observe if you try this. Be sure that your hand or finger or card is used to push, not merely to follow your eyes. AasmaNaseer Page Many people refuse to push themselves faster in reading for fear that they will lose comprehension. However, research shows that there is little relationship between rate and comprehension. Some students read rapidly and comprehend well, others read slowly and 87 MYTH 5: IF I SKIM OR READ TOO RAPIDLY MY COMPREHENSION WILL DROP BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills comprehend poorly. Whether you have good comprehension depends on whether you can extract and retain the important ideas from your reading, not on how fast you read. If you can do this, you can also increase your speed. If you "clutch up" when trying to read fast or skim and worry about your comprehension, it will drop because your mind is occupied with your fears and you are not paying attention to the ideas that you are reading. If you concentrate on your purpose for reading -- e.g. locating main ideas and details, and forcing yourself to stick to the task of finding them quickly -- both your speed and comprehension could increase. Your concern should be not with how fast you can get through a chapter, but with how quickly you can locate the facts and ideas that you need. MYTH 6: THERE IS SOMETHING ABOUT MY EYES THAT KEEPS ME FROM READING FAST This belief is nonsense too, assuming that you have good vision or wear glasses that correct your eye problems. Of course, if you cannot focus your eyes at the reading distance, you will have trouble learning to skim and scan. Furthermore, if you have developed the habit of focusing your eyes too narrowly and looking at word parts, it will be harder for you to learn to sweep down a page of type rapidly. Page 88 Usually it is your brain, not your eyes that slows you down in reading. Your eyes are capable of taking in more words than your brain is used to processing. If you sound out words as you read, you will probably read very slowly and have difficulty in skimming and scanning until you break this habit. AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills ACTIVE READING When you're reading for your course, you need to make sure you're actively involved with the text. It's a waste of your time to just passively read, the way you'd read a thriller on holiday. Always make notes to keep up your concentration and understanding. Here are a few tips for active reading. 1. Underlining and highlighting Pick out what you think are the most important parts of what you are reading. Do this with your own copy of texts or on photocopies, not with borrowed books. If you are a visual learner, you'll find it helpful to use different colours to highlight different aspects of what you're reading. 2. Note key words Record the main headings as you read. Use one or two keywords for each point. When you don't want to mark the text, keep a folder of notes you make while reading. 3. Questions Before you start reading something like an article, a chapter or a whole book, prepare for your reading by noting down questions you want the material to answer. While you're reading, note down questions which the author raises. Page Pause after you've read a section of text. Then: 89 4. Summaries AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills 1. put what you've read into your own words; 2. skim through the text and check how accurate your summary is and 3. Fill in any gaps. 5. A special tip: SQ3R technique You should learn a huge amount from your reading. If you read passively, without learning, you're wasting your time. So train your mind to learn. Try the SQ3R technique. SQ3R stands for Survey, Question, Read, Recall and Review. Survey Gather the information you need to focus on the work and set goals: Read the title to help prepare for the subject Read the introduction or summary to see what the author thinks are the key points Notice the boldface headings to see what the structure is Notice any maps, graphs or charts. They are there for a purpose Notice the reading aids, italics, bold face, questions at the end of the chapter. They are all there to help you understand and remember. Page Help your mind to engage and concentrate. Your mind is engaged in learning when it is actively looking for answers to questions.Try turning the boldface headings into questions you think the section should answer. 90 Question AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills Read Read the first section with your questions in mind. Look for the answers, and make up new questions if necessary. Recall After each section, stop and think back to your questions. See if you can answer them from memory. If not, take a look back at the text. Do this as often as you need to. Review Once you have finished the whole chapter, go back over all the questions from all the headings. See you if can still answer them. If not, look back and refresh your memory. Words and vocabulary When you're a graduate people expect you to use a vocabulary which is wider than a school-leaver's. To expand your vocabulary: Choose a large dictionary rather than one which is ‗compact' or ‗concise'. You want one which is big enough to define words clearly and helpfully (around 1,500 pages is a good size). Avoid dictionaries which send you round in circles by just giving synonyms. A pocket dictionary might suggest: ‗impetuous = rash'. Page 91 A more comprehensive dictionary will tell you that impetuous means ‗rushing with force and violence', while another gives ‗liable to act without consideration', and add to your understanding by giving the derivation ‗14th century, from late Latin impetuous = violent'. AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills It