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  • @Rose Katarine Hi Rose, did you manage to locate TFIN50 part 2? Im trying to find it too.
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  • 1. TFIN50 Financial Accounting I Part 1 of 2 mySAP ERP Financials Date Training Center Instructors Education Website Participant Handbook Course Version: 2006 Q2 Course Duration: 10 Day(s) Material Number: 50080192 An SAP course - use it to learn, reference it for work
  • 2. Copyright Copyright © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or for any purpose without the express permission of SAP AG. The information contained herein may be changed without prior notice. Some software products marketed by SAP AG and its distributors contain proprietary software components of other software vendors. Trademarks • Microsoft®, WINDOWS®, NT®, EXCEL®, Word®, PowerPoint® and SQL Server® are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. • IBM®, DB2®, OS/2®, DB2/6000®, Parallel Sysplex®, MVS/ESA®, RS/6000®, AIX®, S/390®, AS/400®, OS/390®, and OS/400® are registered trademarks of IBM Corporation. • ORACLE® is a registered trademark of ORACLE Corporation. • INFORMIX®-OnLine for SAP and INFORMIX® Dynamic ServerTM are registered trademarks of Informix Software Incorporated. • UNIX®, X/Open®, OSF/1®, and Motif® are registered trademarks of the Open Group. • Citrix®, the Citrix logo, ICA®, Program Neighborhood®, MetaFrame®, WinFrame®, VideoFrame®, MultiWin® and other Citrix product names referenced herein are trademarks of Citrix Systems, Inc. • HTML, DHTML, XML, XHTML are trademarks or registered trademarks of W3C®, World Wide Web Consortium, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. • JAVA® is a registered trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc. • JAVASCRIPT® is a registered trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc., used under license for technology invented and implemented by Netscape. • SAP, SAP Logo, R/2, RIVA, R/3, SAP ArchiveLink, SAP Business Workflow, WebFlow, SAP EarlyWatch, BAPI, SAPPHIRE, Management Cockpit, mySAP.com Logo and mySAP.com are trademarks or registered trademarks of SAP AG in Germany and in several other countries all over the world. All other products mentioned are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies. Disclaimer THESE MATERIALS ARE PROVIDED BY SAP ON AN "AS IS" BASIS, AND SAP EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS ANY AND ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR APPLIED, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, WITH RESPECT TO THESE MATERIALS AND THE SERVICE, INFORMATION, TEXT, GRAPHICS, LINKS, OR ANY OTHER MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS CONTAINED HEREIN. IN NO EVENT SHALL SAP BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, CONSEQUENTIAL, OR PUNITIVE DAMAGES OF ANY KIND WHATSOEVER, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION LOST REVENUES OR LOST PROFITS, WHICH MAY RESULT FROM THE USE OF THESE MATERIALS OR INCLUDED SOFTWARE COMPONENTS.
  • 3. About This Handbook This handbook is intended to complement the instructor-led presentation of this course, and serve as a source of reference. It is not suitable for self-study. Typographic Conventions American English is the standard used in this handbook. The following typographic conventions are also used. Type Style Description Example text Words or characters that appear on the screen. These include field names, screen titles, pushbuttons as well as menu names, paths, and options. Also used for cross-references to other documentation both internal (in this documentation) and external (in other locations, such as SAPNet). Example text Emphasized words or phrases in body text, titles of graphics, and tables EXAMPLE TEXT Names of elements in the system. These include report names, program names, transaction codes, table names, and individual key words of a programming language, when surrounded by body text, for example SELECT and INCLUDE. Example text Screen output. This includes file and directory names and their paths, messages, names of variables and parameters, and passages of the source text of a program. Example text Exact user entry. These are words and characters that you enter in the system exactly as they appear in the documentation. <Example text> Variable user entry. Pointed brackets indicate that you replace these words and characters with appropriate entries. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. iii
  • 4. About This Handbook TFIN50 Icons in Body Text The following icons are used in this handbook. Icon Meaning For more information, tips, or background Note or further explanation of previous point Exception or caution Procedures Indicates that the item is displayed in the instructor's presentation. iv © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 5. Contents Course Overview......................................................... vii Course Goals ...........................................................vii Course Objectives .....................................................vii Unit 1: Basic settings ..................................................... 1 Organizational Units ....................................................3 Variant Principle....................................................... 15 Fiscal Year ............................................................. 17 Currencies ............................................................. 27 Unit 2: Master Data ...................................................... 41 General Ledger Accounts............................................ 42 Customer/Vendor Accounts ......................................... 73 Bank Accounts .......................................................108 Unit 3: Document Control............................................. 119 Document Structure .................................................120 Posting Periods ......................................................147 Posting Authorizations ..............................................158 Simple Documents in Financial Accounting ......................165 Unit 4: Posting Control ................................................181 Default Values ........................................................183 Change Control ......................................................191 Document Reversal..................................................200 Payment Terms and Cash Discounts..............................209 Taxes ..................................................................231 Cross-Company Code Transactions ..............................255 Unit 5: Clearing..........................................................271 Clearing Open Items.................................................272 Incoming and Outgoing Payments.................................288 Payment Differences ................................................301 Exchange Rate Differences ........................................318 Unit 6: Cash journal ....................................................325 Cash Journal Configuration.........................................326 Cash Journal Transaction...........................................336 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. v
  • 6. Contents TFIN50 Unit 7: Special G/L transactions.....................................353 Application Area for Special G/L Transactions...................354 Configuration of Special G/L Transactions .......................386 Unit 8: Parking Documents...........................................403 Basics of Document Parking Versus Hold Document...........404 Parking Documents and Processing Parked Documents.......419 Document Parking and Workflow ..................................431 Appendix 1: Data Sheet ............................................455 Appendix 2: Menu Paths ...........................................461 Index .......................................................................477 vi © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 7. Course Overview Target Audience This course is intended for the following audiences: • Solution consultants responsible for the implementation of Financial Accounting with mySAP ERP Financials Course Prerequisites Required Knowledge • Business proficiency in the area of Financial Accounting (Accounting). • SAP120 Navigation • ERP001 Management Empowered by mySAP ERP • ERP020 Management Empowered by mySAP ERP Financials Course Goals This course will prepare you to: • Configure and utilize the organizational units, master data and documents from Financial accounting in mySAP ERP Financials • Configure and utilize the SAP transaction processes in external accounting Course Objectives After completing this course, you will be able to: • Create organizational units for Financial Accounting • Maintain master data • Influence the entry of posting transactions • Analyze and explain posting transactions • Display special G/L transactions in the system • Use the document parking function within the system and define it appropriately SAP Software Component Information The information in this course pertains to the following SAP Software Components and releases: 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. vii
  • 8. Course Overview TFIN50 Curriculum Path Figure 1: Solution Consultant mySAP Financials - Financial Accounting viii © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 9. Unit 1 Basic settings Unit Overview • Company code, business areas • Fiscal Year • Currencies • Variant principle Unit Objectives After completing this unit, you will be able to: • Map the accounting structure of your company using mySAP ERP Financials organizational units • Explain the meaning of the terms “company code” and “business area” and their differences • Create a company code • Explain the use and advantages of the variant principle • Explain the necessity and use of a fiscal year variant • Explain different types of fiscal year variants • Define a fiscal year variant according to your requirements • Assign the fiscal year variant to a company code • Define currencies in the mySAP ERP system • Explain the meaning of different exchange rate types • Maintain exchange rates • Use the different tools for maintaining exchange rates • Explain the options for maintaining exchange rates Unit Contents Lesson: Organizational Units.....................................................3 Exercise 1: Organizational Units ............................................9 Lesson: Variant Principle ....................................................... 15 Lesson: Fiscal Year.............................................................. 17 Exercise 2: The Fiscal Year ................................................ 21 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 1
  • 10. Unit 1: Basic settings TFIN50 Lesson: Currencies .............................................................. 27 Exercise 3: Currencies...................................................... 35 2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 11. TFIN50 Lesson: Organizational Units Lesson: Organizational Units Lesson Overview Reflect the organizational units in accounting with mySAP ERP • Explain the terms client, company code, and business area • Create company codes and business areas • Copy company codes • Make country-specific settings Lesson Objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to: • Map the accounting structure of your company using mySAP ERP Financials organizational units • Explain the meaning of the terms “company code” and “business area” and their differences • Create a company code Business Example Your client's company is a medium-sized enterprise based in the course country. The enterprise is a single legal entity. Figure 2: Organizational Units in mySAP ERP Financials The client is the highest level in the mySAP ERP system hierarchy. Specifications or data that is valid for all organizational units in mySAP ERP applications (such as exchange rates, for example) are entered at the client level. This eliminates the 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 3
  • 12. Unit 1: Basic settings TFIN50 need to enter this information more than once. Each client is an independent unit with separate master records and a complete set of tables and data. Users must enter a client key and have a user master record in the client in order to log on to the system. Important organizational units in Financials: • Company Code (for external purposes) A company code represents an independent balancing/legal accounting entity. An example would be a company with independent accounts within a corporate group. Financial statements required by law can be created at company code level. Therefore, a company code is the minimum structure necessary in mySAP ERP Financials. In an international business, operations are often scattered across numerous countries. Since most government and tax authorities require the registration of a legal entity for every company, a separate company code is usually created per country. • Business Area (for internal purposes) Business areas represent separate areas of operation within an organization and can be used across company codes. They are balancing entities that can create their own set of financial statements for internal purposes. It is therefore possible to save and evaluate transaction figures for each business area. The use of business areas is optional. 4 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 13. TFIN50 Lesson: Organizational Units Figure 3: Creating a Company Code Hint: The IMG suggests the following order: • Copy, Delete, Check Company Code • Edit Company Code Data Copy an existing company code. This has the advantage that you also copy the existing company code-specific parameters. After copying, you can edit data in your new company code. You have to select a four digit alphanumeric key as the company code key. This key identifies the company code and, for example, must be entered later when posting business transactions or creating company code-specific master data. Hint: The use of the copy function is optional. You can also define the company code and carry out the configuration yourself, without using a reference company code. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 5
  • 14. Unit 1: Basic settings TFIN50 Figure 4: Company Code The objects in the activity Edit Company Code Data include the following: • The address data is required for correspondence and is recorded on evaluation reports. • You must define a currency for each company code. Accounts are managed in the company code currency. All other currencies are interpreted as foreign. The system translates the amounts posted in a foreign currency into the company code currency. The currency defined in the company code is known in mySAP ERP Financials as local currency. • You must enter a language key so that the system can create texts automatically in the correct language; for example, when issuing checks. • The country key specifies which country is to be regarded as the home country. The system interprets all other countries as foreign. This is important for business or payment transactions, since different forms are required for foreign payment transactions. The system also supports different address formats for foreign correspondence. • When you define a business area, you only have to enter a four digit alphanumeric key and a short description. 6 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 15. TFIN50 Lesson: Organizational Units Figure 5: Country Templates In the mySAP ERP standard system, company code 0001 is a template for a general company code with chart of accounts INT and no special country specifications. If you need a company code for a country that has a country template, you can use the country installation program to copy the country-specific tables from the country template to company code 0001. Company code 0001 is then configured for the corresponding country. You should then copy this company code into your new company code. You may then start the country installation program again to create a template for another country and so on. Hint: The country installation program not only creates a country-specific company code template but also a country-specific template for controlling areas, plants, purchasing organizations, sales organizations, credit control areas, financial management areas, and so on. Caution: Do not forget to copy the country template before you continue. Do not use company code 0001 as your productive company code because the country version program always uses this company code as the target company code. Also, you should only run the country installation program in a new installation of mySAP ERP and not in an upgrade installation. This is because the structure of the country-specific Customizing may have changed from one mySAP ERP release to another. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 7
  • 16. Unit 1: Basic settings TFIN50 8 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 17. TFIN50 Lesson: Organizational Units Exercise 1: Organizational Units Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: • Create a company code Business Example Your client's company is a medium sized enterprise based in the course country. The enterprise is a single legal entity. Task 1: Create a company code GR## that reflects your client's company. In the rest of this course, you will be working in this company code. 1. Company code 1000 already contains all the necessary settings and data. Copy company code 1000 to your new company code GR##. Also copy the general ledger accounts at this point! 2. Change the definition of your company code GR##: Company name: Group ## Country: Course country Currency: Local currency Language: Local language You can fill the other fields to meet your requirements. 3. Review the global parameters that were copied for your company code when you created it. Task 2: Search the Implementation Guide (IMG) for all the settings that are relevant for the “business area balance sheet”. Hint: Use the binoculars icon to search for "Business area fin. statements". 1. Look for all the settings that are relevant for the “business area balance sheet”. Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 9
  • 18. Unit 1: Basic settings TFIN50 Task 3: True or false? 1. You can assign a business area to a company code directly. Determine whether this statement is true or false. □ True □ False 10 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 19. TFIN50 Lesson: Organizational Units Solution 1: Organizational Units Task 1: Create a company code GR## that reflects your client's company. In the rest of this course, you will be working in this company code. 1. Company code 1000 already contains all the necessary settings and data. Copy company code 1000 to your new company code GR##. Also copy the general ledger accounts at this point! a) IMG Menu Path: Tools → Customizing → IMG → Execute Project. Choose the "SAP Reference IMG" pushbutton. IMG transaction code: SPRO Copy company code: IMG: Enterprise Structure → Definition → Financial Accounting → Edit, Copy, Delete, Check Company Code → Copy, delete, check company code Menu bar: Organizational object → Copy org. object Field Name or Data Type Values From Company Code 1000 To Company Code GR## Choose “Enter”. Field Name or Data Type Values Do you want to copy the company code data of the G/L accounts? Yes! Do you want to assign another local currency to the target company code? No Confirm the "Information: Certain data was not copied, see long text" dialog box by pressing "Enter". Confirm other warning messages by pressing "Enter" and continue copying. 2. Change the definition of your company code GR##: Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 11
  • 20. Unit 1: Basic settings TFIN50 Company name: Group ## Country: Course country Currency: Local currency Language: Local language You can fill the other fields to meet your requirements. a) Select the green arrow to return to the dialog box and select "Edit company code data" or follow the next menu path. Change the definition of the company code: MG: Enterprise Structure → Definition → Financial Accounting → Edit, Copy, Delete, Check Company Code → Edit Company Code Data. Select GR##. Field Name or Data Type Values Company Name Group ## City Any city Country Course country Currency Local currency Language Local language Choose “Save". 3. Review the global parameters that were copied for your company code when you created it. a) Review the global company code parameters. IMG: Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Settings → Company Code → Enter Global Parameters Doubleclick on your company code to review the global parameters. Note: Congratulations! You have just created your own company code! Continued on next page 12 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 21. TFIN50 Lesson: Organizational Units Task 2: Search the Implementation Guide (IMG) for all the settings that are relevant for the “business area balance sheet”. Hint: Use the binoculars icon to search for "Business area fin. statements". 1. Look for all the settings that are relevant for the “business area balance sheet”. a) Enabling Business Area Financial Statements Check Activation of Business Area Balance Sheets Activate Business Area Balance Sheets Task 3: True or false? 1. You can assign a business area to a company code directly. Answer: False Business areas are not directly assigned to company codes. This makes it possible to evaluate transaction figures for each business area beyond the boundaries of the company code too. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 13
  • 22. Unit 1: Basic settings TFIN50 Lesson Summary You should now be able to: • Map the accounting structure of your company using mySAP ERP Financials organizational units • Explain the meaning of the terms “company code” and “business area” and their differences • Create a company code 14 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 23. TFIN50 Lesson: Variant Principle Lesson: Variant Principle Lesson Overview You get a theoretical insight using the variable principle within the SAP system. Lesson Objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to: • Explain the use and advantages of the variant principle Business Example Your customer has been informed by an experienced consultant that there is a principle in mySAP ERP that appears in several configuration tables and that simplifies the system for him. Figure 6: The Variant Principle The following example should explain this principle: Create a fiscal year variant • Define the variant: K4 is your fiscal year variant. • Determine values for the variant K4: Define the properties of fiscal year K4. • Assign the variant to mySAP ERP objects: Assign K4 to various company codes that use this fiscal year. • The main advantage for using variants is that it is easier to maintain properties which are common among several business objects. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 15
  • 24. Unit 1: Basic settings TFIN50 Lesson Summary You should now be able to: • Explain the use and advantages of the variant principle 16 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 25. TFIN50 Lesson: Fiscal Year Lesson: Fiscal Year Lesson Overview This lesson explains how you define different fiscal year variants. Lesson Objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to: • Explain the necessity and use of a fiscal year variant • Explain different types of fiscal year variants • Define a fiscal year variant according to your requirements • Assign the fiscal year variant to a company code Business Example The company's fiscal year corresponds to the calendar year. The Accounting Manager wants four special periods for postings for year-end closing. Figure 7: The Fiscal Year To assign business transactions to different periods, you have to define a fiscal year with posting periods. You define the fiscal year as a variant that is assigned to the company code. The fiscal year variant contains the definition of posting periods and special periods. Special periods are used for postings that are not assigned to time periods, but to the business process of “year-end closing”. In total, you can define 16 periods. The system derives the posting period from the posting date. If the posting date falls within the last normal posting period, you can post the transaction in one of the special periods. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 17
  • 26. Unit 1: Basic settings TFIN50 Example: The graphic shows a fiscal year with 12 posting periods and 4 special periods. If the posting date falls in the 12th period, you can post the transaction in one of the four special periods instead. Standard fiscal year variants are already defined in the system and you can use them as templates. Hint: The fiscal year variant does not specify whether a period is open or closed. This data is managed in another table. The fiscal year variant only defines the number of periods and their start and finish dates. Figure 8: Year-Independent Fiscal Year Variant If each fiscal year of a fiscal year variant uses the same number of periods, and the posting periods always start and end on the same day of the year, the variant is year-independent. A year-independent fiscal year variant can be defined as: • Calendar year • Non-calendar year If the fiscal year is defined as the calendar year, the posting periods are equal to the months of the year. Therefore, a fiscal year that is a calendar year must have 12 posting periods. 18 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 27. TFIN50 Lesson: Fiscal Year If the fiscal year is defined as a non-calendar year, you have to define the posting periods by assigning end dates to each period. A non-calendar year can have between 1 and 16 posting periods. If the non-calendar year does not start on January 1st, the periods of the year that belong to the former or the coming fiscal year must have an indicator -1 or +1. The example above on the right shows a non-calendar year with 6 posting periods which goes from April to March. The months January to March therefore still belong to the old fiscal year and have the indicator -1. If the fiscal year differs from the calendar year, but the posting periods correspond to calendar months, the day limit for February should be 29 to consider leap years. Fiscal years are normally year-independent. Figure 9: Year-Specific Fiscal Year Variants A fiscal year variant has to be defined as year-specific if one of the following conditions is fulfilled: The start and end dates of the posting periods for some fiscal years are different to the dates for other fiscal years. Some fiscal years use a different number of posting periods. If all of the fiscal years of a fiscal year variant have the same number of posting periods, only the different period dates for the different years have to be defined (see example on the left). If one year of a fiscal year variant has less posting periods than the others, it is called a shortened fiscal year (see example on the right). This could be required, for example, if closing has to be carried out before the end of the normal fiscal year; (for example, if the beginning of the fiscal year should be changed or if the company was sold). You have to define the shortened fiscal year and its number of posting periods before you can define the period dates. For this year, you can only assign a lower number of posting periods. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 19