will tell you that rash means ‗acting without due consideration or thought', and is derived from Old High German rasc = hurried. So underlying these two similar words is the difference between violence and hurrying. There are over 600,000 words in the Oxford English Dictionary ; most of them have different meanings, (only a small proportion are synonyms). Avoid dictionaries which send you round in circles by using very complicated language to define the term you're looking up, leaving you struggling to understand half a dozen new words. Keep your dictionary at hand when you're studying. Look up unfamiliar words and work to understand what they mean. Improve your vocabulary by reading widely. If you haven't got your dictionary with you, note down words which you don't understand and look them up later. FOUR READING STRATEGIES Skimming Skimming is used to quickly gather the most important information, or 'gist'. Run your eyes over the text, noting important information. Use skimming to quickly get up to speed on a current business situation. It's not essential to understand each word when skimming. The Newspaper (quickly to get the general news of the day) AasmaNaseer Page 92 Examples of Skimming: BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills Magazines (quickly to discover which articles you would like to read in more detail) Business and Travel Brochures (quickly to get informed) Scanning Scanning is used to find a particular piece of information. Run your eyes over the text looking for the specific piece of information you need. Use scanning on schedules, meeting plans, etc. in order to find the specific details you require. If you see words or phrases that you don't understand, don't worry when scanning. Examples of Scanning The "What's on TV" section of your newspaper. A train / airplane schedule A conference guide Extensive reading Extensive reading is used to obtain a general understanding of a subject and includes reading longer texts for pleasure, as well as business books. Use extensive reading skills to improve your general knowledge of business procedures. Do not worry if you understand each word. Examples of Extensive Reading The latest marketing strategy book A novel you read before going to bed Magazine articles that interest you Page Intensive reading is used on shorter texts in order to extract specific information. It includes very close accurate reading for detail. Use intensive reading skills to grasp the details of a specific situation. In 93 Intensive reading AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills this case, it is important that you understand each word, number or fact. Examples of Intensive Reading A bookkeeping report An insurance claim A contract STEPS TO FOLLOW IN SKIMMING FOR THE MAIN IDEAS 1. First, read the title of the chapter or selection carefully. Determine what clues it gives you as to what the selection is about. Watch for key words like "causes," "results," "effects," etc., and do not overlook signal words such as those suggesting controversy (e.g. "versus," "pros and cons"), which indicate that the author is planning to present both sides of an argument. 2. Look carefully at the headings and other organizational clues. These tip you off to the main points that the author wants you to learn. You may be accustomed to overlooking boldface headings and titles which are the obvious clues to the most important ideas. If you concentrate on the details and ignore the main ideas, you will have much more difficulty retaining the information you read. Remember that authors of college textbooks want you to recognize the important concepts. They use: a. Major headings and subheadings to convey major points. AasmaNaseer Page c. Lists of points set off by numbers or paragraphs that begin with the phrases such as "The three most important factors . . . " etc. 94 b. Italicized words and phrases so that crucial new terms and definitions will stand out. BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills Page 95 d. Redundancy or repetition. By stating and restating the facts and ideas, the author ensures that you will be exposed in different ways to the concepts she feels are the most crucial for you to understand. She hopes that on at least one of these exposures you will absorb the idea. Therefore, it is vital that you recognize when an important concept is being restated in slightly different words and when you have completely mastered the idea. AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills CHAPTER 10: SKILLS FOR TAKING LECTURES &NOTES A wit once remarked that "A lecture is a process in which information passes from the notes of the lecturer into the notes of the student without passing through the minds of either." (Gilstrap and Martin, 1975). These guidelines aim to help you avoid that dull and futile situation by helping you learn how to be a more active participant in lectures. 1. Making the most of Lectures Lectures are used for two purposes: 1. to give an overview of the subject, which means you will need to fill in the detail, and 2. to give detailed information on a topic, which means you will need to fill in the background. These guidelines cover: a. Preparing for lectures b. During lectures c. After lectures a. Preparing for lectures Page Doing preparatory reading will make it easier for you to follow the lecture. When the lecture is part of a series, you should revise your notes from previous lectures. 96 Find out how your lectures relate to your course as a whole. Do the seminars or tutorials prepare you for the lectures, or do they follow up the lectures? Will you be able to discuss the lecture content in seminars? See your course information booklet or ask your tutor. AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills b. During lectures Listening in lectures During the lecture it's more important to listen than to make notes. If you listen effectively, you will have a better understanding of the content, which will help you write clear, helpful notes that will make sense to you later on. If you have trouble concentrating, you should try sitting near the front, so you are removed from distractions. You may find it helpful to record the lecture on a cassette recorder, but ask the lecturer's permission first. Signposts to structure While you listen to a lecture, try to focus on its structure. Sometimes the lecturer makes it clear at the start of the lecture with a list of headings or a summary. Note this down so you have a sense of where the lecture is going. The lecturer may use verbal signposts, for example: "I shall now discuss..." or "My next point is..." Note the change of topic in your notes. Other signposts to listen out for are phrases like: "On the other hand..." or "Turning to..." Using handouts Some lecturers issue handouts to summarise important information and help you follow the lecture. To get the most benefit from them: Page 97 Highlight key words Add notes in the margin Add colour to highlight and categorise information. AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills c. After lectures Ask: Don't be afraid to ask the lecturer for clarification either in the lecture, or afterwards. Clarify: lectures. Use seminars and tutorials to clarify material from the Review: mind. Review your notes while the lecture us still fresh in your 2. Taking notes You will have to do a lot of note-taking at university, much more than you have ever had to do at school or college. Note-taking is a skill which you will need in order to be a successful student. It's also a skill which your future employer wants you to have: to be able to summarise what has been said or written, in a clear, concise form, with no important facts left out. We cover six aspects of making notes: a) b) c) d) e) f) Be selective Mind maps Cornell system Recording lectures Using notes Making notes as you listen Page Note-taking does not mean writing down everything you read or hear. Your notes should be a clear summary of essential points in a text or lecture. Be selective about what you write down. 98 a. Be selective AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills Notes should help you to: Fix information in your mind, and Revise. b. Mind-mapping If you're a Visual Learner you'll find patterns easier to use than lists of ideas, so you may want to use mind maps (which are also called spider digrams). Mind maps can help you to connect information in a variety of ways. You can use them for: Making notes, Planning essay answers and Revising. Page 99 Start in the middle of a page with the subject title or topic, and add major points along a line from the centre, with additional ideas branching out from the main points. Use connecting lines to link up ideas/points from different branches. Like this: AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills There are dedicated software packages (e.g. Inspiration and MindManager) which you can use for mind-mapping on your computer. c. Cornell Method If you are an Auditory Learner, you may prefer to use a system like the Cornell Method, an example of which is given below: Cornell Method Use large loose-leaf notebook Write legibly Capture general ideas not illustrative ones Leave blank lines to show end of topics Use abbreviations to save time key words after the lecture, go over your notes and jot down key ideas or key words in the summary column AasmaNaseer 100 leave a 7cm left margin Page summary column BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills Cornell‘s note taking method d. Recording lectures Page Get permission: most lecturers will let you record, but it's a courtesy to ask first 101 You may find it easiest to record lectures on audio cassette and make your notes from the tapes afterwards. AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills Put your cassette recorder near the lecturer: you won't get clear sound if you put your cassette machine at the back of a large lecture theatre. e. Using your notes Whichever method you use, it's important that you do something with your notes. You need to go through them while the lecture is still fresh in our mind, within 24 hours, and make sure you tidy them up and summarize them. Use highlighters and coloured pens to highlight key points and to link relevant facts and ideas. Make it a rule after each lecture to: Tidy up your notes Make them more legible if you need to Summarise your notes Write down the main points to make it easy to revise for exams later. If you use the Cornell system, you can overlay your pages so you only see the left-hand margin, and read the essentials of the lecture from your summary notes.) Fill in your notes Fill in from memory examples and facts which you didn't have time to get down in the lecture Highlight your notes AasmaNaseer Page If any parts of the lecture were unclear, ask the lecturer, tutor or a fellow-student about them, or check your text books 102 Clarify your notes BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills Make the key points stand out: Underline them, Highlight them in a bright colour, or Mark them with asterisks. f. Making notes as you listen Apart from the date and title (if it's given) don't try to write anything at the start of a lecture. Listen to find out what the content is going to be. Write down key words / ideas. You don't have to write in complete sentences. Use abbreviations to help you. The most common abbreviations are: eg for example nb note well the