  • 28. Unit 1: Basic settings TFIN50 20 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 29. TFIN50 Lesson: Fiscal Year Exercise 2: The Fiscal Year Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: • Create a calendar year-based fiscal year variant and assign it to your company code • Create a quarter-based fiscal year variant Business Example The company's fiscal year corresponds to the calendar year. The Accounting Manager wants four special periods for postings for year-end closing. Task: Check the properties of the fiscal year variants. Define the fiscal year variants. 1. Which of the predefined fiscal year variants are Calendar year Year-specific 2. For what purposes are year-specific fiscal year variants usually used? 3. Create a calendar year variant ## for your company with 12 posting periods and four special periods Hint: Add 30 to your group number since some of the existing data begins with 01, 02, and so on. For example, if your group number is 02, add 02 + 30 and enter 32 for your fiscal year variant. 4. Assign the fiscal year variant that you created to your company code GR##. 5. Create a fiscal year variant ## + 60 for a fiscal year with just four posting periods and one special period. The length of one posting period is three months. The fiscal year runs from April to March. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 21
  • 30. Unit 1: Basic settings TFIN50 Solution 2: The Fiscal Year Task: Check the properties of the fiscal year variants. Define the fiscal year variants. 1. Which of the predefined fiscal year variants are Calendar year 01, K0, K1, K2, K3, K4 Year-specific AA, AM, R1, UL, WK 2. For what purposes are year-specific fiscal year variants usually used? Answer: The year-specific fiscal year variants are used: • If the start and end date of the posting periods differ from year to year • If one fiscal year has fewer posting periods than the others (shortened fiscal year) Continued on next page 22 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 31. TFIN50 Lesson: Fiscal Year 3. Create a calendar year variant ## for your company with 12 posting periods and four special periods Hint: Add 30 to your group number since some of the existing data begins with 01, 02, and so on. For example, if your group number is 02, add 02 + 30 and enter 32 for your fiscal year variant. a) Create a fiscal year variant based on the calendar year. IMG: Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Settings → Fiscal Year → Maintain Fiscal Year Variant (Maintain Shortened Fisc. Year) Edit → New Entries Field Name or Data Type Values FV ## + 30 Hint: Add 30 to your group number since some of the existing data begins with 01, 02, and so on. For example, if your group number is 02, add 02 + 30 and enter 32 for your fiscal year variant. Field Name or Data Type Values Description 12 periods calendar year ## Calendar Year Number of posting periods 12 Number of special periods 4 Choose "Save“. Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 23
  • 32. Unit 1: Basic settings TFIN50 4. Assign the fiscal year variant that you created to your company code GR##. a) Assign the fiscal year variant to a company code. IMG: Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Settings → Fiscal Year → Assign Company Code to a Fiscal Year Variant Confirm any information with “Enter”. Field Name or Data Type Values Fiscal Year Variant ## + 30 Choose “Save". Continued on next page 24 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 33. TFIN50 Lesson: Fiscal Year 5. Create a fiscal year variant ## + 60 for a fiscal year with just four posting periods and one special period. The length of one posting period is three months. The fiscal year runs from April to March. a) Define a fiscal year variant with four posting periods and one special period. IMG: Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Settings → Fiscal Year → Maintain Fiscal Year Variant (Maintain Shortened Fisc. Year) Edit → New Entries Field Name or Data Type Values FV ## + 60 Description 4 periods - Group ## Number of Posting Periods 4 Number of Special Periods 1 Choose “Save". Select the green arrow to return to the overview screen. Define the period dates: Select fiscal year variant ## + 60. Doubleclick on “Periods" in the dialog structure. Edit → New Entries Month Day Period Year Shift 03 31 4 —1 06 30 1 0 09 30 2 0 12 31 3 0 Choose “Save". Note: You have just created a calendar-year fiscal year variant and assigned it to your company code. You have also created a non-calendar fiscal year variant. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 25
  • 34. Unit 1: Basic settings TFIN50 Lesson Summary You should now be able to: • Explain the necessity and use of a fiscal year variant • Explain different types of fiscal year variants • Define a fiscal year variant according to your requirements • Assign the fiscal year variant to a company code 26 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 35. TFIN50 Lesson: Currencies Lesson: Currencies Lesson Overview This lesson presents the configurations options in this area. Lesson Objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to: • Define currencies in the mySAP ERP system • Explain the meaning of different exchange rate types • Maintain exchange rates • Use the different tools for maintaining exchange rates • Explain the options for maintaining exchange rates Business Example The company has customers and vendors in several foreign countries. The head accountant is worried that keeping the exchange rates up to date in the system will involve a substantial amount of work. You need to convince him that it is much less work than expected if the tools mySAP ERP offers are used. Figure 10: Currencies and Exchange Rate Types A currency key must be assigned to every currency used. Most currencies are already defined in the SAP System with standard international currency keys. Each currency key can have a validity date. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 27
  • 36. Unit 1: Basic settings TFIN50 For every combination of two currencies, you can maintain different exchange rates which are distinguished by an exchange rate type. These different exchange rates can be used for various purposes such as valuation, conversion, translation, and planning. Figure 11: Translation Ratios The relationship between currencies must be maintained per exchange rate type and currency pair using translation ratios. This usually has to be performed only once. Because inflation can heavily influence the relationship between currencies, translation ratios can be maintained on a time period basis. Figure 12: Maintaining Exchange Rates 28 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 37. TFIN50 Lesson: Currencies Maintaining exchange rates is an on-going task. To reduce maintenance, mySAP ERP offers several tools. For each exchange rate type you can use one of the following tools: • Inversion (of the tools available, inversion is the oldest and is seldom used today) • Base currency • Exchange rate spreads Hint: You can only use one of these tools for each exchange rate type. You can however use different tools for different exchange rate types. Using report RFTBFF00, which enables you to transfer external market data in file form, you can automatically update the exchange rate table by uploading an input file in Multicash form. You can also use the reports RFTBDF07 and RFTBDF14 to transfer exchange rates; the data is transferred realtime using a datafeed interface if the external datafeed supports realtime provision of exchange rates. Remote Function Call (RFC) creates a direct connection between an external system and the SAP System. For more information about the file input format, data providers, file structures, and so on, see the documentation for this report. Figure 13: Exchange Rate Spreads 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 29
  • 38. Unit 1: Basic settings TFIN50 Exchange rate spreads between the bank buying/selling rate and average rate usually remain constant. If the exchange rate spread of an exchange rate type is entered in the system, you only have to maintain the average rate since the buying and the selling rate can be derived by adding/subtracting the exchange rate spread to/from the average rate. Combination of base currency and exchange rate spreads: A very efficient combination of the exchange rate tools is: • Using a base currency for the average rate (M) • Using the exchange rate spreads to calculate the buying and selling rates (B and G) Figure 14: Base Currency A base currency can be assigned to an exchange rate type. You then only have to maintain exchange rates for all other currencies into this base currency. A translation between two foreign currencies is calculated via the base currency, that is, by combining two exchange rates. Until Release 4.0A, you could not use more than one base currency per exchange rate type. Legal requirements may make it necessary to use different base currencies for the translation into different currencies. 30 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 39. TFIN50 Lesson: Currencies Figure 15: Direct/Indirect Quotation of Exchange Rates All mySAP ERP applications and functions process exchange rates using direct quotation as well as indirect quotation. Whether the exchange rate is defined or communicated using the direct or indirect method of quotation depends on the market standard or the individual business transaction. The use of indirect quotation is neither application nor country-specific - it affects all the components in which exchange rates are used. In direct quotation, one unit of foreign currency is quoted for the local currency, whereas in indirect quotation, one unit of local currency is quoted for the foreign currency. Example: Local currency = EUR, foreign currency = USD • Direct quotation: 1 USD = 1.07021 EUR • One unit of foreign currency USD costs the displayed number of units of local currency • Indirect quotation: 1 USD = 0.93439 EUR • For one unit of the local currency EUR you will receive the displayed number of units of the foreign currency. For each currency pair you can define either the direct quotation or the indirect quotation as the standard notation for the exchange rate. If the exchange rate you enter does not have the same quotation as the standard quotation set up here, the exchange rate is highlighted to show this. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 31
  • 40. Unit 1: Basic settings TFIN50 Figure 16: Worklists for Maintaining Exchange Rates In lots of companies, the maintenance of the exchange rate table TCURR is shared by several employees. The following problems can occur: • Employees maintain incorrect exchange rates (unknowingly or unintentionally) • Employees maintain the exchange rates with the incorrect quotation (indirect instead of direct, or vice versa) • The table is very large, and maintaining it is very time-consuming (scrolling is necessary) • The table TCURR cannot be maintained by more than one user simultaneously. As of release R/3 Enterprise you can define worklists and then maintain the exchange rates using the transaction TCURMNT. This has the following advantages: • Only the relevant exchange rates can be maintained. You can also assign authorizations for worklists. • Only the relevant quotation can be maintained. • The worklist is smaller and therefore clearer. • Parallel processing of different worklists is possible. 32 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 41. TFIN50 Lesson: Currencies Figure 17: Design of exchange rate in different quotations Exchange rates can be entered as a direct or indirect quotation. You can maintain two prefixes that can be used to differentiate between direct and indirect quotation exchange rates during input and display. If you do not enter a prefix, the standard setting is valid: • “” (blank, without a prefix) for direct quotation exchange rates • “/” for indirect quotation exchange rates Scenario 1: If you mostly work with direct quotations and only rarely use indirect quotations, you should use the standard setting. In this way you can enter direct quotation exchange rates without a prefix. Scenario 2: If you increasingly use indirect quotations as well as direct quotations, you should define a separate prefix for both, for example: • “*” for direct quotation exchange rates, “/” for indirect quotation exchange rates • If you follow this suggestion, the configuration does not allow exchange rates to be entered without a prefix, an error message occurs. Users are therefore forced to consider which is the correct quotation and enter the rate with a valid prefix. 3. Scenario: If you use mostly indirect quotations, you can check the setting as follows: • “*” for direct quotation exchange rates, “ ” (blank) for indirect quotation exchange rates • This configuration allows indirect quotation exchange rates to be entered without a prefix whereas the less used direct quotation exchange rates have to be entered with a prefix. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 33
  • 42. Unit 1: Basic settings TFIN50 In SAP Note no. 783877 you will find an overview of FAQs about currency translation. 34 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 43. TFIN50 Lesson: Currencies Exercise 3: Currencies Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: • Check your knowledge about maintaining exchange rates in mySAP ERP Business Example The company has customers and vendors in several foreign countries. The head accountant is worried that it will be a substantial amount of work to keep the exchange rates up-to-date within the system. You need to convince him/her that it is much less work than expected if the tools provided by mySAP ERP are used. Task 1: Answer the following question: 1. Name the tools for maintaining the exchange rates: Task 2: Answer the following question: 1. In mySAP ERP currencies are defined using . Fill in the blanks to complete the sentence. Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 35
  • 44. Unit 1: Basic settings TFIN50 Task 3: Answer the following question: 1. Name three commonly used exchange rate types and what they are used for: Task 4: Answer the following question: 1. Name the IMG path where you define the base currency. 36 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 45. TFIN50 Lesson: Currencies Solution 3: Currencies Task 1: Answer the following question: 1. Name the tools for maintaining the exchange rates: Answer: • Inversion • Base currency • Exchange rate spreads Task 2: Answer the following question: 1. In mySAP ERP currencies are defined using currency keys. Answer: currency keys Task 3: Answer the following question: 1. Name three commonly used exchange rate types and what they are used for: Answer: • M: Average rate for posting and clearing • G: Buying rate • B: Bank selling rate Task 4: Answer the following question: 1. Name the IMG path where you define the base currency. Answer: SAP NetWeaver → General Settings → Currencies → Check Exchange Rate Types 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 37
  • 46. Unit 1: Basic settings TFIN50 Lesson Summary You should now be able to: • Define currencies in the mySAP ERP system • Explain the meaning of different exchange rate types • Maintain exchange rates • Use the different tools for maintaining exchange rates • Explain the options for maintaining exchange rates 38 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 47. TFIN50 Unit Summary Unit Summary You should now be able to: • Map the accounting structure of your company using mySAP ERP Financials organizational units • Explain the meaning of the terms “company code” and “business area” and their differences • Create a company code • Explain the use and advantages of the variant principle • Explain the necessity and use of a fiscal year variant • Explain different types of fiscal year variants • Define a fiscal year variant according to your requirements • Assign the fiscal year variant to a company code • Define currencies in the mySAP ERP system • Explain the meaning of different exchange rate types • Maintain exchange rates • Use the different tools for maintaining exchange rates • Explain the options for maintaining exchange rates 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 39
  • 48. Unit Summary TFIN50 40 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 49. Unit 2 Master Data Unit Overview Unit Objectives After completing this unit, you will be able to: • Define and use a chart of accounts • Describe the structure of a general ledger account • Control the format of a general ledger account • Name and describe different types of general ledger accounts • Create, maintain, and control general ledger accounts • Describe how you can change several general ledger accounts at the same time • Explain the advantages and disadvantages of group and country charts of accounts • Describe the structure of customer and vendor accounts • Discuss the similarities and differences between general ledger and customer and vendor accounts • Control and maintain customer and vendor accounts • Explain relationships between customer and vendor accounts • Maintain bank master data • Define house banks • Create accounts at your house banks • Maintain the links between bank and G/L accounts Unit Contents Lesson: General Ledger Accounts ............................................ 42 Exercise 4: General Ledger Accounts .................................... 63 Lesson: Customer/Vendor Accounts .......................................... 73 Exercise 5: Customer/Vendor Accounts.................................. 91 Lesson: Bank Accounts ........................................................108 Exercise 6: Bank Master Data ............................................113 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 41
  • 50. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 Lesson: General Ledger Accounts Lesson Overview You will be introduced into the Master Records of General Ledger Accounts. Lesson Objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to: • Define and use a chart of accounts • Describe the structure of a general ledger account • Control the format of a general ledger account • Name and describe different types of general ledger accounts • Create, maintain, and control general ledger accounts • Describe how you can change several general ledger accounts at the same time • Explain the advantages and disadvantages of group and country charts of accounts Business Example The accounting manager has decided that the chart of accounts and company code settings for the G/L accounts can be copied from company code 1000. However, the accounting department requires additional general ledger accounts to process authorized travel expenses and payments. The expense account numbers must be in a separate number interval. Figure 18: Chart of Accounts 42 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 51. TFIN50 Lesson: General Ledger Accounts The chart of accounts is a variant which contains the structure and the basic information about general ledger accounts. You define the chart of accounts with a four character ID. You define the individual components of the chart of account, for example, language, length of the G/L account number, group chart of accounts, status. The chart of accounts must be assigned to every company code for which accounts are to be set up based on the structure concerned. Figure 19: Define Chart of Accounts The maintenance language is the language in which account descriptions are maintained. The length of the G/L account numbers can be from 1 to 10 digits. Via the type of integration between general ledger accounts and cost types, you can control to what extent the cost master record is maintained when you maintain the G/L account master records of profit and loss statement accounts. You can maintain cost types manually, however, you also have the option of maintaining them automatically. When you save a new G/L account, the corresponding cost type is created automatically. The prerequisite however, is that a default value for the cost element category is defined for this cost element, since if no default value exists, the system assumes that no cost element is to be created. You can assign a group account number for each G/L account. This account number is used for cross-company code reporting if the company codes use different charts of accounts. If you enter a group chart of accounts in the chart of accounts, the system defines that you have to enter a group account number in 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 43
  • 52. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 the corresponding field in the G/L account definition (required entry field) and checks whether the group account number you have entered exists in the group chart of accounts. A chart of accounts that is not yet completed can be blocked so that no company code can use it until it is ready. You can get a directory of the G/L accounts in your chart of accounts for information or for documentation purposes via report RFSKPL00. You use the G/L account plan to display G/L account master data and to print G/L account lists. Figure 20: Assigning the Chart of Accounts Every company code must have a chart of accounts assigned to it. One chart of accounts can be assigned to several company codes (variant principle). The Controlling component uses the same chart of accounts as the Financial Accounting component. If company codes intend to use cross-company code controlling, they must use the same chart of accounts. In the example above, company codes 1000 and 2000 can do cross-company code controlling, but company codes 2000 and 3000 cannot. You can use report RFSKVZ00 to view the G/L account directory with chart of account- and company code-specific data. 44 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 53. TFIN50 Lesson: General Ledger Accounts Figure 21: Chart of accounts segment The chart of accounts contains basic information about the accounts. The information for an account is summarized in a chart of accounts segment. It contains: • Account number • Name of the account (as short and as long text) • Control fields (see the following graphics) • Consolidation fields You can translate the chart of accounts into other languages in order to be able to display the account name in the appropriate logon language when displaying master data and when posting. If the chart of accounts has not been translated into the appropriate logon language, the account name appears in the maintenance language. Texts with different information can be assigned to each chart of accounts segment. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 45
  • 54. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 Figure 22: Fields in the Chart of Accounts Segment The information entered in the chart of account segment for a G/L account applies to all company codes. You only enter this information once. Whenever you enter information for a company code for an account number, the information from the chart of accounts segment is accessed automatically, so you do not have to enter it again. Texts entered for the chart of accounts segment are managed by text ID and language. You can display texts using the report “Account Assignment manual” (RFSKTH00). You can search for account numbers using keywords. You can define and change the layout of the tab pages for the individual processing of the G/L account master data. You can define: • The number of tab pages • The title of the tab pages • The field groups that you require and their position on the tab pages • You can select the layouts for central processing, and processing in the chart of accounts- and company code-specific area. The standard system contains layouts for these editing functions (they start with SAP). You can copy these layouts, adjust them to meet your requirements, and then assign them to your chart of accounts or your account groups. 46 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 55. TFIN50 Lesson: General Ledger Accounts Figure 23: Company Code Segment To use one of the accounts from the assigned chart of accounts in your company code, you must create a company code segment for the account. This company code segment is added to the chart of accounts segment, and together they form the account. The company code segment contains information that refers exclusively to the company code concerned. This information controls the entry of accounting documents and the management of accounting data. In the graphic “Company Code Segment”, the company code does not use account 000002 but another company code in your group may do. This could be, for example, a foreign currency balance sheet account that is managed in the currency of the country in which the company code in the graphic does not have any business partners, but another company code in the group does. Figure 24: Fields in the Company Code Segment 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 47
  • 56. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 The company code segment for the same G/L account can be different depending on the requirements of the company code. For example, you set the “Tax Category” indicator for a specific company code to include taxes when expense accounts are used. For other company codes, you might not set the indicator. You define the information that is relevant to each company code: • Currency • Taxes • Reconciliation account • Line item display • Sort key • Field status group • House bank • Interest calculation information As mentioned in the graphic for the chart of accounts segment, texts are managed by text ID and language. You can display texts using the report “Account Assignment Manual”. Figure 25: One Chart of Accounts, Several Company Codes Every company code that wants to use an account from the assigned chart of accounts has to create its own company code segment. Because the number and name of the account is maintained in the chart of accounts, the account has the same name and number in all assigned company codes. 48 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 57. TFIN50 Lesson: General Ledger Accounts Figure 26: Balance Sheet and P&L Statement Accounts In the chart of accounts segment, you have to specify whether the account is a balance sheet or a profit and loss statement account. These two types of accounts are treated differently in the closing procedure. • For balance sheet accounts, the balance is carried forward to the same account. • For profit and loss statement accounts, the balance is carried forward to a retained earnings account and the profit and loss statement account is set to zero. A key (for example, X) is assigned to the account to which the balance is carried forward. You enter this key in the field "P&L Statement Type" in the chart of accounts segment. In Customizing, users define the retained earnings account that is assigned to expense accounts during G/L account master record creation. If there is only one retained earnings account, the system automatically uses the one defined in Customizing. If there is more than one retained earnings account, when you create a master record, you can select the retained earnings account for each profit and loss statement account. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 49
  • 58. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 Figure 27: Account Groups for G/L Accounts Since a chart of accounts contains many different types of accounts, they can be grouped into different account groups. Usually, one account group groups accounts with the same tasks within the general ledger, for example, cash accounts, material accounts, asset accounts, profit and loss statement accounts, and so on. By assigning a number range to an account group, you can ensure that accounts of the same type are within the same number range. Number intervals for G/L account master records can overlap. You must enter the account group in the chart of accounts segment; it controls the appearance of the company code segment of a G/L account. For example, for all of your cash accounts, you want to be able to display all of the line items. In Customizing, you therefore alter the field status for your “Cash Accounts” account group to make “line item display” a required entry field. mySAP ERP delivers predefined account groups. 50 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 59. TFIN50 Lesson: General Ledger Accounts Figure 28: Field Status The field status enables you to control the display and maintenance of an account's master data. • You can assign fields that you do not use the status Hide. • Fields whose values must not be changed can have the status Display (even in change mode). • For fields where you must enter a value, you can define the status Required Entry. • Fields that can contain an entry, but are not required, can be set to Optional Entry. Certain fields are grouped together and their field status is valid for the entire group, for example, interest calculation indicator, interest cycle, and last interest calculation key date. The fields “Account Currency” and ”Field Status Group” are always required fields. This status cannot be changed. Note: Fields that are hidden may still contain values that are taken into consideration. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 51
  • 60. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 Figure 29: Field Status for Master Data The fields displayed in the general ledger account master record are not only controlled by the account group, but also by the transaction that you are using to edit the master data (transaction-specific control), for example Create, Change, Display. If you do not want certain fields to be modifiable after you have created a master record, specify that a particular field is not modifiable in the “Change Master Data” transaction in Customizing. For example, you want the currency of your cash account to be GBP and you do not want this to be modifiable. In the transaction “Change Master Data” in Customizing, assign the status “Display” to the relevant field. For each field, the field status definitions from the account group and the transaction are taken into consideration and the one with higher priority is used. The priorities are (starting with the highest): • Hide • Display • Required entry • Optional entry Fields which are accessed with the transaction master record display are always either displayed or hidden, since you cannot make an entry in a "display" transaction. If you do not want to use the transaction-specific control, set the field status for all fields to optional. Since this field status has the lowest priority, the account group-specific control is always used. 52 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 61. TFIN50 Lesson: General Ledger Accounts Figure 30: Reconciliation Accounts Reconciliation accounts are general ledger accounts assigned to the business partner master records to record all transactions in the sub-ledger. All postings to the subledger accounts are automatically posted to the assigned reconciliation accounts. The general ledger is therefore always up to date. You define a G/L-account as a reconciliation account by entering one of the following account types in the field Reconciliation Account for Account Type: • D for Accounts Receivable • K for Accounts Payable The reconciliation account is then only valid for the account type specified. Typical reconciliation accounts are "accounts payable" and "accounts receivable". Note: You cannot post amounts directly to reconciliation accounts. If you want to look at the business partner accounts assigned to a specific reconciliation account, you can select the field for the reconciliation account in the customer or vendor list (RFDKVZ00 or RFKKZV00) via the free selections. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 53
  • 62. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 Figure 31: Line Item Display Transaction figures are the totals of line item postings on the debit or credit side. The balance is the difference between the debit and the credit transaction figure. The “Line Item Display” field is a control field in the company code segment of an account. • For accounts without “line item display”, only the transaction figures are updated when documents are posted to these accounts. When a user wants to look at this account online, they can only view the balance. • For accounts with “line item display” the most important data from the posted line items is stored in a special index table. Because this data is also stored in the documents, it is redundant and needs additional storage and system time. When a user wants to look at this account online, they can view both the balance and the individual line items. You can use report RFSEPA01 to subsequently activate the line item display - read the documentation for this report before you execute it. 54 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 63. TFIN50 Lesson: General Ledger Accounts Since the line item display takes up additional system resources, you should only use it if there is no other way of looking at the line items. You should not activate the line item display for: • Reconciliation accounts (line items are managed in the subledgers) • Revenue accounts (line items are managed by the Sales order Management application) • Material stock accounts (line items are managed by the Purchasing Management application) • Tax accounts (Tax items are only useful in connection with the document; the tax amounts were already checked when the document was posted.) Figure 32: Open Item Management Items in accounts with open item management are specified as open or cleared. Accounts with open item management must have line item display activated. Open item management is a prerequisite if you need to check whether there is an offsetting posting for a given business transaction. You can display open and cleared items separately, and therefore it is easy to see which business transactions still need to be cleared. You should use open item management for the following accounts: • Bank clearing accounts • Clearing accounts for goods receipt/invoice receipt • Salary clearing accounts. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 55
  • 64. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 You can only activate or deactivate open item management if the account has a zero balance. Figure 33: Account in Local Currency You can select one of the following currencies as account currency: • Local currency • Foreign currency As standard, the local currency is proposed as the account currency when you create a G/L account. If the account currency is the local currency, the account can be posted to in any currency. The other currencies are translated into the local currency for each line item. Transaction figures are managed for each currency: • Local currency (total of all posting amounts translated into local currency) • Currency 1 (total of all amounts posted in currency 1, may be the local currency) • Currency 2 (total of all amounts posted in currency 2) • Currency 3 (total of all amounts posted in currency 3) • And so on. This applies whether or not line item display is activated. 56 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 65. TFIN50 Lesson: General Ledger Accounts Figure 34: Only Balances in Local Currency If the "Only Balances in Local Currency" checkbox is set in the master data record, transaction figures are only managed for amounts converted to the local currency. You should select this field for clearing accounts where you want to clear accounts by assigning items with the same local currency amount with one another, without necessitating exchange rate difference postings. The indicator must be set in cash discount and GR/IR clearing accounts. It must not be set in reconciliation accounts for customers or vendors. The indicator is usually set in balance sheet accounts that are not managed in foreign currencies and not managed on an open item basis. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 57
  • 66. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 Figure 35: Account in Foreign Currency Accounts with a foreign currency as the account currency can only be posted to in this foreign currency. • Manually – One-step: Create both segments simultaneously (centrally) – Two-step: 1. Chart of accounts segment 2. Company code segment • Copying – Copying an individual G/L account with reference to another G/L account – Copy the entire company code segment – Copy the entire chart of accounts segment • Data Transfer – Transfer a new chart of accounts from an external system • Create Manually: – With the two step method, you create the chart of accounts segment separately from the company code segment. This allows you to create the G/L account only in the chart of accounts segment or in multiple company code segments. 58 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 67. TFIN50 Lesson: General Ledger Accounts – Use the one-step method to create a G/L account in a specified company code. Repeat step 2 of the two-step method, that is, creation in the company code segment, to create the G/L account in additional company codes as needed. • Creating G/L accounts by copying: – To create an account that has the same properties as an existing account, that is, another cash account, create the new account with reference to the existing account and change the account name accordingly. – If all of the G/L accounts in an existing company code are required in another company code, you can copy the entire company code segment to the new company code. – You can also copy the entire chart of accounts to a new chart of accounts, including the account determination. You can also copy the financial statement version. • Data Transfer: – To reduce data entry, programs such as RFBISA00, Batch Input Interfaces for G/L Account Master Data, can be modified by the ABAP team to transfer new charts of accounts. Figure 36: Collective Processing The mySAP ERP System provides collective processing functions for the G/L account master records. You can change the master data in the chart of accounts segment, company code segment, or the names of several G/L accounts at the same time. The G/L accounts can be from different charts of accounts. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 59
  • 68. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 You can make changes to the displayed G/L accounts: • You can select the fields to be changed • You can change the values of the fields displayed. Enter the new values in the column “New” to replace the existing values. For all G/L accounts selected, the old value is replaced with the new value NOTE: Changes to existing G/L accounts are effective as soon as they have been saved and could have far-reaching consequences. You should therefore check your changes before saving. Figure 37: Group Chart of Accounts For internal purposes, cross-company code reporting may be useful, for example, financial statements that contain the items of several company codes. This is no problem as long as all company codes use the same chart of accounts. However, some company codes may have to use special charts of accounts because of legal requirements. If this is the case, the following procedure applies for internal reporting: • A group chart of accounts can be used. This group chart of accounts must contain all of the group accounts. • The group chart of accounts must be assigned to each operational chart of accounts. After you have done this, the ”Group Account Number” field in the chart of account segments of the operational charts of accounts becomes a required entry field. • You must enter the group account number in the chart of accounts segment of the operational account. Different accounts of one operational chart of accounts can refer to the same group account. • You must use a financial statement version for the group chart of accounts. 60 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 69. TFIN50 Lesson: General Ledger Accounts Disadvantage: Because the company codes use different operational charts of accounts, you cannot carry out cross-company code controlling. Figure 38: Country Chart of Accounts An alternative to using a group chart of accounts is to use a country chart of accounts. All company codes use the same operational chart of accounts. Company codes that nevertheless require a special chart of accounts for external reporting have the following option: • A country chart of accounts is assigned. • The country chart of accounts number (alternative account number) is entered in every company code segment. Every country chart of accounts number can only be used once. Note: Since all company codes use the same operational chart of accounts for postings, you can carry out cross-company code controlling. Disadvantage: Accounting clerks who may be familiar with the country charts of accounts will first have to get used to using the operational chart of accounts. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 61
  • 70. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 Figure 39: Scenario: Charts of Accounts for a Group In the scenario of an international group as shown in the graphic, cross-company code cost accounting is possible for the European company codes, since the company codes in Spain, Germany, and England all use the same operational chart of accounts. The European company codes all use chart of accounts INT as their operational chart of accounts. The company code in the United States and the one in Canada both use chart of accounts CAUS as their operational chart of accounts. Cross-company code controlling is therefore also possible in North America. To create reports using the country chart of accounts, the board of the group has decided to define country-specific charts of accounts for the company codes. The board also decided that the group does not need controlling for Europe and North America combined, but that they would like consolidation to take place. Therefore, a group chart of accounts (CONS) was set up for the operating charts of accounts INT and CAUS. 62 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 71. TFIN50 Lesson: General Ledger Accounts Exercise 4: General Ledger Accounts Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: • Create and use a chart of accounts • Create general ledger accounts • Create account groups • Check your knowledge about general ledger accounts Business Example The accounting department requires additional general ledger accounts to handle authorized travel expenses and disbursements. An authorized travel expense is an expense over 10,000 units of local currency approved by the Accounting manager. The expense account numbers must fall within the range of AE0000 to AE9999. The disbursement account numbers must be within the range CD0000 to CD9999. Task 1: Carry out the following tasks: 1. A G/L account consist of which segments? 2. When you copied company code 1000 in the previous exercise, you copied the chart of accounts as well as the company code segment for your company code. The associated account groups were also copied with the chart of accounts. For the general ledger accounts mentioned in the business scenario, the accounting department needs two additional account groups, one for the expenses and one for the disbursements. Copy the account group "ERG." within your chart of accounts (INT) to the new account group AE## with the description “Authorized expenses ##”. Change the number range for the account group AE## to AE0000-AE9999 accordingly. Copy the account group "SAKO" within your chart of accounts (INT) to the new account group CD## with the description "Cash expenses ##". Change the number range for the account group CD## to CD0000-CD9999 accordingly. Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 63
  • 72. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 3. Create three general ledger accounts: Two for authorized expenses (entertainment expenses, sports car rental expenses), and one for cash payments. To create the accounts use reference accounts that your instructor gives you. Use the new account group AE## or CD## for the new accounts. Then display the chart of accounts for your company code. Account number: AE01##, AE02##, CD03## Reference account numbers: Your instructor will give you this information. Hint: Use group account number 312600 “Other General Expenses” for the new accounts for authorized expenses. You can use group account number 110100 for the new account for cash disbursements. You will find further information about reference account numbers in the unit on “master data”. 4. Name the possible field status definitions in the order of their priority: 5. Different company codes can use the same . Fill in the blanks to complete the sentence. 6. The controls the field display for the company code data in the G/L account master record. Fill in the blanks to complete the sentence. 7. contain the total of the transaction figures for the corresponding subledger accounts. Fill in the blanks to complete the sentence. Continued on next page 64 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 73. TFIN50 Lesson: General Ledger Accounts Task 2: True or false? 1. Reconciliation accounts are updated on a daily basis. Determine whether this statement is true or false. □ True □ False 2. You can always display the line items of a G/L account. Determine whether this statement is true or false. □ True □ False 3. G/L accounts with open item management must have line item display. Determine whether this statement is true or false. □ True □ False 4. G/L accounts that are managed in local currency can only be posted to in this currency. Determine whether this statement is true or false. □ True □ False 5. G/L accounts that are managed in a foreign currency can only be posted to in this foreign curren cy. Determine whether this statement is true or false. □ True □ False 6. Because the company codes use different operational charts of accounts, you cannot carry out cross-company code controlling. Determine whether this statement is true or false. □ True □ False 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 65
  • 74. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 Solution 4: General Ledger Accounts Task 1: Carry out the following tasks: 1. A G/L account consist of which segments? Answer: • Chart of accounts segment • Company code segment 2. When you copied company code 1000 in the previous exercise, you copied the chart of accounts as well as the company code segment for your company code. The associated account groups were also copied with the chart of accounts. For the general ledger accounts mentioned in the business scenario, the accounting department needs two additional account groups, one for the expenses and one for the disbursements. Copy the account group "ERG." within your chart of accounts (INT) to the new account group AE## with the description “Authorized expenses ##”. Change the number range for the account group AE## to AE0000-AE9999 accordingly. Continued on next page 66 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 75. TFIN50 Lesson: General Ledger Accounts Copy the account group "SAKO" within your chart of accounts (INT) to the new account group CD## with the description "Cash expenses ##". Change the number range for the account group CD## to CD0000-CD9999 accordingly. a) Copy G/L account group. IMG: Financial Accounting → General Ledger Accounting → G/L Accounts → Master Data → Preparations → Define Account Group Scroll down to your chart of accounts INT. Select the account groups SAKO, General G/L Accounts II and ERG, Profit and Loss Statement Accounts for your chart of accounts, and the icon for “Copy as”. Field Name or Data Type Values Next, overwrite the ERG account group with the following information: Account Group AE## Name Authorized Expenses ## From Account AE0000 To Account AE9999 Then overwrite the SAKO account group with the following information: Account Group CD## Name Cash Disbursements ## From Account CD0000 To Account CD9999 Select "Enter" and then "Save". 3. Create three general ledger accounts: Two for authorized expenses (entertainment expenses, sports car rental expenses), and one for cash payments. To create the accounts use reference accounts that your instructor gives you. Use the new account group AE## or CD## for the new accounts. Then display the chart of accounts for your company code. Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 67
  • 76. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 Account number: AE01##, AE02##, CD03## Reference account numbers: Your instructor will give you this information. Hint: Use group account number 312600 “Other General Expenses” for the new accounts for authorized expenses. You can use group account number 110100 for the new account for cash disbursements. You will find further information about reference account numbers in the unit on “master data”. a) Create general ledger accounts (expense accounts): SAP Easy Access menu: Accounting → Financial Accounting → General Ledger → Master Records → G/L Accounts → Individual Processing → Centrally Or transaction code: FS00 Field Name or Data Type Values G/L Account AE01## Company Code GR## Choose G/L Account → Create With Reference. Field Name or Data Type Values Account Number Your instructor will give you this information. Company Code GR## Choose “Enter“. Hint: Make settings so that you can display key information (for example, AE##, CD##) in all dropdown lists. Use the shortcut “Alt+F12” to access Customizing of Local Layout. Under “Options”, choose the “Expert” tab page. Select the entry “Show Keys in all Dropdown Lists”. Copy the setting. Continued on next page 68 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 77. TFIN50 Lesson: General Ledger Accounts Field Name or Data Type Values Account Group AE## (authorized expenses ##) Short Text Entertainment ## G/L Account Long Text Entertainment expenses ## Group account number 312600 Choose the“Control Data” tab and delete the entry in the “Alternative Account Number” field. Choose “Save“. If necessary, confirm the information messages with “Enter”. Repeat this process to create the additional expense account AE02## for Sport’s Car Rental Expense. b) Create a general ledger account (cash payment account): SAP Easy Access menu: Accounting → Financial Accounting → General Ledger → Master Records → G/L Accounts → Individual Processing → Centrally Or transaction code: FS00 Field Name or Data Type Values G/L Account CD03## Company Code GR## Choose G/L Account → Create With Reference. Field Name or Data Type Values Account Number Your instructor will give you this information. Company Code GR## Choose “Enter“. Field Name or Data Type Values Account Group Cash Disbursements ## Short Text Disbursements GR## G/L Account Long Text Cash Disbursements GR## Group account number 110100 Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 69
  • 78. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 Choose the “control data” tab and delete the alternative account no. Choose “Save“. If necessary, confirm the information messages with “Enter”. c) Display your chart of accounts: SAP Easy Access menu: Accounting → Financial Accounting → General Ledger → Information System → General Ledger Reports → Master Data → G/L Account List → G/L Account List On the selection screen, enter the following information… Field Name or Data Type Values Chart of Accounts INT Company Code GR## Choose “Execute“. This report shows you master data for every general ledger account. Use the binoculars icon (Ctrl + F) to navigate to the new G/L accounts you have created. Select the green arrow to return to the selection screen. Remove all of the checkmarks from the boxes in the “Output Control” section and re-run the report. Now the report will give you the account number and G/L account long text. Note: You have just added three new general ledger accounts to your chart of accounts and run a report to check the chart of accounts for your company code. 4. Name the possible field status definitions in the order of their priority: Answer: • Hide • Display • Required entry • Optional entry 5. Different company codes can use the same chart of accounts. Answer: chart of accounts Continued on next page 70 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 79. TFIN50 Lesson: General Ledger Accounts 6. The account group controls the field display for the company code data in the G/L account master record. Answer: account group 7. Reconciliation accounts contain the total of the transaction figures for the corresponding subledger accounts. Answer: Reconciliation accounts Task 2: True or false? 1. Reconciliation accounts are updated on a daily basis. Answer: False The reconciliation accounts are updated realtime. 2. You can always display the line items of a G/L account. Answer: False You can only display the line items if the account is managed with line item display. 3. G/L accounts with open item management must have line item display. Answer: True You cannot define a G/L account with open item management without selecting the “Line item display” option. 4. G/L accounts that are managed in local currency can only be posted to in this currency. Answer: False G/L accounts in local currency can be posted to in any currency. 5. G/L accounts that are managed in a foreign currency can only be posted to in this foreign curren cy. Answer: True If you select a foreign currency as the account currency, you can only post amounts in this foreign currency to this account. 6. Because the company codes use different operational charts of accounts, you cannot carry out cross-company code controlling. Answer: True You can carry out cross-company code controlling if each company code uses the same operational chart of accounts. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 71