rest& and = equals > greater than cf compare etc and C19 nineteenth century because Page 103 therefore < less than ie that is AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills CHAPTER 11: TEN TIMELESS PERSUASIVE WRITING TECHNIQUES Want to convince your readers to do something or agree with your point of view?OK, that was a silly question. Of course you do. Persuasion is generally an exercise in creating a win-win situation. You present a case that others find beneficial to agree with. You make them an offer they can‘t refuse, but not in the manipulative Godfather sense. It‘s simply a good deal or a position that makes sense to that particular person.But there are techniques that can make your job easier and your case more compelling. While this list is in no way comprehensive, these 10 strategies are used quite a bit because they work. 1. Repetition Talk to anyone well versed in learning psychology, and they‘ll tell you repetition is crucial. It‘s also critical in persuasive writing, since a person can‘t agree with you if they don‘t truly get what you‘re saying. Of course, there‘s good repetition and bad. To stay on the good side, make your point in several different ways, such as directly, using an example, in a story, via a quote from a famous person, and once more in your summary. Page Remember the power of the word because. Psychological studies have shown that people are more likely to comply with a request if you simply give them a reason why… even if that reason makes no sense. 104 2. Reasons Why AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills The strategy itself does make sense if you think about it. We don‘t like to be told things or asked to take action without a reasonable explanation. When you need people to be receptive to your line of thinking, always give reasons why. 3. Consistency It‘s been called the ―hobgoblin of little minds,‖ but consistency in our thoughts and actions is a valued social trait. We don‘t want to appear inconsistent, since, whether fair or not, that characteristic is associated with instability and flightiness, while consistency is associated with integrity and rational behavior. Use this in your writing by getting the reader to agree with something up front that most people would have a hard time disagreeing with. Then rigorously make your case, with plenty of supporting evidence, all while relating your ultimate point back to the opening scenario that‘s already been accepted. 4. Social Proof Looking for guidance from others as to what to do and what to accept is one of the most powerful psychological forces in our lives. It can determine whether we deliver aid to a person in need, and it can determine whether we muster the courage to kill ourselves. Obvious examples of social proof can be found in testimonials and outside referrals, and it‘s the driving force behind social media. But you can also casually integrate elements of social proof in your writing, ranging from skillful alignment with outside authorities to blatant name dropping. AasmaNaseer Page Metaphors, similes and analogies are the persuasive writer‘s best friends. When you can relate your scenario to something that the 105 5. Comparisons BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills reader already accepts as true, you‘re well on your way to convincing someone to see things your way. But comparisons work in other ways too. Sometimes you can be more persuasive by comparing apples to oranges (to use a tired but effective metaphor). Don‘t compare the price of your home study course to the price of a similar course—compare it to the price of a live seminar or your hourly consulting rate. 6. Agitate and Solve This is a persuasion theme that works as an overall approach to making your case. First, you identify the problem and qualify your audience. Then you agitate the reader‘s pain before offering your solution as the answer that will make it all better. The agitation phase is not about being sadistic; it‘s about empathy. You want the reader to know unequivocally that you understand his problem because you‘ve dealt with it and/or are experienced at eliminating it. The credibility of your solution goes way up if you demonstrate that you truly feel the prospect‘s pain. 7. Prognosticate Another persuasion theme involves providing your readers with a glimpse into the future. If you can convincingly present an extrapolation of current events into likely future outcomes, you may as well have a license to print money. Page 8. Go Tribal 106 This entire strategy is built on credibility. If you have no idea what you‘re talking about, you‘ll end up looking foolish. But if you can back up your claims with your credentials or your obvious grasp of the subject matter, this is an extremely persuasive technique. AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills Despite our attempts to be sophisticated, evolved beings, we humans are exclusionary by nature. Give someone a chance to be a part of a group that they want to be in—whether that be wealthy, or hip, or green, or even contrarian—and they‘ll hop on board whatever train you‘re driving. This is the technique used in the greatest sales letter ever written. Find out what group people want to be in, and offer them an invitation to join while seemingly excluding others. 9. Address Objections If you present your case and someone is left thinking ―yeah, but…‖, well, you‘ve lost. This is why direct marketers use long copy—it‘s not that they want you to read it all, it‘s that they want you to read enough until you buy. Addressing all the potential objections of at least the majority of your readers can be tough, but if you really know your subject the arguments against you should be fairly obvious. If you think there are no reasonable objections to your position, you‘re in for a shock if you have comments enabled. 10. Storytelling AasmaNaseer Page Stories allow people to persuade themselves, and that‘s what it‘s really all about. You might say that we never convince anyone of anything— we simply help others independently decide that we‘re right. Do everything you can to tell better stories, and you‘ll find that you are a terribly persuasive person. 107 Storytelling is really a catch-all technique—you can and should use it in combination with any and all of the previous nine strategies. But the reason why storytelling works so well lies at the heart of what persuasion really is. BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills CHAPTER 12: SKILLS FOR EXAMS Last-minute 'cramming' for exams is the worst of all worlds - it is very stressful, is unlikely to lead to good marks and you won't be able to remember much of it within a few days of leaving the exam room. It makes much more sense to start exam revision in plenty of time all it takes is a little planning and self-discipline to avoid those late nights, cold sweats and so-so grades. Revising for Exams Here are nine tips on revising for exams: Page a. Make use of your learning style when you revise 108 a. Make use of your learning style when you revise b. Plan in good time c. Active revision d. Old exam papers e. Pace yourself f. You‘re not alone g. Reward yourself h. Trust i. Look after yourself AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills Tips for Visual Learners Rewrite your notes as mind-maps Use colour to highlight important things Draw diagrams and sketches to help you remember points. Tips for Auditory Learners Read your notes aloud Record yourself on cassette reading key points of your notes aloud, then listen to the tape afterwards Revise with other students if you can Sing the main points. Linking them with a tune may help you remember them. Tips for learners who are readers and writers Copy out your notes. Read your notes silently. Rewrite the key points using different words. Write down key points from memory. Tips for Active Learners Move around the room Revise while you do kung-fu moves or other physical activity Mentally review what you‘ve been revising while you‘re swimming or jogging. b. Plan in good time Timetable Page A week in hand 109 How much time have you got? What do you need to do? AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills Aim to have your revision completed by a week before your exams. This gives you: flexibility in case of illness a chance to spend longer on something that proves difficult a break before you sit your exams. Select What topics do you need to revise? How much time do they need? Targets Be realistic about: the targets you set yourself how much time you will need. Balance Aim for a balance between subjects you‘re strong in and those which you‘re less confident about. c. Active revision It‘s not enough just to re-read notes, make your revision active! Here‘s how: Paper Have plenty of paper and a pen handy. Write AasmaNaseer Page Study a section of your notes, and memorise the essential points. 110 Memorise BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills Put your notes out of sight, and write down from memory the essential things you learned. Check Check with your notes. Learn Note any points you omitted or got wrong, and learn them. Cards 1. Reduce notes to essential points, either by highlighting or underlining. 2. Use these points to make memory aids on index cards or similarsized pieces of paper. 3. Use a separate card for each topic. 4. Write down important points to remember about each topic. 5. Carry these cards with you wherever you go. Review them in your spare moments. d. Old exam papers Look through old exam papers Make outline plans for the answers Note carefully the slight differences in how questions are asked from year to year. e. Pace yourself Page Don‘t try to do too much at once. Take a break from time to time in each study period. 111 Use your time well. AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills f. You’re not alone Revise with other people sometimes; if you don‘t feel that you‘ve entirely grasped a topic, or don‘t have any ‗new‘ ideas on it, discussing it with other students can be helpful. This is specially useful for Auditory Learners. g. Reward yourself Recognise the targets you have achieved. Mark your progress on your revision plan so that you can see what you are achieving. h. Trust Trust your memory. Once you know a subject thoroughly, move on to the next. Don‘t keep checking your memory to see if it‘s doing its job. It‘s like a filing system, and it will produce what is required at the appropriate time. i. Look after yourself Diet Try and eat a healthy diet, not just chips and burgers! Take time out for meals; don‘t try to work while you‘re eating dinner. Caffeine Page Exercise 112 Too much tea and coffee can increase your anxiety levels and induce insomnia. Caffeine tablets have the same effect. AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills Get some exercise! You don‘t have to go mad. 20 minutes exercise 2-3 times a week will give you more stamina, help reduce stress and help you to sleep. Rest Don‘t try to work through the night before an exam. Go to bed in good time and get as much sleep as you can. Taking exams Here are eight tips for helping you cope on the day of an exam: a. Eatb. Trust c. Organised. Comfort e. Nervesf. Instructions g. Questions h. Preparing a. Eat Have a reasonable amount to eat before the exam. Some people find it helpful to take sweets or chocolate into exams as they help maintain blood sugar levels. But don‘t rustle those