  • 80. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 Lesson Summary You should now be able to: • Define and use a chart of accounts • Describe the structure of a general ledger account • Control the format of a general ledger account • Name and describe different types of general ledger accounts • Create, maintain, and control general ledger accounts • Describe how you can change several general ledger accounts at the same time • Explain the advantages and disadvantages of group and country charts of accounts 72 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 81. TFIN50 Lesson: Customer/Vendor Accounts Lesson: Customer/Vendor Accounts Lesson Overview You will be introduced into the master records of customers and vendors accounts. Lesson Objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to: • Describe the structure of customer and vendor accounts • Discuss the similarities and differences between general ledger and customer and vendor accounts • Control and maintain customer and vendor accounts • Explain relationships between customer and vendor accounts Business Example The accounting manager is looking for similarities and differences between the general ledger accounts and the subledger accounts. He is interested in the structure of the customer and vendor accounts. Above all, he wants to know what options the search help gives him. Figure 40: The Accounting View of the Customer/Vendor Account 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 73
  • 82. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 Just like general ledger accounts, customer and vendor accounts also have two segments: • One segment at client level, that contains general data. This data can be accessed throughout the whole organization. • A segment at company code level, that contains company code-specific data. Any company code that wishes to do business with a specific customer or vendor has to create a company code segment for this customer or vendor. This also creates a customer or vendor account. Using reports RFBIDE10/RFBIKR10, you can transfer customer/vendor master data maintained in a source company code into another company code. Figure 41: The Sales View of the Customer Account Because the sales and distribution department also stays in contact with a customer and has to know specific data about this customer, a .sales area segment can be created for each customer. Any sales area that wants to do business with a customer has to create a sales area segment first. The sales area segment contains sales area-specific data. 74 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 83. TFIN50 Lesson: Customer/Vendor Accounts Figure 42: The MM View of the Vendor Account Just as there is a sales area segment for customers, there are purchasing organization segments for vendors. Any purchasing organization that wants to do business with a vendor has to create a purchasing organization segment first. The purchasing organization segment contains purchasing organization-specific data. Figure 43: The Complete Customer Account A complete customer account consists of the following three segments: • General data at the client level • Company code segment • Sales area segment 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 75
  • 84. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 Usually, the sales area segment must at least be created for the sales area assigned to the company code. Note: There may be other sales areas doing business with the customer as well. The account number is assigned to the customer at the client level. This ensures that the account number for a customer is the same for all company codes and sales areas. Figure 44: The Complete Vendor Account A complete vendor account consists of the following three segments: • General data at the client level • Company code segment • Purchasing organization segment Usually at least the purchasing organization segment for the purchasing organization assigned to the company code must be created. There may be other purchasing organizations doing business with the vendor as well. The account number is assigned to the vendor at the client level. This ensures that the account number for a vendor is the same for all company codes and purchasing organizations. 76 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 85. TFIN50 Lesson: Customer/Vendor Accounts Figure 45: Centralized Versus Decentralized Maintenance (AR) The system offers separate functions for maintaining customer master records depending on the requirements of your organization. These data records can be maintained centrally for all areas or separately for Financial Accounting and Sales and Distribution. For the rest of this course we will focus on the maintenance of customer master records in Financial Accounting. Hint: When implementing both Accounts Receivable and Sales and Distribution, members of both of these implementation teams must work together to decide how to configure customer master records and who will be responsible for their maintenance. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 77
  • 86. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 Figure 46: Centralized Versus Decentralized Maintenance (AP) As for customer master records, vendor master records can be maintained centrally for all areas or separately for Financial Accounting and Materials Management. For the rest of this course we will focus on the maintenance of vendor master records in Financial Accounting. Hint: When implementing both Accounts Payable and Materials Management, members of both of these implementation teams must work together to decide how to configure vendor master records and who will be responsible for their maintenance. 78 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 87. TFIN50 Lesson: Customer/Vendor Accounts Figure 47: Compare Master Data If you use the components Purchasing Management and/or Sales order management customers and vendors must be maintained for both components. It is easiest to create customer/vendor master records centrally to ensure that they are set up correctly. However, in some cases, Purchasing Management/Sales Order Management create their own segments of the master record and Accounting creates its own segments. In this case, there is the risk of creating incomplete or duplicate master records. To find and correct these incomplete accounts, you can run report RFDKAG00, Customer Master Data Comparison, or RFKKAG00, Vendor Master Data Comparison, and make the necessary corrections. You can then correct the accounts. You can prevent the creation of duplicate accounts as follows: • Use the matchcode before you create a new account • Activate the automatic duplication check 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 79
  • 88. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 Figure 48: Pages of the Customer/Vendor Account If you want to change or display an account, you can go directly to every page by selecting it on the initial screen. Important fields are: • Search terms: You can enter an abbreviation for the customer/vendor name in these fields. The format is defined by company guidelines and practices. • Corporate Group: Customers or vendors who belong to one corporate group can be grouped together by a user-defined group key. This group key can be used for running reports, transaction processing, or for matchcodes. • Accounting clerk: The name of the accounting clerk must be saved under an ID. You can enter this code in the customer/master records for which the clerk concerned is responsible. The name of the clerk is then printed on correspondence automatically. You can also use this ID for sorting dunning and payment proposal lists. You can enter explanatory texts in every segment. Line item display and open item management are configured as standard for every customer/vendor account. You can also create new customer and vendor master records with reference to an existing master record. Only data that does not refer directly to the customer/vendor is copied from the reference account to the new account, that is, no address information, and so on. The data that was copied should be checked and changed, if necessary, before the record is saved. We recommend that you create a reference account for every account group. 80 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 89. TFIN50 Lesson: Customer/Vendor Accounts Figure 49: IBAN (International Bank Account Number) The IBAN (International Bank Account Number) is an internationally recognized, unique identification number for a certain bank account. IBANs were designed by the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) and ECBS (European Committee for Banking Standards) to facilitate handling of international payment transactions. The IBAN contains a maximum of 34 alphanumeric characters and is structured differently in every country. It usually contains the country code, bank key, and account number. The SAP system uses the IBAN in addition to the standard country-specific bank details. You can enter an IBAN as part of the bank details for customer/vendor master data, and in the Customizing settings for your house bank. The IBAN can only be entered in a vendor or customer master record if the business partner provides his or her IBAN and requests the entry. For this reason, you cannot automatically generate and save the IBANs for several master records. You have to enter the IBAN manually in each master record. For certain countries, the system generates a proposal. When you enter an IBAN for new bank details, the system can generate the country-specific bank details for certain countries. If necessary, make sure that the payment medium programs used can also output the IBANs. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 81
  • 90. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 Figure 50: Account Groups for Customers/Vendors When you create customer/vendor master records, enter the account group on the initial screen. In Financial Accounting, once the customer/vendor account has been created, you can no longer change the account group. However, if you use partner roles in Sales and Distribution, in some cases the account group can be changed from, for example, an ordering address to a ship-to address. For more information see the SAP Library in Sales and Distribution. Figure 51: Number Ranges for Customers/Vendors There are separate number ranges for customer and vendor accounts. The range of possible account numbers is divided into smaller number ranges. Number ranges must not overlap. 82 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 91. TFIN50 Lesson: Customer/Vendor Accounts For each number range you can define whether the number assignment is internal or external. Internal numbers are assigned by the system, whereas external numbers are entered by the user who creates the record. External numbers may be alphanumeric. With internal number assignment, the system always assigns the next number available in the range to a new account. If you want to know how many numbers are left in a specific number range, you can display the Current Number. With external number assignment, the user chooses the account number. Numbers do not have to be assigned in sequence; therefore, a current number cannot be displayed. Each number range can be assigned to one or more account groups. Figure 52: Normal Account or One-Time Account For all customers or vendors with whom you rarely do business, create a special customer and a special vendor master record. These master records contains receivables and payables for one-time customers/vendors (one-time accounts). In contrast to other master records, a one-time account master record does not contain any information about a specific customer/vendor since this account is used for more than one customer/vendor. Therefore, the customer-/vendor-specific fields should be hidden. You enter the customer-/vendor-specific data for one-time customers/vendors in the document during posting. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 83
  • 92. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 Figure 53: Status of the Fields in the Master Record The account group is used to control the fields displayed in the master record. For example, to ensure that all correspondence has complete address information, change the field status so that all address fields are marked as "required entry". Figure 54: Controlling the Field Status 84 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 93. TFIN50 Lesson: Customer/Vendor Accounts The layout of customer/vendor master data screens can be affected by several factors: Account group-specific control: Usually, the field status is controlled only by the account group. This means that all accounts of one account group have the same screen layout. Transaction-specific control: The field status can be dependent on the master data transaction ("Create", "Change" or "Display"). The transaction-dependent field status should be set to “display” for the “change” transaction if the field is not to be changed after it has been created, such as the “reconciliation account” field, for example. Company code-specific control: You have already seen the account group-specific and the transaction-specific field status with the general ledger account groups. You can control the field status for fields in the company code segment of customer and vendor master records via the company code-specific screen layout. You can hide fields that are not used in a specific company code, but enter values in these fields in other company codes. For example, if a company code does not want to use the dunning program, hide the relevant fields for this company code. The account group-specific field status, the transaction-specific field status and the company code-specific field status are compared, and the field status with the highest priority is used. Fields that are accessed with the “display” transaction are always either displayed or suppressed, since you cannot make an entry in a “display” transaction. If you do not want to use the transaction-specific or company code-specific control, set the field status for all fields to optional. Since this field status has the lowest priority, the account group-specific control is always used. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 85
  • 94. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 Figure 55: Dual control principle You now can define that one person makes changes to customer or vendor master data while another person is responsible for confirming the changes, usually for critical customer/vendor changes. First you have to define the fields for dual control in the customer/vendor master records in the IMG. If you define a field in the customer/vendor master record as “sensitive”, the corresponding customer/vendor is blocked for payment if the entry is changed. The block is removed when a second person with authorization checks the change and confirms or rejects it. The confirmation for the changes can be made for a single customer/vendor or you can get a list. This list can be restricted by: • Customer/vendor • Company Code • Accounts not yet confirmed • Accounts rejected • Accounts to be confirmed by me • You can display the customer or vendor master record for all accounts using reports RFDABL00 or RFKABL00. 86 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 95. TFIN50 Lesson: Customer/Vendor Accounts Figure 56: Customer/Vendor Clearing If a customer is also a vendor, or vice versa, the payment and the dunning program can clear open items against each other. The open items of the assigned account can also be displayed in the line item display and the open item selection screens. To clear open items, you have to carry out the following steps: • You have to enter the vendor account number in the customer account, or vice versa. • Each company code can decide separately whether it wants to clear open items between customers and vendors. If clearing is to be used, you have to select the field "Clearing with Vendor" in the customer account or the corresponding field in the vendor account. If you set the indicator Account Control and Status in the area Additional Selections in the report for the customer or vendor list (RFDKVZ00 or RFKKVZ00), when you print the report you can see the partner relationships for the respective customer or vendor. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 87
  • 96. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 Figure 57: Alternative Payer/Payee At the client and company code level, you can enter an alternative payer/payee. The entry in the company code segment has higher priority than the entry at client level. There are several options for using this function within the master record. If you set the “Individual Entries” indicator when creating an invoice, you can enter information about an individual payer/payee for a customer/vendor that has not been created in mySAP ERP. If the alternative payer/payee is an existing customer or vendor, you can enter the customer/vendor account number as permitted payee/payer in the master record. During invoice entry, you can choose one of these payer(s)/payee(s) using matchcodes. If you enter an alternative payer, the amount to clear the due open items in the account is paid by the alternative payer. If you enter an alternative payee, the amount that the company has to pay to clear the open items due is paid to the alternative payee (the payments that normally go to the vendor would go, for example, to the bankruptcy administrator). If you set the "Payment Data" indicator in the "Additional Selections" area in the report for the customer or vendor list (RFDKVZ00 or RFKKVZ00), when you print the report you can see the alternative payer for the respective customer or the alternative payee for the vendor. 88 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 97. TFIN50 Lesson: Customer/Vendor Accounts Figure 58: Head Office/Branch In some industries, customers submit orders locally, through the branch, but pay invoices centrally through the head office. There is a difference between the goods flow and the cash flow. You can reflect this in the SAP System via head office and branch accounts. All items posted to a branch account are automatically transferred to the head office account. Usually, dunning notices go to the head office and it is the head office that makes and receives payments. However if the “Decentralized Processing” field is selected in the head office master record, the dunning and payment programs use the branch account instead. If you set the "Account Control and Status" indicator in the "Additional Selections" area in the report for the customer or vendor list (RFDKVZ00 or RFKKVZ00), when you print the report you can see the possible head offices for each of the branches. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 89
  • 98. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 90 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 99. TFIN50 Lesson: Customer/Vendor Accounts Exercise 5: Customer/Vendor Accounts Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: • Create customer/vendor account groups • Create customer/vendor accounts • Check your knowledge about customer/vendor accounts Business Example Customer and vendor master data is created by the accounting department. Customer accounts: • Account number is assigned automatically • Payment terms must be maintained by the accounting clerk Vendor accounts: • Account number is assigned by the clerk • The manager of the Accounts Payable department wants to use the extended search, where both search terms (search term 1 and search term 2) must be entered. • Check that the search term 1 is a sensitive field for changes. Task 1: Do not change the number ranges since they are valid for all company codes! 1. Create an account group D## with the description "Customers ##" for the regular customer accounts. Do this by copying the account group KUNA and configuring D## according to the requirement in the business scenario. Assign the number range 02 to the account group. 2. Create a regular customer account with the new account group D##. Complete the following fields with the data below: Search Term: GR## Group ID: AC200 Reconciliation Account: Trade Receivables - Domestic 140000 Terms of Payment: 0002 Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 91
  • 100. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 3. Create an account group K## with the description "Vendors ##" for the regular vendor accounts. Do this by copying the account group KRED and configuring K## according to the requirements in the business scenario. Assign the number range XX to the account group. Note: XX is the number range, NOT your group number! 4. Create a normal vendor account, Vendor ##, with the new account group K##. Complete the following fields with the data below: Search Term 1: GR## Search Term 2: Vendor's last name Hint: Either: You have just noticed that it is not possible to enter a second search term: What could be the reason for this? ... The answer appears in activity 2! Or: You were able to make an entry for search term 2: The reason why is given in activity 2 point 3 too. Group ID: AC200 Reconciliation Account: Payables 160000 Planning Group: A1 Terms of Payment: 0001 Task 2: When you check your master records again, you discover that one of the terms was not fulfilled: You could not enter both search terms in the vendor master record. 1. Check whether the fields for the search terms are required entry fields in the master record. 2. Check whether the field "Search Term B" (Search Term 2) was defined as a required entry field in the account group. 3. Why is the field not displayed in the master record? Check the transaction-dependent field status for creating vendor master records. 4. Check why this occurred. Tip: Double-click on the documentation for the IMG activity next to Define Screen Layout per Activity (Vendors). Continued on next page 92 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 101. TFIN50 Lesson: Customer/Vendor Accounts Task 3: The accounting manager then decides that the type of vendor should be recorded in the first search term. In this example, it is supplies, equipment, and so on, and the company code number in the second search term. The first search term is a sensitive field. The accounting manager must therefore confirm all changes in this field. 1. Make Search Term A a sensitive field. 2. Update your vendor master record with the new information 3. Confirm the changes that your neighbor made to their vendor master record. 4. A complete customer account consists of the following parts: 5. A complete vendor account consists of the following parts: Task 4: True or false? 1. The customer/vendor accounts must always be maintained centrally. Determine whether this statement is true or false. □ True □ False 2. One number range can only be assigned to one account group. Determine whether this statement is true or false. □ True □ False Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 93
  • 102. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 Task 5: Complete the sentence: 1. number assignment means that the mySAP ERP system assigns the number automatically. Fill in the blanks to complete the sentence. 2. You maintain a customer/vendor master record if you create the Financial segments at the same time as the Sales order Management/Purchasing Management segments. Fill in the blanks to complete the sentence. 3. General ledger accounts have number assignment; customer and vendor master records can have or number assignment. Fill in the blanks to complete the sentence. 94 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 103. TFIN50 Lesson: Customer/Vendor Accounts Solution 5: Customer/Vendor Accounts Task 1: Do not change the number ranges since they are valid for all company codes! 1. Create an account group D## with the description "Customers ##" for the regular customer accounts. Do this by copying the account group KUNA and configuring D## according to the requirement in the business scenario. Assign the number range 02 to the account group. a) Create an account group for customers. IMG: Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable and Accounts Payable → Customer Accounts → Master Data → Preparations for Creating Customer Master Data → Define Account Groups with Screen Layout (Customers) Select “KUNA General customers” Edit → Copy As... Overwrite the following data: Field Name or Data Type Values Account Group D## Name Customers ## Double-click "Company Code Data" to edit the field status. Double-click on “Payment transactions”. Field Name or Data Type Values Terms of Payment Required entry Choose “Save“. Assign a number range to the account group: IMG: Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable and Accounts Payable → Customer Accounts → Master Data → Preparations for Creating Customer Master Data → Assign Number Ranges to Customer Account Groups Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 95
  • 104. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 Field Name or Data Type Values Group D## Number Range 02 Choose “Save“. 2. Create a regular customer account with the new account group D##. Complete the following fields with the data below: Search Term: GR## Group ID: AC200 Reconciliation Account: Trade Receivables - Domestic 140000 Terms of Payment: 0002 a) Create a standard customer account. SAP Easy Access menu: Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable → Master Records → Create Field Name or Data Type Values Account Group Customers ## (D##) Customer Blank Company Code GR## Reference Customer Blank Reference Company Code Blank Choose “Enter”. “Address” tab: Field Name or Data Type Values Name Your choice. Be Creative! Search Term 1/2 GR## Street/house number Your choice Postal Code/City Your choice Country/Region Course country Continued on next page 96 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 105. TFIN50 Lesson: Customer/Vendor Accounts Choose the “Control Data” tab page. Field Name or Data Type Values Group Key AC200 Choose the “Company Code Data“ button. Choose the tab page “Account Management“. Field Name or Data Type Values Reconciliation Account Select the F4 Help and then Trade Receivables - Domestic. Select the “Payment transactions” tab. Field Name or Data Type Values Terms of Payment 0002 Choose "Save“. Make a note of your customer number: __________________________ Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 97
  • 106. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 3. Create an account group K## with the description "Vendors ##" for the regular vendor accounts. Do this by copying the account group KRED and configuring K## according to the requirements in the business scenario. Assign the number range XX to the account group. Note: XX is the number range, NOT your group number! a) Create an account group for vendors. IMG: Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable and Accounts Payable → Vendor Accounts → Master Data → Preparations for Creating Vendor Master Data → Define Account Groups with Screen Layout (Vendors) Select “KRED Vendors”. Edit → Copy as... Overwrite the following data: Field Name or Data Type Values Account Group K## Name Vendors ## Doubleclick on “General Data“ to edit the field status. Doubleclick on “Address“. Field Name or Data Type Values Search Term B Required entry Choose “Save“. Assign a number range to the account group: IMG: Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable and Accounts Payable → Vendor Accounts → Master Data → Preparations for Creating Vendor Master Data → Assign Number Ranges to Vendor Account Groups Field Name or Data Type Values Group K## Number Range XX Note: XX is the number range, NOT your group number! Choose "Save“. Continued on next page 98 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 107. TFIN50 Lesson: Customer/Vendor Accounts 4. Create a normal vendor account, Vendor ##, with the new account group K##. Complete the following fields with the data below: Search Term 1: GR## Search Term 2: Vendor's last name Hint: Either: You have just noticed that it is not possible to enter a second search term: What could be the reason for this? ... The answer appears in activity 2! Or: You were able to make an entry for search term 2: The reason why is given in activity 2 point 3 too. Group ID: AC200 Reconciliation Account: Payables 160000 Planning Group: A1 Terms of Payment: 0001 a) Create a normal vendor account. SAP Easy Access menu: Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Payable → Master Records → Create Field Name or Data Type Values Vendor Vendor## Company Code GR## Account Group K## Choose “Enter”. “Address” tab: Field Name or Data Type Values Name Your choice. Be Creative! Street/house number Your choice Search Term 1 GR## Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 99
  • 108. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 Search Term 2 Vendor's last name Postal Code/City Your choice Country/Region Course country Either: You have just noticed that it is not possible to enter a second search term: What could be the reason for this? ... The answer appears in activity 2! Or: You were able to make an entry for search term 2: The reason why is given in activity 2 point 3 too. Go to → Next Screen Field Name or Data Type Values Group: AC200 Goto → Next screen, “Payment Transactions” Goto → Next Screen “Accounting Information” Field Name or Data Type Values Reconciliation Account Select the F4 Help and then Trade Payables - Domestic. Cash Management Group: A1 Go to → Next Screen “Payment Transactions, Accounting” Field Name or Data Type Values Terms of Payment 0001 Choose "Save“. Continued on next page 100 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 109. TFIN50 Lesson: Customer/Vendor Accounts Task 2: When you check your master records again, you discover that one of the terms was not fulfilled: You could not enter both search terms in the vendor master record. 1. Check whether the fields for the search terms are required entry fields in the master record. a) Check that the field is a required entry field in the master record. SAP Easy Access menu: Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Payable → Master Records → Change Field Name or Data Type Values Vendor Vendor## Company Code GR## Address Choose “Enter”. The second search term does not show up on the screen in the “Search Terms” section. The screen has a blank space where the second search term field should be. 2. Check whether the field "Search Term B" (Search Term 2) was defined as a required entry field in the account group. a) Check the field status of the vendor account group. Check that the field is defined as a required entry field. IMG: Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable and Accounts Payable → Vendor Accounts → Master Data → Preparations for Creating Vendor Master Data → Define Account Groups with Screen Layout (Vendors) Doubleclick on your account group K##. Double click on “General data” to view the field status. Double click on “Address.” Verify the following data. Field Name or Data Type Values Search Term B Required entry Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 101
  • 110. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 3. Why is the field not displayed in the master record? Check the transaction-dependent field status for creating vendor master records. a) Check the activity-specific field status: Check whether the field is defined as a required entry field. IMG: Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable and Accounts Payable → Vendor Accounts → Master Data → Preparations for Creating Vendor Master Data → Define Screen Layout per Activity (Vendors) Double click on “Create Vendor (Accounting).” Double click on “General Data” to view the field status. Double click on “Address.” Check the following data: Does the field “Search Term B” have the field status “hide”? If so, make the following correction: Field Name or Data Type Values Search Term B Required entry Choose "Save“. Check the same information for the activity “Change Vendor”: To do this, use the green back arrow to return to the overview screen. Doubleclick on Change Vendor (Accounting). Double-click on General Data to display the field status. Double-click on Address. Make sure that Search Term B is a required entry. Save your entries. Result: Data can now be entered in the field “Search Term B” by all the course participants. Reason: The definition of the transaction-dependent field status is not specific to a particular company code. 4. Check why this occurred. Continued on next page 102 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 111. TFIN50 Lesson: Customer/Vendor Accounts Tip: Double-click on the documentation for the IMG activity next to Define Screen Layout per Activity (Vendors). a) Hiding a field has the highest priority. The order is then as follows: “Display”, “Required Entry”, and “Optional Entry”. This results in: Account Group Required entry Transaction Hide Result Hide Task 3: The accounting manager then decides that the type of vendor should be recorded in the first search term. In this example, it is supplies, equipment, and so on, and the company code number in the second search term. The first search term is a sensitive field. The accounting manager must therefore confirm all changes in this field. 1. Make Search Term A a sensitive field. a) Define Search Term A a sensitive field. IMG: Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable and Accounts Payable → Vendor Accounts → Master Data → Preparations for Creating Vendor Master Data → Define Sensitive Fields for Dual Control (Vendors) Choose “New Entries“. Click on the input help in the field “Field Name“ and double-click on search term 1 (ADRC-SORT1). Choose “Save“. Hint: The definition of sensitive fields is not company code-specific. Therefore, this field may have already been set up by your instructor or another participant. Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 103
  • 112. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 2. Update your vendor master record with the new information a) Change the vendor master record. SAP Easy Access menu: Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Payable → Master Records → Change Field Name or Data Type Values Vendor Vendor## Company Code GR## Address Choose “Enter”. Field Name or Data Type Values Search Term 1 Supplies Search Term 2 GR## If necessary, confirm any information with “Enter”. Select “Enter” at the information message telling you that your changes need to be confirmed. Choose "Save“. Continued on next page 104 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 113. TFIN50 Lesson: Customer/Vendor Accounts 3. Confirm the changes that your neighbor made to their vendor master record. a) Confirm the vendor master record changes. SAP Easy Access menu: Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable → Master Records → Confirmation of Change → Single Field Name or Data Type Values Vendor Vendor ## of your neighbor Company Code GR## of your neighbor Choose “Enter”. Select the “Changes to sensitive fields” pushbutton to review the changes. Doubleclick several times on the field name to display detailed information about the changes. Select the green arrow to return to the main screen. Select “Confirm” to confirm your neighbor’s change. Choose "Save“. Note: You have just… • Created new account groups for customer and vendor master records • Created a new customer and vendor master record • Defined the first search term as a sensitive field in the vendor master record • Changed your vendor master record • Confirmed your neighbor’s changes to their vendor master record 4. A complete customer account consists of the following parts: Answer: • General data • Company code segment • Sales area segment Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 105
  • 114. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 5. A complete vendor account consists of the following parts: Answer: • General data • Company code segment • Purchasing organization segment Task 4: True or false? 1. The customer/vendor accounts must always be maintained centrally. Answer: False Customer/vendor accounts can be maintained centrally or decentrally. 2. One number range can only be assigned to one account group. Answer: False A number range can be assigned to several account groups. Task 5: Complete the sentence: 1. Internal number assignment means that the mySAP ERP system assigns the number automatically. Answer: Internal 2. You maintain a customer/vendor master record centrally if you create the Financial segments at the same time as the Sales order Management/Purchasing Management segments. Answer: centrally 3. General ledger accounts have external number assignment; customer and vendor master records can have internal or external number assignment. Answer: external, internal, external 106 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 115. TFIN50 Lesson: Customer/Vendor Accounts Lesson Summary You should now be able to: • Describe the structure of customer and vendor accounts • Discuss the similarities and differences between general ledger and customer and vendor accounts • Control and maintain customer and vendor accounts • Explain relationships between customer and vendor accounts 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 107
  • 116. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 Lesson: Bank Accounts Lesson Overview You will be given an introduction to the master records of bank accounts. Lesson Objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to: • Maintain bank master data • Define house banks • Create accounts at your house banks • Maintain the links between bank and G/L accounts Business Example The company wants to create a new house bank with the name Savings Bank. They open an account at the new bank with the account number 111111 and want to reflect this in the system. Figure 59: Bank Master Data (1) Every bank that is used in the system (for example, as a house bank or as a customer/vendor bank) you have to create a bank master record. 108 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 117. TFIN50 Lesson: Bank Accounts Bank master records are stored centrally in the bank directory (report RFBKVZ00 issues a list of banks - table BNKA - with their master data). Every record is identified by the bank country and the bank key. Bank master records include address data and control data, such as the SWIFT Code, postal giro data, and bank group (for payment optimization in the automatic payment program). You can display changes to the bank master data for all banks using report RFBKABL0. Figure 60: Bank Master Data (2) Banks that your company uses are defined as house banks. You create house banks in Customizing and they contain bank master data, information for electronic payment transactions, bank accounts per house bank, and general ledger accounts per bank account. The payment program uses the house bank ID and the bank types to determine the bank to be used (tip: Use meaningful abbreviations for the house bank ID and bank type - it simplifies the situation for yourself and other users). 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 109
  • 118. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 Figure 61: Bank Master Data (3) Bank master data can be created four ways: • When entering bank information in the customer or vendor master record, or in the Customizing for house banks • Using the Create Bank transaction in the Accounts Receivable/Payable master data menu • The bank directory can be imported from disk or tape using program RFBVALL_0, Country-Specific Transfer of Bank Data. The disk with the bank directory can be obtained from one of the country’s banking organizations. The bank directory should be updated regularly. • Customers that use the lockbox function can create a batch input session that automatically updates customer banking information in the master record. When you enter bank details in the customer and vendor master record, you can access banks already created in the bank directory. Then you only have to enter the bank country and the bank key; the name and address of the bank are determined automatically. In the customer/vendor master record, the field “Bank Type” is used to distinguish between different banks. When processing invoices, if the customer/vendor has more than one bank, the user can choose a bank by using the matchcode in the partner bank field. 110 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 119. TFIN50 Lesson: Bank Accounts Figure 62: Bank Accounts (1) Each bank account is reflected in the SAP ERP system by a combination of house bank ID and account ID. This combination is entered in a G/L account that represents the bank account in the general ledger. Figure 63: Bank Accounts (2) You must also define bank accounts that are managed at the house banks. The accounts can be identified by an account ID which is unique per house bank. The bank account data contains the number of the account at your bank, the account currency, and the relevant G/L account. For every bank account, a G/L account must be created. This G/L account is assigned to the bank account and vice versa. Both accounts have to have the same account currency. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 111
  • 120. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 112 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 121. TFIN50 Lesson: Bank Accounts Exercise 6: Bank Master Data Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: • Create a new bank master record manually • Define the new bank as your house bank • Define a bank account • Connect the bank account to a G/L account Business Example A new bank, "Savings Bank", is founded and the enterprise decides to choose it as its house bank. The company opens a checking account at the new bank with the account number 111111. Task: Carry out the following tasks: 1. The new bank is not yet in the mySAP ERP bank directory. Therefore, enter the new bank manually. The bank key will be given to you by your instructor. 2. Define the new bank as a house bank with the ID "HB##." 3. Create the current account under account ID “GIRO” and connect it to the general ledger account given to you by your instructor. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 113
  • 122. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 Solution 6: Bank Master Data Task: Carry out the following tasks: 1. The new bank is not yet in the mySAP ERP bank directory. Therefore, enter the new bank manually. The bank key will be given to you by your instructor. a) Create a bank master record. SAP Easy Access menu: Accounting → Financial Accounting → Banks → Master Data → Bank Master Record → Create Field Name or Data Type Values Bank Country Course country Bank Key Your instructor will give you this information. Choose “Enter“. Field Name or Data Type Values Bank Name Savings Bank Region Your choice Street Your choice City Your choice Branch Your choice Choose “Save“. Continued on next page 114 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 123. TFIN50 Lesson: Bank Accounts 2. Define the new bank as a house bank with the ID "HB##." a) Define a house bank. IMG: Financial Accounting → Bank Accounting → Bank Accounts → Define House Banks Field Name or Data Type Values Company Code GR## Choose “Enter“. Edit → New Entries Field Name or Data Type Values House Bank HB## Bank Country Course country Choose “Enter“. Field Name or Data Type Values Bank Key Bank key for your new bank Choose “Save“. 3. Create the current account under account ID “GIRO” and connect it to the general ledger account given to you by your instructor. a) Create a current account. IMG: Financial Accounting → Bank Accounting → Bank Accounts → Define House Banks Field Name or Data Type Values Company Code GR## Select your house bank HB##. Doubleclick on Bank Accounts. Edit → New Entries Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 115
  • 124. Unit 2: Master Data TFIN50 Field Name or Data Type Values House Bank HB## Account ID CURR Name Current account ## Field Name or Data Type Values Bank Account: 111111 Currency Local currency G/L Account Your instructor will give you this information. Choose “Save“. Enter the account ID in the G/L account: SAP Easy Access menu: Accounting → Financial Accounting → General Ledger → Master Records → G/L Accounts → Individual Processing → Centrally Or transaction code: FS00 Field Name or Data Type Values G/L Account Your instructor will give you this information. Company Code GR## Select the “Create/Bank/Interest” tab. G/L Account → Change Field Name or Data Type Values House Bank HB## Account ID CURR Choose “Save“. Note: You have just.. • Added your bank to the bank directory • Defined your bank as a house bank • Created a bank account for your bank • Connected a general ledger account to your house bank 116 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 125. TFIN50 Lesson: Bank Accounts Lesson Summary You should now be able to: • Maintain bank master data • Define house banks • Create accounts at your house banks • Maintain the links between bank and G/L accounts 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 117
  • 126. Unit Summary TFIN50 Unit Summary You should now be able to: • Define and use a chart of accounts • Describe the structure of a general ledger account • Control the format of a general ledger account • Name and describe different types of general ledger accounts • Create, maintain, and control general ledger accounts • Describe how you can change several general ledger accounts at the same time • Explain the advantages and disadvantages of group and country charts of accounts • Describe the structure of customer and vendor accounts • Discuss the similarities and differences between general ledger and customer and vendor accounts • Control and maintain customer and vendor accounts • Explain relationships between customer and vendor accounts • Maintain bank master data • Define house banks • Create accounts at your house banks • Maintain the links between bank and G/L accounts 118 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 127. Unit 3 Document Control Unit Overview Unit Objectives After completing this unit, you will be able to: • Classify accounting documents • Display accounting documents • Describe the structure of accounting documents • Open and close posting periods • Open and close posting periods differently for different account types • Define the amounts that specific groups of accounting clerks are allowed to post • Assign users to a tolerance group for highest amounts • Post simple documents in Financial Accounting Unit Contents Lesson: Document Structure..................................................120 Exercise 7: Document Header............................................129 Exercise 8: Line Item.......................................................139 Lesson: Posting Periods .......................................................147 Exercise 9: Posting Periods...............................................151 Lesson: Posting Authorizations ...............................................158 Exercise 10: Posting Authorizations .....................................161 Lesson: Simple Documents in Financial Accounting.......................165 Exercise 11: Simple Documents in Financial Accounting .............169 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 119
  • 128. Unit 3: Document Control TFIN50 Lesson: Document Structure Lesson Overview Lesson Objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to: • Classify accounting documents • Display accounting documents • Describe the structure of accounting documents Business Example Every day, hundreds of financial documents are created in the company. To simplify the storage of the original documents, the documents have to be divided into several categories. The internal auditors require that all authorized expense documents be identifiable by a unique document type and are within an exclusive number range. Different business transactions need different data within the documents. Some data may be mandatory for specific postings. The client requires that each item in the authorized expense account has a detailed description that justifies the expense. Figure 64: Document in mySAP ERP Financials 120 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 129. TFIN50 Lesson: Document Structure The SAP System works according to the document principle: A document is saved for every posting. The document remains as a complete unit in the system until it is archived. Every document is uniquely identified by the following fields: • Document number • Company code • Fiscal year Documents in mySAP ERP Financials include the following: • A document header (information that applies to the entire document) • Between 2 and 999 document items (information that applies to the line item) If you post documents via the Accounting interface (for example, from Sales Order Management, Purchasing Management, or other applications), this results in items in the accounting document that are identical in almost all of the fields. If you want to summarize accounting documents, read SAP Note 36353 and note the links to other related Notes. Detailed data for the document header and line items (optional) Two important control keys: • Document type for the document header • Posting key for the line items The SAP system records at least one document for every business transaction. Each document receives a unique document number. The system can assign the document numbers (= internal number assignment) or the user can assign the number during document entry (= external assignment). A business transaction can create one or more documents. For example, when goods arrive from a vendor, a material document is created to record data that is important for inventory management. An accounting document is created to track financially-relevant information, such as G/L accounts and amounts. Many business transactions occur in the system for which documents are created, but no accounting document is created because there is no effect for accounting. An example of this would be a purchase order in Materials Management. Documents that are connected to each other are linked in the system, so that you have an overview of every business transaction in the system. Using report RFBELJ00, you can create a compact document journal in the system. It contains the most important data for the selected documents from the document headers and line items in tabular form. You can use reports RFBUEB00 and RFBUEB01 to find documents in the system. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 121
  • 130. Unit 3: Document Control TFIN50 Figure 65: Document Types The document type controls the document header and is used to differentiate the business transactions to be posted, for example, vendor invoices, customer payments, and so on. Document types are defined at client level and are therefore valid for all company codes. The standard system is delivered with document types that can be changed or copied. Document types define the following: • Number ranges for document numbers • Account types permitted for postings Document types also define the following: • The field status of the document header fields “Document Header Text” and “Reference Number” • Whether invoices are posted with the net procedure In the procedure recommended by SAP for storing original documents, the document type controls document storage. Always store the original documents under the number of the system document. If the original document has an external number: • Enter the external number of the original document in the "Reference Number" field in the system document header • Note the number of the system document in the original document 122 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 131. TFIN50 Lesson: Document Structure Figure 66: Important Standard Document Types Document type AB allows postings to all account types. All other document types limit the types of accounts you can post to. Document type DG, for example, allows you to post to customer (D) and G/L accounts (S) only. To transfer billing documents from the mySAP ERP billing system, you need one of the following document types: • RV, the default document type for Sales Order Management billing documents (customer invoices). • RE, the default document type for Materials Management billing documents (vendor invoices). When internal number assignment is used, the system assigns a new number to each document in the Financial Accounting component. In external number assignment, the system transfers the billing document number to the accounting document, providing this number has not already been assigned. The payment program uses mostly the document type ZP for its automatic postings. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 123