wrappers. b. Trust c. Organise Page Get to the exam room in good time. 113 Don‘t get into conversations about the exam just before the start; other people may make you more nervous or start confusing you. If you‘ve prepared thoroughly, trust your own knowledge. AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills Make sure you have all the equipment you need. Remember that pens run out, and pencils break. Always have spares. Make sure that you know beforehand whether dictionaries, calculators and other pieces of equipment are allowed. d. Comfort Remember that you will be sitting still for some hours. Make sure that you will be warm enough. e. Nerves If you do get nervous or anxious, take some time out; getting a glass or water or going to the loo can help. Don‘t give up. It‘s always worth going back in and trying again. f. Instructions Read through the instructions, make sure you understand them. Read through all the questions and decide which ones you can answer. Divide the time available by the number of questions you have to answer, to work out how much time you can give each question. Allow five minutes at the end of each period for reading through your answers. Page If they ask you to answer four questions, they will allocate marks to each one. So there‘s no point in spending all your time on just two questions, you‘ll never get more than 50% of the available marks that way. 114 g. Questions AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills Attempt the number of questions you are asked to answer. h. Preparing If you are giving essay-style answers, spend the first 5-10 minutes of your available time noting down the ideas you wish to include. Put them in a logical order and write your answer. It is a good idea to practise writing this kind of timed answer as part of your revision routine. PART III: READING COMPREHENSION SKILLS CHAPTER 13: SKILLS FOR READING COMPREHENSION What is reading comprehension Recognizing Organizational Patterns AasmaNaseer Page 115 According to Webster's Dictionary, reading is "to receive or take in the sense of (as letters or symbols) by scanning; to understand the meaning of written or printed matter; to learn from what one has seen or found in writing or printing. Webster also tells us that comprehension is "the capacity for understanding fully; the act or action of grasping with the intellect." So, Comprehension = understanding! BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills It is very important for a reader to recognize the organizational patterns used by an author in a particular text. The author may use any one of the following patterns. 1. Enumeration i. ii. A list of dates, names, formulas, theories, and so on what the author believes is important to understanding the larger concept of the materials 2. Time order A list of major events in the order they occur 3. Cause-effect An explanation of how one thing causes other things to happen 4. Compare-contrast An explanation of how events, discoveries, and so on are the same or different. Levels of Comprehension The three levels of comprehension, or sophistication of thinking, are presented in the following hierarchy from the least to the most sophisticated level of reading. Least = surface, simple reading Most = in-depth, complex reading Level One LITERAL - what is actually stated. Common questions used to illicit this type of thinking are who, what, when, and where questions. AasmaNaseer Page TESTS in this category are objective tests dealing with true / false, multiple choice and fill-in-the blank questions. 116 Facts and details Rote learning and memorization Surface understanding only BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills Level Two INTERPRETIVE - what is implied or meant, rather than what is actually stated. Drawing inferences Tapping into prior knowledge / experience Attaching new learning to old information Making logical leaps and educated guesses Reading between the lines to determine what is meant by what is stated. TESTS in this category are subjective, and the types of questions asked are open-ended, thought-provoking questions like why, what if, and how. Level Three APPLIED - taking what was said (literal) and then what was meant by what was said (interpretive) and then extend (apply) the concepts or ideas beyond the situation. Analyzing Synthesizing Applying In this level we are analyzing or synthesizing information and applying it to other information. AasmaNaseer Page 1. Know the purpose for each reading assignment and why you should be interested in this new knowledge 2. Skim the book‘s preface and table of contents to decide what organizational structure the author has chosen. 3. Read the summary paragraph at the end of each reading segment so you will know what the author thinks is important before you start reading 4. Identify lists of learning objectives at the beginning of each chapter or reading segment 117 Comprehension Skill Strategies BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills 5. Read any study questions found at the end of the chapter before you start reading Comprehension Skill Strategies: While You Are Reading 1. Look for major headings and subheadings in the reading materials 2. Examine the first few lines of each section of the text to identify the main idea 3. Write a brief outline of the major and supporting ideas 4. Read with a dictionary 5. Look for bold print that may indicate important words, definitions, charts, graphs, etc 6. Focus 7. Predict information in the reading selection. Anticipate the outcomes Comprehension Skill Strategies: After You Read 1. Review the material to find answers to all the questions you have developed by using the preceding strategies 2. Explain what you