  • 132. Unit 3: Document Control TFIN50 Figure 67: Document Number Ranges The document number range defines the number range for the document numbers that are to be assigned. These number ranges must not overlap. • Internal number assignment: The system saves the last document number that was taken from the number range in the Current Number field and assigns the number following the current number as the next document number, (see the “Document Number Ranges” graphic, examples 00 and 01). • External number assignment: The user enters the number of the original document, or the number is assigned automatically from another system. The numbers are usually not used in sequence and therefore the system cannot store a current number (example 02). The numbers may be alphanumeric. The document number range must be defined for the year in which it is used. There are two options: • Up to a future fiscal year: At the beginning of a new fiscal year, the system uses the number following the current number as the next number. It does not restart at the first number of the number range. • For each fiscal year: At the start of a new fiscal year, the system starts again with the first number of the number range. This helps to ensure that the number range is sufficient. One number range can be assigned to several document types. You can copy the intervals of document number ranges from one company code to another, or copy intervals from one fiscal year to another. You can use report RFBNUM00 to find gaps in the document number assignment. 124 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 133. TFIN50 Lesson: Document Structure Figure 68: Functions of the Posting Keys Like document types, posting keys are defined at client level. In addition to the above mentioned control functions, the posting key specifies the following: • Whether the line item is connected to a payment transaction or not. This information is required for analyzing the payment history and creating payment notices. • Whether the posting is sales-relevant and the sales figure of the account is to be updated by the transaction, for example, by the posting of a customer invoice. The posting keys have been enhanced for the Enjoy document entry functions. In the standard transactions, posting keys are labeled “debit” and “credit.” In Customizing, mySAP ERP delivers the following default values: • For G/L account posting: “Debit” is posting key 40, “credit” is posting key 50. • For customer invoices: “Debit” is posting key 01, “credit” is posting key 50. • For vendor invoices: “Credit” is posting key 31, “debit” is posting key 40. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 125
  • 134. Unit 3: Document Control TFIN50 Figure 69: Document Field Status During document entry, different fields are displayed depending on the transaction and the accounts used. For example, when posting expenses, a cost center and tax information is usually required. However, when posting cash, this same information is not necessary. These different displays during document processing are controlled by the field status. As a general rule, you customize the account-specific field status for general ledger accounts. For customer and vendor processing, you customize the field status specific to the posting key as necessary. Just as in the field status definition in G/L accounts, the field status with the higher priority applies. The priority is shown above. Exceptions to this rule: • If business areas are used, the business area field must be ready for input. It is activated by enabling business area financial statements for the company code. You can only use the field status to define whether the field is a required or an optional entry field. • Entries in tax fields are only possible if the general ledger account is relevant for tax. The field status Hide cannot be combined with the field status Required entry. This combination causes an error. 126 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 135. TFIN50 Lesson: Document Structure Figure 70: Field Status Groups For each group of general ledger accounts, for example, cash accounts, expense accounts, you have to define the status of every document entry field. When using these G/L accounts, should the text field for document entry be a required field, an optional field, or a hidden field? Will the cost center field be required, hidden, or optional for document entry when using these G/L accounts? And so on. This information is divided into field status groups for each group of G/L accounts. You assign field status groups to the respective general ledger accounts in the general ledger account master records. The field status groups are summarized in one field status variant. The field status variant is assigned to your company code(s). No posting can be made until this is complete. Typically, you assign the same field status variant to all of your company codes so that the same field status information applies across company codes. mySAP ERP delivers a standard set of field status groups. We recommend you copy the standard delivered field status groups and modify them as necessary. If a document is posted to a subledger account, the field status group of the reconciliation account is used. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 127
  • 136. Unit 3: Document Control TFIN50 Figure 71: Standard Posting Keys SAP recommends that you use the standard posting keys delivered. If you change them or define new posting keys, all tables containing a reference to these keys must also be updated. Posting keys for assets and materials may only be used if the corresponding SAP components are installed. By changing the field status definitions of posting keys and the field status group, the field status can be made transaction-dependent and account-dependent. • Since the subledger accounts do not have a field status group, differentiation in the subledger postings is mainly made via different posting keys. Therefore, there are a lot of posting keys for subledger accounts. In general ledger postings, differentiation is mainly made via different field status groups. Therefore, only two posting keys (40 and 50) are needed for general ledger postings. 128 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 137. TFIN50 Lesson: Document Structure Exercise 7: Document Header Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: • Check your knowledge of document types and number ranges • Create a document type and a number range • Check the assignments of number ranges to document types Business Example Every day hundreds of financial documents are created in the company. To simplify the storage of the original documents, the documents have to be divided into several categories. The internal auditors require that all authorized expense documents be identifiable by a unique document type and are within an exclusive number range. The authorization number from the accounting executive must be entered in the document header. Task 1: Answer the following questions: 1. What are the most important control functions of the document type? Task 2: Complete the sentence: 1. If the user assigns the document number manually, this is number assignment. Fill in the blanks to complete the sentence. Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 129
  • 138. Unit 3: Document Control TFIN50 Task 3: Complete the sentence: 1. numbers may be alphanumeric. Fill in the blanks to complete the sentence. Task 4: True or false? 1. Every company code may define its own document types. Determine whether this statement is true or false. □ True □ False 2. Every company code may define its own document number ranges. Determine whether this statement is true or false. □ True □ False 3. At the beginning of a new fiscal year, the system always starts the document number assignment again at the start of the number range. Determine whether this statement is true or false. □ True □ False 4. Document number ranges must not overlap. Determine whether this statement is true or false. □ True □ False Continued on next page 130 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 139. TFIN50 Lesson: Document Structure Task 5: Answer the following question: 1. How many number ranges can be assigned to a document type simultaneously? Task 6: Carry out the following task: 1. Your client’s head accountant wants the following: - Document types in the system are used to group documents in categories - Internal document assignment - Document numbers in the following number ranges: SA G/L account document 01 0100000000-0199999999 DG Customer credit memo 16 1600000000-1699999999 KG Vendor credit memo 17 1700000000-1799999999 DR Customer invoice 18 1800000000-1899999999 KR Vendor invoice 19 1900000000-1999999999 Check whether the following applies to the number ranges listed for your company code: - They have been created - They have been assigned to corresponding document types If the document number ranges do not exist, copy them from company code 1000 or your country-specific company code for the target fiscal year. Task 7: Carry out the following task: 1. Create document type ## for documents for authorized expenses (see business scenario, name: Authorized expense ##). Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 131
  • 140. Unit 3: Document Control TFIN50 Assign the document number range 99: 9900000000 - 9999999999 to this document type with internal number assignment. The reference field in the document header should be a required entry field. 132 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 141. TFIN50 Lesson: Document Structure Solution 7: Document Header Task 1: Answer the following questions: 1. What are the most important control functions of the document type? Answer: Number ranges for document numbers Account types permitted for postings Task 2: Complete the sentence: 1. If the user assigns the document number manually, this is external number assignment. Answer: external Task 3: Complete the sentence: 1. External numbers may be alphanumeric. Answer: External Task 4: True or false? 1. Every company code may define its own document types. Answer: False The same document types are valid for every company code since they are defined at the client level. 2. Every company code may define its own document number ranges. Answer: True The document number uniquely identifies each document in a company code within a fiscal year. Therefore, document number ranges are defined dependent on the company code. Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 133
  • 142. Unit 3: Document Control TFIN50 3. At the beginning of a new fiscal year, the system always starts the document number assignment again at the start of the number range. Answer: False The system only restarts numbering at the beginning of a new year if the document number range is defined per fiscal year. 4. Document number ranges must not overlap. Answer: True This ensures a unique document number in a company code within a fiscal year. Task 5: Answer the following question: 1. How many number ranges can be assigned to a document type simultaneously? Answer: You specify a number range for each document type. However, you can use one number range for several document types. Task 6: Carry out the following task: 1. Your client’s head accountant wants the following: - Document types in the system are used to group documents in categories - Internal document assignment - Document numbers in the following number ranges: SA G/L account document 01 0100000000-0199999999 DG Customer credit memo 16 1600000000-1699999999 KG Vendor credit memo 17 1700000000-1799999999 DR Customer invoice 18 1800000000-1899999999 KR Vendor invoice 19 1900000000-1999999999 Check whether the following applies to the number ranges listed for your company code: - They have been created - They have been assigned to corresponding document types Continued on next page 134 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 143. TFIN50 Lesson: Document Structure If the document number ranges do not exist, copy them from company code 1000 or your country-specific company code for the target fiscal year. a) Check the definition of the number ranges: IMG: Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Settings → Document → Document Number Ranges → Define Document Number Ranges Field Name or Data Type Values Company Code GR## Interval → Change Check whether the number ranges have been correctly defined (see question). If they are not, copy the number ranges from company code 0001. (Copy number ranges from source to target fiscal year): IMG: Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Settings → Document → Document Number Ranges → Copy to Company Code Field Name or Data Type Values Number Range Number 01 to ZZ Fiscal Year 1900 to 9999 Source Company Code 0001 or your country-specific company code Target Company Code GR## Choose “Execute“. Verify the assignment of number ranges to document types: IMG: Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Settings → Document → Document Header → Overview Doubleclick on each document type to check if it is assigned to the correct number ranges. Task 7: Carry out the following task: 1. Create document type ## for documents for authorized expenses (see business scenario, name: Authorized expense ##). Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 135
  • 144. Unit 3: Document Control TFIN50 Assign the document number range 99: 9900000000 - 9999999999 to this document type with internal number assignment. The reference field in the document header should be a required entry field. a) Create a number range. IMG:Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Settings → Document → Document Number Ranges → Define Document Number Ranges Field Name or Data Type Values Company Code GR## Interval → Change Edit → Insert Interval Field Name or Data Type Values No 99 Year Current year From Number 9 900 000 000 To Number 9 999 999 999 Current Number 0 Ext Blank ENTER Choose "Save“. Confirm the "Transport number range intervals" dialog box with ENTER. Create a document type: IMG: Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Settings → Document → Document Header → Define Document Types Edit → New Entries Field Name or Data Type Values Document Type ## Number Range 99 Reversal Document Type AB Account Types Permitted: Continued on next page 136 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 145. TFIN50 Lesson: Document Structure Assets √ Customer √ Vendor √ Material √ G/L Account √ Required for Document Entry: Reference Number √ Choose “Save“. Select the green arrow to go back one screen to enter the name: Field Name or Data Type Values Name Authorized expense ## Choose "Save“. Hint: You have just created a new document number range and document type. You then assigned your number range to your document type. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 137
  • 146. Unit 3: Document Control TFIN50 138 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 147. TFIN50 Lesson: Document Structure Exercise 8: Line Item Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: • Check your knowledge about posting keys and document field status • Create a field status group and assign it to an account Business Example Different business transactions need different data within the documents. Some data may be mandatory for special postings. Example: The client requires that each item in the authorized expense account has a detailed description that justifies the expense. Task 1: Answer the following question: 1. What are the most important control functions of a posting key? Task 2: Answer the following question: 1. Name 2 elements that influence the field status of document fields. Task 3: Answer the following question: 1. In the following scenarios, state how the text field will be treated on the document entry screen: Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 139
  • 148. Unit 3: Document Control TFIN50 Posting Key Field status group Document entry screen 1. Text hidden Text optional 2. Text optional Text required 3. Text required Text hidden Task 4: Answer the following question: 1. What are the standard posting keys for G/L accounts and on which side of the account do they post to? Task 5: True or false? 1. Posting keys are defined at client level. Determine whether this statement is true or false. □ True □ False Task 6: Complete the sentence: 1. The group controls the field display during document entry. Fill in the blanks to complete the sentence. Continued on next page 140 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 149. TFIN50 Lesson: Document Structure Task 7: Complete the sentence: 1. Each has a field status group. Fill in the blanks to complete the sentence. Task 8: To track the types of cars that are rented, make the "Text" field a required entry for line items for the Sports Car Rental expense account. Create a new field status group, FS##, with the description "Authorized Expenses ##". 1. Create the new field status group FS## by copying field status group G001 in field status variant 1000. 2. Make the field "Text" a required entry. 3. Assign the field status group to your G/L account for Sport Car Rental Expense AE02##: 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 141
  • 150. Unit 3: Document Control TFIN50 Solution 8: Line Item Task 1: Answer the following question: 1. What are the most important control functions of a posting key? Answer: Definition of the account types that can be posted to Account side (debit or credit) Field status of the additional account assignment Task 2: Answer the following question: 1. Name 2 elements that influence the field status of document fields. Answer: Field status group, posting key. Task 3: Answer the following question: 1. In the following scenarios, state how the text field will be treated on the document entry screen: Posting Key Field status group Document entry screen 1. Text hidden Text optional 2. Text optional Text required 3. Text required Text hidden Answer: 1. Hidden 2. Required entry 3. Error Continued on next page 142 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 151. TFIN50 Lesson: Document Structure Task 4: Answer the following question: 1. What are the standard posting keys for G/L accounts and on which side of the account do they post to? Answer: Debit, posting key 40 Credit, posting key 50 Task 5: True or false? 1. Posting keys are defined at client level. Answer: True Like document types, posting keys are defined at client level. Task 6: Complete the sentence: 1. The field status group controls the field display during document entry. Answer: field status Task 7: Complete the sentence: 1. Each general ledger account has a field status group. Answer: general ledger account Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 143
  • 152. Unit 3: Document Control TFIN50 Task 8: To track the types of cars that are rented, make the "Text" field a required entry for line items for the Sports Car Rental expense account. Create a new field status group, FS##, with the description "Authorized Expenses ##". 1. Create the new field status group FS## by copying field status group G001 in field status variant 1000. a) Determine the field status variant assigned to your company code: IMG: Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Settings → Company Code → Enter Global Parameters (Alternative: IMG: Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Settings → Document → Line Item → Controls → Assign Company Code to Field Status Variants) Doubleclick on your company code. Record the field status variant assigned to your company code: __________ __________ Copy a new field status group: IMG: Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Settings → Document → Line Item → Controls → Define Field Status Variants Select the field status variant assigned to your company code. In the dialog structure, double-click on "Field Status Groups". Select G001. Edit → Copy As... Overwrite the following data: Field Name or Data Type Values Field Status Group FS## Text Authorized Expenses## Choose “Enter”. Choose "Save“. Do not exit this screen yet. Continued on next page 144 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 153. TFIN50 Lesson: Document Structure 2. Make the field "Text" a required entry. a) Change the field status in the field status group: Double-click on "FS##". Double-click on "General Data". Field Name or Data Type Values Text Req. entry Choose "Save“. 3. Assign the field status group to your G/L account for Sport Car Rental Expense AE02##: a) Menu SAP Easy Access: Accounting → Financial Accounting → General Ledger → Master Records → G/L Accounts → Individual Processing → In Company Code Or transaction code: FS00 Field Name or Data Type Values G/L Account AE02## Company Code GR## G/L Account → Change Select the “Create/Bank/Interest” tab page. Field Name or Data Type Values Field Status Group FS## Choose “Save”. Hint: You have created a new field status group and assigned it to your “Car Rental Expense” account. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 145
  • 154. Unit 3: Document Control TFIN50 Lesson Summary You should now be able to: • Classify accounting documents • Display accounting documents • Describe the structure of accounting documents 146 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 155. TFIN50 Lesson: Posting Periods Lesson: Posting Periods Lesson Overview This lesson describes the function of the posting period table. Lesson Objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to: • Open and close posting periods • Open and close posting periods differently for different account types Business Example The accounting department determines that at the end of a posting period the subledgers are closed; however, the general ledger accounts stay open for longer in order to have time to reconcile the Financial Accounting and Controlling ledgers for the last period. Figure 72: Posting Periods Posting periods are defined in the fiscal year variant. To prevent documents from being posted to an incorrect posting period, you can close certain posting periods. Usually the current posting period is open and all other periods are closed. At the end of a period this period is usually closed and the next period is opened. You open a posting period by entering a range in the posting period variant that encompasses this period. You can have as many posting periods open as desired. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 147
  • 156. Unit 3: Document Control TFIN50 During period closing, you open special periods for closing postings. During closing, two period intervals must be open at the same time. Therefore, two period intervals can be entered in the posting period table. Figure 73: The Posting Period Variant Several company codes can use the same posting period variant. For all company codes assigned, the posting periods are opened and closed simultaneously. This simplifies the period maintenance. Figure 74: Period Checks by Account Type 148 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 157. TFIN50 Lesson: Posting Periods In the document header, the periods assigned to the account type "+" are checked. This is the first check. The account type “+” must therefore be open for all periods that are supposed to be open for all other account types. The posting period variant must contain at least the account type “+”. If the posting periods for different account types are all to be handled in the same way, the control via the + entry is sufficient. Posting periods can be handled differently for different account types, that is, for a certain posting period, postings to customer accounts may be permitted while postings to vendor accounts may not. At the line item level, the system checks the account type of the posting key to ensure that the period is open for the assigned account type. The account interval always contains G/L accounts. By entering certain reconciliation accounts behind subledger account types, these subledger accounts can be treated differently to accounts that have a different reconciliation account. Figure 75: Two Period Intervals During closing, two period intervals must be open at the same time. Therefore, two period intervals can be entered in the posting period table. An authorization group may be assigned to the first period interval. Then, only users belonging to this authorization group have the permission to post in the first period interval. It makes sense to use the first range for the special periods and authorize only the accountants involved in closing to post in the special periods. The user must have the authorization for the authorization object F_BKPF_BUP (Accounting document: Authorization for posting periods), whereby the value in the authorization group field must be the same as the value in the posting period table. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 149
  • 158. Unit 3: Document Control TFIN50 Figure 76: Determination of Posting Periods during Posting When entering a document, among other items, you enter the posting date - the system automatically determines the posting period and fiscal year based on the posting date entered. In the document overview, the posting date, posting period, and fiscal year are displayed. The posting period determined is entered in the document and the transaction figures for this posting period are updated. If you display the balance of an account, the transactions figures for the posting periods are displayed. 150 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 159. TFIN50 Lesson: Posting Periods Exercise 9: Posting Periods Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: • Check your knowledge of posting period variants • Create a posting period variant and assign it to your company code Business Example The accounting department determines that at the end of a posting period the subledgers are closed; however, the general ledger accounts stay open for longer in order to have time to reconcile the Financial Accounting with Controlling ledgers for the last period. Task 1: Carry out the following task: 1. Create a posting period variant “PP##” with the name “Posting Periods GR##”. This fulfills the requirements of the accounting department, in that the subledgers are only open for the current month, while the general ledger is open for both the current month and the previous month. Assign this posting period variant to your company code. Task 2: Complete the sentence: 1. The posting period variant is assigned to the . Fill in the blanks to complete the sentence. 2. A posting period variant must contain at least one line with the entry . Fill in the blanks to complete the sentence. 3. The account range in the posting period variant consists of . Fill in the blanks to complete the sentence. Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 151
  • 160. Unit 3: Document Control TFIN50 Task 3: True or false? 1. Posting periods are opened and closed automatically. Determine whether this statement is true or false. □ True □ False 2. No more than two periods can be open at the same time. Determine whether this statement is true or false. □ True □ False 3. The authorization group in the posting period variant applies only to authorization for posting in special periods. Determine whether this statement is true or false. □ True □ False 152 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 161. TFIN50 Lesson: Posting Periods Solution 9: Posting Periods Task 1: Carry out the following task: 1. Create a posting period variant “PP##” with the name “Posting Periods GR##”. This fulfills the requirements of the accounting department, in that the subledgers are only open for the current month, while the general ledger is open for both the current month and the previous month. Assign this posting period variant to your company code. a) Create a variant for open posting periods. IMG: Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Settings → Document → Posting Periods → Define Variants for Open Posting Periods Edit → New Entries Field Name or Data Type Values Variant PP## Name Posting periods GR## Choose "Save“. Define the periods in your variant. IMG: Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Settings → Document → Posting Periods → Open and Close Posting Periods At this stage you can either create or copy from existing intervals. To create an interval, choose: Edit → New Entries Field Name or Data Type Values 1st item Var. PP## A + valid for all accounts From Account Blank To Account Blank From Period 1 Previous month Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 153
  • 162. Unit 3: Document Control TFIN50 Year Previous month’s year To Period 1 Current month Year Current year Field Name or Data Type Values 2nd item Var. PP## A D From Account Blank To Account ZZZZZZZZZZ From Period 1 Current month Year Current year To Period 1 Current month Year Current year Field Name or Data Type Values 3rd item Var. PP## A K From Account Blank To Account ZZZZZZZZZZ From Period 1 Current month Year Current year To Period 1 Current month Year Current year Choose "Save“. To copy an existing interval: IMG: Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Settings → Document → Posting Periods → Open and Close Posting Periods • Select account types D, K, and S for the 0001 posting variant. • Edit → Copy as… Overwrite the following information for each account type: Continued on next page 154 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 163. TFIN50 Lesson: Posting Periods Field Name or Data Type Values Var. PP## Check that the data is correct using the information above. Choose “Save.” Assign an open posting period variant to the company code: IMG: Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Settings → Document → Posting Periods → Assign Variants to Company Code Field Name or Data Type Values Cocd GR## Variant PP## Choose "Save“. Note: You have just.. • Created a variant for open posting periods • Defined the dates of the periods that are open • Assigned the posting period variant to your company code This is an example of the variant principle. Task 2: Complete the sentence: 1. The posting period variant is assigned to the company code. Answer: company code 2. A posting period variant must contain at least one line with the entry Valid for all accounts. Answer: Valid for all accounts 3. The account range in the posting period variant consists of G/L accounts. Answer: G/L accounts Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 155
  • 164. Unit 3: Document Control TFIN50 Task 3: True or false? 1. Posting periods are opened and closed automatically. Answer: False The posting period variant that contains the open periods has to be maintained manually. 2. No more than two periods can be open at the same time. Answer: False False. As many periods as required can be open simultaneously. However, only two period intervals can be open at the same time. 3. The authorization group in the posting period variant applies only to authorization for posting in special periods. Answer: False False. The authorization group applies to the first period interval. This can also be an interval with normal posting periods. 156 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 165. TFIN50 Lesson: Posting Periods Lesson Summary You should now be able to: • Open and close posting periods • Open and close posting periods differently for different account types 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 157
  • 166. Unit 3: Document Control TFIN50 Lesson: Posting Authorizations Lesson Overview This lesson provides you with an introduction to determining maximum amounts when posting documents. Lesson Objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to: • Define the amounts that specific groups of accounting clerks are allowed to post • Assign users to a tolerance group for highest amounts Business Example The accounting manager wants to define different authorizations for posting high amounts for the accounting clerks and for himself. Figure 77: Maximum Amounts In this section we will focus on the upper limits for posting transactions within tolerance groups. In tolerance groups you can enter upper limits for the following: • Total amount per document • Amount per customer/vendor item • Cash discount a user with this tolerance group is able to grant The currency is the local currency of the company code. 158 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 167. TFIN50 Lesson: Posting Authorizations Figure 78: Assigning Posting Authorizations You can create as many tolerance groups as you like. Every user can be explicitly assigned to a tolerance group. If users are not assigned to any special tolerance group, then entries in the tolerance group “____” are valid for them. This is the default tolerance group. Usually the tolerance group “____” contains values which are meant to apply to most employees. For any employees who have especially high or low limits, a special tolerance group should be created and assigned to their user logon ID’s. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 159
  • 168. Unit 3: Document Control TFIN50 160 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 169. TFIN50 Lesson: Posting Authorizations Exercise 10: Posting Authorizations Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: • Create tolerance groups • Assign a tolerance group to your user Business Example The internal auditors have requested that the following maximum authorizations be defined for the accounting department: • Accounting clerks 500,000 units of local currency per document 100,000 units of local currency per open item 5% cash discount • Accounting manager 1,000,000 units of local currency per document 500,000 units of local currency per open item 10% cash discount Task: Carry out the following task: 1. The tolerance group for accounting clerks is the “blank” tolerance group. You must create a new tolerance group, SUPV, for the accounting supervisor according to the data in the aforementioned business scenario. 2. Assign the accounting manager tolerance group to your own user. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 161
  • 170. Unit 3: Document Control TFIN50 Solution 10: Posting Authorizations Task: Carry out the following task: 1. The tolerance group for accounting clerks is the “blank” tolerance group. You must create a new tolerance group, SUPV, for the accounting supervisor according to the data in the aforementioned business scenario. a) Modify “blank” tolerance group: IMG: Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Settings → Document → Line Item → Define Tolerance Groups for Employees Doubleclick on your company code, GR##. Field Name or Data Type Values Amount per Document 500 000 Amount per Open Item 100 000 Cash Discount per Line Item 5% Choose “Save.” Use the green arrow to go back to the overview screen. Create tolerance group "SUPV": To do this, select the tolerance group you just modified. Edit → Copy As... Overwrite the following data: Field Name or Data Type Values Group SUPV Company Code GR## Amount per Document 1 000 000 Amount per Open Item 500 000 Cash Discount per Line Item 10% Choose “Enter“. Choose “Save“. Continued on next page 162 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 171. TFIN50 Lesson: Posting Authorizations 2. Assign the accounting manager tolerance group to your own user. a) Assign tolerance group to the user. IMG: Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Settings → Document → Line Item → Assign User/Tolerance Groups Edit → New Entries Field Name or Data Type Values User Name Your user name Tolerance Group SUPV Choose "Save“. Note: You have just ... • Created a new tolerance group for supervisors • Added new tolerance limits to your supervisor • Assigned the manager tolerance group to your own user This is an example of the variant principle. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 163
  • 172. Unit 3: Document Control TFIN50 Lesson Summary You should now be able to: • Define the amounts that specific groups of accounting clerks are allowed to post • Assign users to a tolerance group for highest amounts 164 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 173. TFIN50 Lesson: Simple Documents in Financial Accounting Lesson: Simple Documents in Financial Accounting Lesson Overview This lesson explains how to post simple documents with the Enjoy transaction. Lesson Objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to: • Post simple documents in Financial Accounting Business Example The customer has heard about the easy to use ENJOY transactions and wants to see them and try them out. Figure 79: Simple Postings in mySAP ERP Financials The SAP Financial Accounting component uses one posting transaction for several different postings, for example: • G/L account postings • Customer invoice postings • Customer credit memo postings • Vendor invoice postings • Vendor credit memo postings 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 165
  • 174. Unit 3: Document Control TFIN50 Figure 80: Enjoy Posting Screen: Header and 1st Line Item You enter the general data for the posting document on the screen in the document header, for example, invoice and posting date, text, and so on. For entering invoice and credit memos received, you can define a document type for each transaction, which then appears as a general default value. You can overwrite this proposed document type at any time as long as the document type field is ready for input during document entry. If you do not define a document type, the system proposes standard document types; for example, KR for entering vendor invoices. The important input fields are in the foreground on a tab page and the fields used less frequently are on the subsequent tab pages. With customer and vendor invoices, you enter the business partner account data in this section together with the invoice or credit memo amount. When you then choose Enter, the business partner master data is also displayed alongside the account name, address, and bank details. You can display an open item list by pressing the “Open Items” button. In addition to the header and item data (see next graphic), the entry screen also contains an information area where you can see the display balance. Via the button “Tree”, you can access screen variants, account assignment templates, and held document that you can select as templates. Users can navigate from a tree structure on the left hand side of the screen. 166 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 175. TFIN50 Lesson: Simple Documents in Financial Accounting Figure 81: Enjoy Posting Screen: Additional Line Items Enter the additional line items for the document in the table in the bottom section of the screen. The account name appears once you have made and confirmed your entries. You can select different fields or columns and change the size and sequence of the columns and fields. You can also copy line items. At the top of the screen, you can select from Park, Post, or Hold, to complete the document entry transaction once the balance is zero. You can still use the standard transaction for entering postings. For complex postings you can access the complex posting transaction via the menu. You cannot return to the initial screen from this complex posting transaction. You can enter an explanatory text for the line item. This item text can be used internally and externally. If you want to use the texts for external purposes, for example, in correspondence, dunning notices, payment advice notes, and so on, enter a “*” in front of the text (the “*” is removed for the printout). In Customizing, you can define text templates under a four digit key - these text templates are copied into the line item when you enter the relevant key in the text field during document entry. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 167
  • 176. Unit 3: Document Control TFIN50 168 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 177. TFIN50 Lesson: Simple Documents in Financial Accounting Exercise 11: Simple Documents in Financial Accounting Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: • Post simple documents in Financial Accounting Business Example Now that you have completed the configuration of document control according to the client’s requirements, the client has asked you to test the settings you have made. You therefore have to post some simple documents in the SAP system. Task: Caution: Remember that you assigned the accounting manager tolerance group to your own user in the last exercise. This means that the amount thresholds defined in tolerance group SUPV now also apply to you. If necessary, change your tolerance group to BLANK again. Carry out the following tasks: 1. G/L account posting 5,000 units cash of local currency are drawn from the house bank account and put into petty cash. Post this transaction. (The “petty cash” account is given to you by your instructor.) The second account is the account which you assigned to your bank account. Note the document number on your data sheet. Hint: Choose the “Tree Off” button so that the document entry window fills the entire screen. 2. Vendor Invoice Your Accounting Manger rented a car for an out of town conference. Post a vendor invoice for 110,000 units of local currency to the vendor account you created earlier (vendor##). Choose the option “Calculate Tax”. Use the tax code 1l (input tax (course) 10%). Enter the authorization number A## that you received from the accounting manager in the reference field. Post the expense to the “Car Rental Expense”, AE02## account you created. Use document type ## and enter a description (“Conference ##”) in the required entry field “Text” in the line item. Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 169
  • 178. Unit 3: Document Control TFIN50 Note the document number on your data sheet. Hint: Choose the “Tree Off” button so that the document entry window fills the entire screen. If you cannot enter the document type in the document header: Use the “Editing Options” button and under Doc. Type Option choose “Entry with Short Name” from the dropdown list. 3. Vendor Invoice While at the conference, the Accounting Manager took clients out to dinner. Post an additional invoice for 330,000 units of local currency to the “Entertainment Expense” account AE01## using the same criteria as in the previous exercise. Record your new document number on the data sheet. 4. Customer Invoice Post a customer invoice for 220,000 units of local currency to your customer account. Choose the option “Calculate Tax”. Use the tax code 1O (output tax (course) 10%). Post the revenue side of the transaction to the account which is supplied by your instructor. Note the document number on your data sheet. Hint: Choose the “Tree Off” button so that the document entry window fills the entire screen. 5. Customer Credit Memo Post a customer credit memo for 5,500 units of local currency to the customer account you created earlier. Use the tax code 1O (output tax (course) 10%). Note the document number on your data sheet. Hint: Choose the “Tree Off” button so that the document entry window fills the entire screen. 6. Display your customer’s and/or vendor’s line items to check the postings you have made. 170 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 179. TFIN50 Lesson: Simple Documents in Financial Accounting Solution 11: Simple Documents in Financial Accounting Task: Caution: Remember that you assigned the accounting manager tolerance group to your own user in the last exercise. This means that the amount thresholds defined in tolerance group SUPV now also apply to you. If necessary, change your tolerance group to BLANK again. Carry out the following tasks: 1. G/L account posting 5,000 units cash of local currency are drawn from the house bank account and put into petty cash. Post this transaction. (The “petty cash” account is given to you by your instructor.) The second account is the account which you assigned to your bank account. Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 171
  • 180. Unit 3: Document Control TFIN50 Note the document number on your data sheet. Hint: Choose the “Tree Off” button so that the document entry window fills the entire screen. a) G/L account posting SAP Easy Access menu: Accounting → Financial Accounting → General Ledger → Posting → Enter G/L Account Document If prompted, enter your company code, GR##, then choose "Enter". Hint: Choose the “Tree Off” button so that the document entry window fills the entire screen. Field Name or Data Type Values Basic Data Document Date Current date Posting Date Current date First Item G/L Account Your instructor will name the petty cash account. D/C Debit Amount in doc. curr. 5 000 Second Item G/L Account Your instructor will give you the house bank G/L account. D/C Credit Amount in Document Currency 5 000 Document → Simulate Check your document. Double-click on a line item to display or change data. Choose “Post” to save the document. Note the document number on your data sheet. 2. Vendor Invoice Continued on next page 172 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 181. TFIN50 Lesson: Simple Documents in Financial Accounting Your Accounting Manger rented a car for an out of town conference. Post a vendor invoice for 110,000 units of local currency to the vendor account you created earlier (vendor##). Choose the option “Calculate Tax”. Use the tax code 1l (input tax (course) 10%). Enter the authorization number A## that you received from the accounting manager in the reference field. Post the expense to the “Car Rental Expense”, AE02## account you created. Use document type ## and enter a description (“Conference ##”) in the required entry field “Text” in the line item. Note the document number on your data sheet. Hint: Choose the “Tree Off” button so that the document entry window fills the entire screen. If you cannot enter the document type in the document header: Use the “Editing Options” button and under Doc. Type Option choose “Entry with Short Name” from the dropdown list. a) Vendor Invoice SAP Easy Access menu: Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Payable → Document Entry → Invoice If prompted, enter your company code, GR##, then choose “Enter”. Hint: Choose the “Tree Off” button so that the document entry window fills the entire screen. Field Name or Data Type Values Basic Data Vendor Vendor## Invoice Date Current date Reference A## Posting Date Current date Document Type Authorized expenses ## (if the document type is not ready for input: Choose the button “Editing Options” and under Doc. Type Option choose “Entry with Short Name”). Amount 110 000 Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 173
  • 182. Unit 3: Document Control TFIN50 Currency Company code currency Calculate Tax Tax Code 1l (input tax - course 10%) Items G/L Account AE02## D/C Debit Amount in doc. curr. 110 000 Tax Code 1l (input tax - course 10%) Text Conference ## Document → Simulate Check your document. Double-click on a line item to display or change data. Choose “Post” to save the document. Note the document number on your data sheet. 3. Vendor Invoice While at the conference, the Accounting Manager took clients out to dinner. Post an additional invoice for 330,000 units of local currency to the “Entertainment Expense” account AE01## using the same criteria as in the previous exercise. Record your new document number on the data sheet. a) Repeat the above steps to post an additional vendor invoice for 330,000 units of local currency to the “Entertainment Costs” account AE01##. Record your new document number on the data sheet. 4. Customer Invoice Post a customer invoice for 220,000 units of local currency to your customer account. Choose the option “Calculate Tax”. Use the tax code 1O (output tax (course) 10%). Post the revenue side of the transaction to the account which is supplied by your instructor. Continued on next page 174 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 183. TFIN50 Lesson: Simple Documents in Financial Accounting Note the document number on your data sheet. Hint: Choose the “Tree Off” button so that the document entry window fills the entire screen. a) Customer Invoice SAP Easy Access menu: Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable → Document Entry → Invoice If prompted, enter your company code, GR## using the “Company Code” button, then choose “Enter”. Hint: Choose the “Tree Off” button so that the document entry window fills the entire screen. Field Name or Data Type Values Basic Data Customer Your customer Invoice Date Current date Posting Date Current date Amount 220 000 Currency Company code currency Calculate Tax Tax Code 1O (Output tax (course) 10%) Items G/L Account Your instructor will give you the revenue account. D/C Credit Amount in Document Currency 220 000 Tax Code 1O (Output tax (course) 10%) Document → Simulate Check your document. Double-click on a line item to display or change data. Choose “Post” to save the document. Note your document number on the data sheet. 5. Customer Credit Memo Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 175
  • 184. Unit 3: Document Control TFIN50 Post a customer credit memo for 5,500 units of local currency to the customer account you created earlier. Use the tax code 1O (output tax (course) 10%). Note the document number on your data sheet. Hint: Choose the “Tree Off” button so that the document entry window fills the entire screen. a) Customer Credit Memo SAP Easy Access menu: Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable → Document Entry → Credit Memo If prompted, enter your company code, GR##, then choose “Enter”. Hint: Choose the “Tree Off” button so that the document entry window fills the entire screen. Field Name or Data Type Values Basic Data Customer Your customer Document Date Current date Posting Date Current date Amount 5500 Currency Company code currency Calculate Tax Tax Code 1O (Output tax (course) 10%) Items G/L Account Your instructor will give you the revenue account. D/C Debit Amount in Document Currency 5500 Tax Code 1O (Output tax (course) 10%) Document → Simulate Check your document. Double-click on a line item to display or change data. Choose “Post” to save the document. Note the document number on the data sheet. Continued on next page 176 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 185. TFIN50 Lesson: Simple Documents in Financial Accounting 6. Display your customer’s and/or vendor’s line items to check the postings you have made. a) Display your customer’s and/or vendor’s line items to check the postings you have made. Display customer/vendor line items: SAP Easy Access menu: Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable/Accounts Payable → Account → Display/Change Line Items Field Name or Data Type Values Customer or Vendor Account Enter your customer or vendor number Company Code GR## Choose “Execute“. Note: You have just posted two vendor invoices, a customer credit memo and a customer invoice. You then displayed the line items to check your postings of line items. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 177
  • 186. Unit 3: Document Control TFIN50 Lesson Summary You should now be able to: • Post simple documents in Financial Accounting 178 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 187. TFIN50 Unit Summary Unit Summary You should now be able to: • Classify accounting documents • Display accounting documents • Describe the structure of accounting documents • Open and close posting periods • Open and close posting periods differently for different account types • Define the amounts that specific groups of accounting clerks are allowed to post • Assign users to a tolerance group for highest amounts • Post simple documents in Financial Accounting 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 179
  • 188. Unit Summary TFIN50 180 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 189. Unit 4 Posting Control Unit Overview Unit Objectives After completing this unit, you will be able to: • Define default values • Configure user-specific default values • Determine default values in the system and the configuration • Explain the rules governing changes to documents • Change documents • Analyze changes to documents • Reverse documents • Find reversal reasons in Customizing • Define terms of payment • Explain the account determination for automatic postings of cash discount • Describe the treatment of taxes in mySAP ERP Financials • Create tax codes and define tax accounts in the configuration • Explain cross-company code transactions • Post cross-company code transactions Unit Contents Lesson: Default Values.........................................................183 Exercise 12: Default Values...............................................187 Lesson: Change Control .......................................................191 Exercise 13: Document Change Rules..................................195 Lesson: Document Reversal ..................................................200 Exercise 14: Document Reversal ........................................203 Lesson: Payment Terms and Cash Discounts ..............................209 Exercise 15: Terms of Payment and Cash Discounts .................221 Lesson: Taxes ...................................................................231 Exercise 16: Taxes .........................................................245 Lesson: Cross-Company Code Transactions ...............................255 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 181