read out loud to yourself, another student or a study group Comprehension Skill Strategies: Summary 1. Summarize 2. Mental Imagery Mental imagery, also called visualization and mental rehearsal. It is the human ability to visualize images in our minds after the original stimuli is out of view. This cognitive component is one AasmaNaseer 118 Identify the topic sentence for each paragraph Outline the text using headings and subheadings Draw graphics to illustrate the information Make a list of problems that need to be resolved Page i. ii. iii. iv. BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills of the main assisting factors in our memories and current thought. It provides us with images to help us decipher concepts presented to us as well as a source of encoded thoughts to recall old ideas. For example. Close your eyes and imagine where you have seen an animal about which you have studied in a paragraph 3. Story Grammar i. ii. iii. iv. v. Who is the main character Where and when does the story take place What do the characters do How does the story end How do the main characters feel 4. Mnemonic Imagery Mnemonics are memory devices used to help learners recall larger pieces of information, especially in the form of lists like characteristics, steps, stages, parts, phases, etc. We knew back in 1967 from a study by Gerald R. Miller that mnemonics increased recall. He found that students who regularly used mnemonic devices increased test scores up to 77%! Many types of mnemonics exist and which type works best is limited only by the imagination of each individual learner. The 9 basic types of mnemonics presented in this handout include Music, Name, Expression/Word, Model, Ode/Rhyme, Note Organization, Image, Connection, and Spelling Mnemonics. AasmaNaseer Page My Very Educated Mother Just Served Us Nine Pizzas (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto), Fan Boys, ABC MUSIC MNEMONIC. 119 A familiar example of a mnemonic device is the name Roy G Biv, an acronym for the sequence of colors in a rainbow (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet). BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills 5. Question Generation Question Generation is a strategy that assists students with their comprehension of text. Students learn to formulate and respond to questions about situations, facts, and ideas while engaged in understanding a text. During this process, there are several different types of questions that may be derived. Collecting Information Asking the Author Classifying AasmaNaseer Did this passage make sense to me? What should I be on the lookout for in the next passage? What are the facts? What are the main ideas? Who are the main characters? What are the significant details? What does this author seem to think is most important? Why is the author telling me this now? How can I reorganize 120 Self-monitoring Examples Page Type of Question BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills the information? Can I explain this new information? Predicting Based on what I know, what might happen next? How might this appear on the test? 6. Prior Knowledge Activation Prior knowledge refers to all the knowledge which readers have acquired through their lives. Some theorists use the term prior knowledge synonymously with world knowledge, background knowledge, memory storage, or experiential background. When students make connections to the text they are reading, their comprehension increases. Good readers constantly try to make sense out of what they read by seeing how it fits with what they already know. When we help students make those connections before, during, and after they read, we are teaching them a critical comprehension strategy that the best readers use almost unconsciously. AasmaNaseer Page Text to self Text to world Text to text 121 Ellin Oliver Keene and Susan Zimmerman in Mosaic of Thought (1997), have identified three main types of connections students make as they read: BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills Exercise:1 Read the following paragraph and underline the stated main idea. Write down in your own words what you are able to conclude from the information. The rules of conduct during an examination are clear. No books, calculators or papers are allowed in the test room. Proctors will not allow anyone with such items to take the test. Anyone caught cheating will be asked to leave the room. His or her test sheet will be taken. The incident will be reported to the proper authority. At the end of the test period, all materials will be returned to the proctor. Failure to abide by these rules will result in a failing grade for this test. COMPREHENSION PRACTCE In this part of the test you will be given 12 minutes to read a passage on current general economic literature and 8 Minutes to answer the questions that follow it. You must try to retain the names, facts, figures and other salient points of the passage. You must NOT, however, underline or mark the passage in any way. Do not jot down these figures anywhere and use unfair means in any manner you‘re your own interest. While reading the passage you will NOT be allowed to refer to the questions which follow. And while answering the question you will NOT be allowed to refer to the original passage. The passage is usually spread over a page. Begin reading the passage only when the instructor tells you to-do so, and stop reading as soon as the instructor says STOP. AasmaNaseer Page Siraj-ud-Daulah instantly assembled his whole force, and marched to encounter the English. It had been agreed the Meer Jaffar should separate himself from the Nabob and carry over his division to Civil. But as the decisive moment approached, the fears of the conspirator overpowered his ambition. Clive and advance to CassimBazaar; the 122 PASSAGE: 1 BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills Nabob lay with a mighty power a few miles off Plassey; and still Meer Jaffar delayed to fulfill the engagements. Clive was in painfully anxious situation. He could place no confidence in the sincerity or in the courage of his confederate; and whatever confidence he might place in his own military talents and in the valor and discipline of his troops, it was no light thing to engage an army twenty times as numerous as his own. Clive was unable to sleep; he heard, through the whole night, the sound of drums and cymbals from the vast camp of Nabob. It is not strange that even his stout heart should now and then have sunk, when he reflected against what odds and for what prize, he was in a few hours to contend. Nor was the rest of Siraj-ud-Daulah more peaceful. His mind, at once weak and stormy, was distracted by wild and horrible apprehensions. Appalled by the greatness and nearness of the crises, distrusting his captains, dreading everyone who approaches him, dreading to be left alone, he sat gloomily in his tent. QUESTIONS RELATED TO THE PASSAGE 1. Whole army was twenty times as numerous as Clive‘s 2. What two words in the passage describe the quality of the British Troops? 3. Give the two adjectives used in the passage to describe Siraj-udDaula‘s state of mind? 4. Where did Nabob‘s Army lie? 5. Where and Clive encamped? 6. What did Nabob fear most in his own Captains? 7. Mention three words in the passage which are synonyms of Army 8. What words would you use to describe Meer Jaffar‘s act against Nabob. AasmaNaseer Page If man began with speech, and civilization with agriculture, industry began with fire. Man did not invent it; probably Nature produced the marvel for him by the friction of leaves or twigs, a stroke of lighting, or a chance union of chemicals; man merely had the saving wit to imitate 123 PASSAGE: 2 BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills Nature, and to improve upon her. He put the wonder into a thousand uses. First, perhaps, he made it serve as a torch to conquer his fearsome enemy, the dark; then he used it for warmth, and moved about freely from his native tropics to less enervating zones, slowly making the planet human; then he applied it to metals, softening them, tempering them, and combining them into form stronger and more supple than those in which they had come to his hand. It was fire that created the old and honorable art of cooking; extending the diet of man to a thousand foods that could not be eaten before. So beneficent and strange was it that fire always remained a miracle to primitive man, fit to be worshipped as a god; he offered it his life and home; he carried it carefully with him as he moved from place to place in his wanderings and would not willingly let it die. Even the Romans punished with death the careless virgins of the temple Vesa who allowed the sacred fire to be extinguished. QUESTIONS RELATED TO THE PASSAGE 1. Fire is called a Wonder. What other single word in the passage convey the same idea 2. What did the primitive man fear greatly? 3. What is meant by, ―Man merely has the saving wit to imitate Nature‖. 4. What were the results of application of fire to metal? 5. How did man set about making the planet human? 6. What was the principal duty of the Virgins in the temple of Vesa? 7. Suggest a suitable title for the passage AasmaNaseer Page It is physically impossible for a well-educated, intellectual or brave man to make money the chief object of his thoughts; just as it is for him to make his dinner the principal object of them. All healthy people like their dinners, but their dinner is not the main object of their lives. So all healthy-minded people like making money, ought to like it – and enjoy the sensation of winning it; but the main object of their life is not money. It is something better than money. A good soldier, for 124 PASSAGE 3 BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)
    • FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH An Anthology of Basic English Grammar and Study Skills instance, mainly wishes to do his fighting well. He is glad of his pay – very properly so, and justly grumbles when you keep him ten years without it – still, his main notion of life is to win battles, not to be paid for winning them. So of the doctors,they like fees no doubt, ought to like them; yet if they are brave and well educated, the entire object of their lives is not fees. They on the whole desire to cure the sick and if they are good doctors, and the choice were fairly put to them, they would rather cure their patient and lose the fee than kill him and get it. And so with all other brave and rightly trained men; their work is first, their fee second – very important no doubt, but still second. But in every nation, as I said there are vast numbers of people who are illeducated, cowardly and more or less stupid. And with these people just as certainly the fee is first and the work second, as with the brave it is opposite. QUESTIONS RELATED TO THE PASSAGE 1. What are the two types of people mentioned by the writer? 2. What is the fundamental difference between the two types of people mentioned? 3. The author‘s tone in the passage can be best described as 4. The main object of healthy – minded people is 5. How many people of different professions does the writer mention? 6. What is physically impossible for a well-educated and brave man? 7. When does a solider grumble? 8. Which is the best suitable title for this passage Muhammad IrfanSaeed BS(IT) Page 125 Regards: AasmaNaseer BSIT Sem II (English Composition& Comprehension)