  • 190. Unit 4: Posting Control TFIN50 Exercise 17: Cross-Company Code Transactions .....................259 182 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 191. TFIN50 Lesson: Default Values Lesson: Default Values Lesson Overview This lesson gives you an overview of the various default value options in the mySAP ERP system. Lesson Objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to: • Define default values • Configure user-specific default values • Determine default values in the system and the configuration Business Example The user does not want to always have to re-enter data. You therefore want to define default values in the system. Figure 82: Default Values for User Settings Parameter IDs allow users to set default values for fields whose value does not change very often, for example, company code, currency. When you execute the transaction, these values appear in the corresponding fields automatically. You therefore do not have to enter these values manually and can prevent input errors. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 183
  • 192. Unit 4: Posting Control TFIN50 Using the editing options, you can configure your screens for the following areas: • Document entry: Users can hide fields that may not be relevant for their work such as foreign currency or cross-company code business transactions. You can also use special editing options for the single screen transactions. • Document display: Using the List Viewer, the user can select different display options for displaying documents. • Open items: Users choose line layout displays and posting options for processing open items, that is, users can enter the amount of a partial payment or the balance of the new open item. When users log on to the mySAP ERP system, their user ID has specific properties, namely the logon language, date format, and decimal notation, that apply to it throughout the system. Users can also set a default printer for themselves. You can simplify the work for user maintenance by first creating a dummy user and maintaining the values in accordance with the accounting requirements and then copying this user. Figure 83: System and Accounting Defaults The system provides you with basic default values for document entry. For example, during document entry, the current data is proposed as the posting date. If you have already entered a document, for the next document, the system proposes the company code that you entered in the last document. The system uses the document principle: The balance of a document must be zero before it can be posted. 184 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 193. TFIN50 Lesson: Default Values To enter the different business transactions in accounting, the system offers you predefined document types and posting keys in the configuration. For example, a vendor invoice has document type KR, the credit posting is carried out with posting key 31. In the system, you can control whether the fiscal year is proposed when you display or change documents. In company codes with (mostly) year-specific document number assignment, it is helpful if the fiscal year is proposed - the system then proposes the document number of the last document processed and the relevant fiscal year. You can also have the CPU date proposed as value date. At company code level, enter the maximum difference permitted between the exchange rate in the document header of a business transaction and the exchange rate in the exchange rate table. If the system determines that this percentage maximum difference has been exceeded, it issues a warning message. In this way, incorrect entries can be recognized and corrected in time. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 185
  • 194. Unit 4: Posting Control TFIN50 186 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 195. TFIN50 Lesson: Default Values Exercise 12: Default Values Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: • Explain the source of default values • Define default values. Business Example The user does want to have to enter data twice. You therefore want to define default values in the system. Task: Answer the following questions and configure the corresponding default values in the system. 1. List some sources of values that are defaulted by the system for document entry. 2. If the users want to make sure that they do not accidentally change the document type during document entry, where can they make that setting? 3. The value date is necessary for reflecting the transaction in Cash Management. Activate the function that proposes the value date when processing a document. 4. The maximum exchange rate variance has been 10%. The financial accountant has expressed concern that this percentage is too high. You are required to set the maximum exchange rate variance for your company to 5%. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 187
  • 196. Unit 4: Posting Control TFIN50 Solution 12: Default Values Task: Answer the following questions and configure the corresponding default values in the system. 1. List some sources of values that are defaulted by the system for document entry. Answer: • User master records • Parameter memory • System data • Account master record • Accounting functions 2. If the users want to make sure that they do not accidentally change the document type during document entry, where can they make that setting? a) From a G/L, A/P, or A/R document entry screen, select the "Editing Options" pushbutton. Field Name or Data Type Values Document Type Option Document type hidden Choose “Save“. 3. The value date is necessary for reflecting the transaction in Cash Management. Activate the function that proposes the value date when processing a document. a) Activate value date proposal. IMG: Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Settings → Document → Default Values for Document Processing → Default Value Date Field Name or Data Type Values Company Code GR## Default Value Date Choose "Save“. Continued on next page 188 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 197. TFIN50 Lesson: Default Values 4. The maximum exchange rate variance has been 10%. The financial accountant has expressed concern that this percentage is too high. You are required to set the maximum exchange rate variance for your company to 5%. a) Change the maximum exchange rate variance. IMG: Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Settings → Document → Document Header → Maximum Exchange Rate Difference → Define Maximum Exchange Rate Difference per Company Code Field Name or Data Type Values Company Code GR## Max. Exch. Rate Diff. 5% Choose "Save“. Note: You have just set system defaults that will impact future business transactions. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 189
  • 198. Unit 4: Posting Control TFIN50 Lesson Summary You should now be able to: • Define default values • Configure user-specific default values • Determine default values in the system and the configuration 190 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 199. TFIN50 Lesson: Change Control Lesson: Change Control Lesson Overview This lesson describes the control function for changing documents. Lesson Objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to: • Explain the rules governing changes to documents • Change documents • Analyze changes to documents Business Example The accounting manager does not want all the fields that can be changed after a document has been posted in mySAP ERP to be modifiable. Figure 84: Changing Documents Users can change documents that have already been posted. However, based on different rules, only certain fields can be changed. These rules can either be predefined by the system or be user-specific. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 191
  • 200. Unit 4: Posting Control TFIN50 Certain fields in both the document header and the line items can be changed. • Document header: Only the reference number and text fields can be changed • Line items: The system does not permit changes to the amount, the posting key, the account, or any other fields that would affect the reconciliation of a posting. As users make changes to documents, the following information is logged: • The field that was changed • The new and old values • The user who made the change • The time and date of the change Figure 85: Document Change Rules You can differentiate between document change rules according to the following criteria: • Account type: The account type allows users to define rules for accounts receivable, accounts payable, or G/L accounts. • Transaction class: Transaction classes are only used for special GL transactions, bills of exchange, and down payments. • Company code: If the field is blank, the rule applies to every company code. 192 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 201. TFIN50 Lesson: Change Control The conditions for changing a field are predefined. You can change them as follows: • The posting period is still open • The line item is not yet cleared • The line item is either a debit in a customer account or a credit in a vendor account • The document is not a credit memo for an invoice • The document is not a credit memo from a down payment You can display document changes for all documents with report RFBABL00. In this report you have selection options including the company code, the document numbers, the fiscal year, the change date, and the user name of the person making the change. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 193
  • 202. Unit 4: Posting Control TFIN50 194 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 203. TFIN50 Lesson: Change Control Exercise 13: Document Change Rules Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: • Apply the rules for changing documents Business Example The assignment field determines which document in Sales Order Management forms the basis for the accounting document. Internal auditors have requested that you prevent the assignment field from been changed subsequent to the creation of a transaction. Task: Make the assignment field not modifiable. 1. Check whether the assignment field can be changed in one of the documents you posted in the previous exercise. If it can be changed, alter the change rules for account types "D", "K", and "S" to prevent further changes to the assignment field. After this, demonstrate that the assignment field can no longer be changed. Hint: The field name of the assignment field is "BSEG-ZUONR". 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 195
  • 204. Unit 4: Posting Control TFIN50 Solution 13: Document Change Rules Task: Make the assignment field not modifiable. 1. Check whether the assignment field can be changed in one of the documents you posted in the previous exercise. If it can be changed, alter the change rules for account types "D", "K", and "S" to prevent further changes to the assignment field. After this, demonstrate that the assignment field can no longer be changed. Hint: The field name of the assignment field is "BSEG-ZUONR". a) Can the assignment field be changed? Application: Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable → Document → Change Field Name or Data Type Values Document Number From previous unit Company Code GR## Fiscal Year Current year Choose “Enter“. Doubleclick on the customer line item and note that the assignment field can be changed. Create a new change rule. IMG: Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Settings → Document → Line Item → Document Change Rules, Line Item → New Entries Field Name or Data Type Values Field Name BSEG-ZUONR Account Type S Transaction Class BLANK Company Code GR## Field is modifiable BLANK Choose "Save“. Continued on next page 196 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 205. TFIN50 Lesson: Change Control Select the green arrow to return to the overview screen. Highlight the rule you just created. Edit → Copy As... Field Name or Data Type Values Field Name BSEG-ZUONR Account Type D Transaction Class BLANK Company Code GR## Field is modifiable BLANK Choose “Enter”. Highlight the rule you just created. Edit → Copy As... Field Name or Data Type Values Field Name BSEG-ZUONR Account Type K Transaction Class BLANK Company Code GR## Field is modifiable BLANK Choose “Enter”. Choose "Save“. To check whether the field is no longer modifiable, repeat the first step and call up the document to change it. Application: Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable → Document → Change Field Name or Data Type Values Document Number From previous unit Company Code GR## Fiscal Year Current year Choose “Enter“. Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 197
  • 206. Unit 4: Posting Control TFIN50 Doubleclick on the customer line item and note that the assignment field is no longer modifiable. Note: You have created a document change rule that states that for customer, vendor, and general ledger postings, the assignment field is not modifiable after posting. 198 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 207. TFIN50 Lesson: Change Control Lesson Summary You should now be able to: • Explain the rules governing changes to documents • Change documents • Analyze changes to documents 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 199
  • 208. Unit 4: Posting Control TFIN50 Lesson: Document Reversal Lesson Overview This lesson introduces two ways to reverse documents in the system. Lesson Objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to: • Reverse documents • Find reversal reasons in Customizing Business Example Once in a while, a document is entered and posted incorrectly. It must be reversed and re-entered correctly. Management wants to be able to correct transaction figures when reversing a document. Figure 86: Reverse Documents Users can make errors when they enter documents. As a result, the document created contains incorrect information. In order to log the adjustments, the incorrect document must first be reversed. The document can then be re-entered correctly. The system provides a function to reverse G/L, customer, and vendor documents both individually or in a mass reversal. 200 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 209. TFIN50 Lesson: Document Reversal A document can be reversed by: • Normal reversal posting • Negative posting When you reverse a document, you have to enter a reversal reason that explains the reversal. The reversal reason also controls whether the reversal date is allowed to be different to the original posting date. Documents with cleared items cannot be reversed. The document must first be reset. Figure 87: Normal Reversal Posting, Negative Posting The normal reversal posting causes the system to post the incorrect debit as a credit and the incorrect credit as a debit. The normal reversal posting therefore causes an additional increase in the transaction figures. The negative posting also posts the incorrect debit as a credit and the incorrect credit as a debit. This time the posted amount is not added to the transaction figures, but is subtracted from the transaction figures of the other side of the account. This sets the transaction figures back to as they were before the incorrect posting took place. Normally the system uses the normal reversal posting to reverse documents. The following prerequisites must be fulfilled to enable negative postings: • The company code permits negative postings • The reversal reason must be defined for negative reversal. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 201
  • 210. Unit 4: Posting Control TFIN50 Negative postings can also be used to perform transfer postings of incorrect line items. The item is removed from the wrong account by a negative posting (resetting the transaction figures) and posted to the correct account by a normal posting. This can only be done with a document type that explicitly allows negative postings. 202 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 211. TFIN50 Lesson: Document Reversal Exercise 14: Document Reversal Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: • Reverse documents • Configure your company code to allow negative postings Business Example Once in a while, a document is entered and posted incorrectly. In this case, it needs to be reversed and re-entered correctly. Management wants to be able to correct transaction figures when reversing a document. Task: Answer the following questions: 1. Name the two possible ways to reverse a document in mySAP ERP Financials. 2. What are the two prerequisites that must be fulfilled in order to process negative postings? 3. Check whether your company code allows negative postings. 4. Check which reversal reasons can be used to perform reversal by negative postings. 5. Post a G/L account document for 15,000 currency units (local currency), using the account “Car Rental Expense”. Your instructor will give you the offsetting account for outgoing checks. Then check the balance of your expense account. 6. Reverse the G/L document you just created and then review the account balance to see the impact of a negative reversal. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 203
  • 212. Unit 4: Posting Control TFIN50 Solution 14: Document Reversal Task: Answer the following questions: 1. Name the two possible ways to reverse a document in mySAP ERP Financials. Answer: • Normal reversal posting • Reversal by negative posting 2. What are the two prerequisites that must be fulfilled in order to process negative postings? Answer: • 1. The company code must allow negative postings. • 2. The reversal reason must be defined for negative reversal. 3. Check whether your company code allows negative postings. a) Allow negative postings in company code: IMG: Financial Accounting → General Ledger Accounting → Business Transactions → Adjustment Posting/Reversal → Permit Negative Postings Field Name or Data Type Values Company Code GR## Negative Postings Permitted Choose "save" if you had to set the “Negative Postings Permitted” indicator. 4. Check which reversal reasons can be used to perform reversal by negative postings. a) IMG: Financial Accounting → General Ledger Accounting → Business Transactions → Adjustment Posting/Reversal → Define Reasons for Reversal Check reason codes. The "Negative Posting" indicator is set for reversal reasons 03, 04, 05, 06, 07, RE. Continued on next page 204 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 213. TFIN50 Lesson: Document Reversal 5. Post a G/L account document for 15,000 currency units (local currency), using the account “Car Rental Expense”. Your instructor will give you the offsetting account for outgoing checks. Then check the balance of your expense account. a) Post a G/L account document. Application: Accounting → Financial Accounting → General Ledger → Posting → Enter G/L Account Document If prompted, enter your Company code, GR##, then select “Enter”. Hint: Choose the “Tree Off” button so that the document entry window fills the entire screen. Field Name or Data Type Values Basic Data Document Date Current date Posting Date Current date First Item G/L Account AE02## D/C Debit Amount in Document Currency 15 000 Tax ID V0 Item Text Negative posting test Second Item G/L Account Your instructor will give you this information. D/C Credit Amount in Document Currency 15 000 Text Negative posting test Document → Simulate Check your document. Doubleclick on a line item to display or change data. Select “Post” to save your document. Document number: Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 205
  • 214. Unit 4: Posting Control TFIN50 _________________ Check the balance on the account and identify the document type: SAP Easy Access menu: Accounting → Financial Accounting → General Ledger → Account → Display Balances Field Name or Data Type Values G/L Account AE02## Company Code GR## Fiscal Year Current year Choose “Execute“. Record the balances for the current period. Debit Credit Doubleclick on the debit balance for the current period to display the line items that make up the account balance. The SA document type is a G/L account posting. 6. Reverse the G/L document you just created and then review the account balance to see the impact of a negative reversal. a) Perform a negative reversal. Application: Accounting → Financial Accounting → General Ledger → Document → Reverse → Individual Reversal Field Name or Data Type Values Document Number Noted number of the G/L account document Company Code GR## Fiscal Year Current year Reversal Reason 03 (or any other which performs negative reversal) Goto → Display before reversal Select the green arrow to return to the overview screen. Choose “Post” to save the document. Document number: Continued on next page 206 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 215. TFIN50 Lesson: Document Reversal _________________ Check the balance on the account: SAP Easy Access menu: Accounting → Financial Accounting → General Ledger → Account → Display Balances Field Name or Data Type Values G/L Account AE02## Company Code GR## Fiscal Year Current year Choose “Execute“. Record the balances for the current period. Debit Credit Compare these values to the balances recorded before the reversal. Note: You have just… • Configured your company code to allow negative postings • Checked which document types are allowed for negative postings • Identified the reason codes used with negative postings 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 207
  • 216. Unit 4: Posting Control TFIN50 Lesson Summary You should now be able to: • Reverse documents • Find reversal reasons in Customizing 208 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 217. TFIN50 Lesson: Payment Terms and Cash Discounts Lesson: Payment Terms and Cash Discounts Lesson Overview This lesson describes different payment terms and their effect on automatic postings of cash discount. Lesson Objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to: • Define terms of payment • Explain the account determination for automatic postings of cash discount Business Example The company uses different terms of payment. Cash discounts are to be posted automatically by the system. The company continually negotiates new terms of payments with a vendor, and these are to be reflected in the system. Figure 88: Terms of Payment Terms of payment are conditions agreed between business partners for the payment of invoices. The conditions define the due date and the cash discount offered for payment of the invoice within a certain period. Some terms of payment are predefined in the system; you can add new ones if necessary. Terms of payment enable the system to calculate a cash discount and invoice due date. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 209
  • 218. Unit 4: Posting Control TFIN50 In order to do this, the system needs the following data: • Baseline date: The date from which the terms are counted. • Cash discount terms: The terms for which cash discount is granted. • Cash discount percentage rates: The percentage rate used to calculate cash discount. When you process a document, you enter the terms of payment so that the system can calculate the required conditions of payment. If you have entered terms of payment in the master record, these are proposed. You can also enter or change them during processing. Figure 89: Terms of Payment in Invoices You can enter terms of payment in the company code segment, the sales area segment, and the purchasing organization segment of a customer/vendor master record. The terms of payment defaulted when posting an invoice depends on where the invoice is created: • If the invoice is created in Financials, the terms of payment from the company code segment are defaulted. • If a customer invoice is created in Sales order Management, the terms of payment from the sales area segment are defaulted. When you post the Sales order Management invoice, the terms of payment are copied to the FI invoice (which is created automatically). • If a vendor invoice is created in Purchasing Management, terms of payment from the purchasing organization segment are defaulted. When you post this invoice, the terms of payment are automatically copied to the accounting document. 210 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 219. TFIN50 Lesson: Payment Terms and Cash Discounts When you enter a vendor invoice, you can also set a fixed cash discount amount or a cash discount percentage rate. That is, the cash discount is granted independently of the payment period/date. To do this, you must make the appropriate entry in the “Cash Discount” field. Figure 90: Terms of Payment in Credit Memos Invoice related credit memos: • Credit memos can be linked to the original invoice by entering the invoice number in the "Invoice Reference" field during document entry. In this case, the terms of payment are copied from the invoice so that the invoice and the credit memo are due on the same date. Other credit memos: • Terms of payment in other credit memos are invalid. These credit memos are due on the baseline date. To activate the payment terms on these non-invoice related credit memos, enter a “V” in the "Invoice Reference" field when entering the document. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 211
  • 220. Unit 4: Posting Control TFIN50 Figure 91: Terms of Payment - Basic Data General: • The day limit is the calendar day to which the terms of payment are valid. Using the day limit, you can store single or multi-part terms of payment in a terms of payment key (terms of payment key 0009 in the graphic). • The description for terms of payment includes the following elements: An explanation generated automatically by the system which can be replaced by your own explanation of the terms of payment, and a Sales and Distribution text for printing on invoices. • The account type defines the subledger in which terms of payment can be used. If you want to use terms of payment for both vendors and customers, you should define these using separate terms of payment keys and then only use them for one account type accordingly. This prevents any change that you make in terms of payment for your customers, for example, changing the cash discount percentage rate from 3% to 2%, from taking effect for postings to your vendors (not desired). 212 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 221. TFIN50 Lesson: Payment Terms and Cash Discounts Figure 92: Terms of Payment – Payment Controls Payment control: • Using block keys, which can be entered in line items or accounts, you can block line items or accounts for payment or collection. These block keys can also be entered in payment terms. • A payment method (for each country, the system has payment methods defined that you can use in that country) is entered in the line items or the accounts. Like payment blocks, payment methods can be entered in the terms of payment. A block key and payment method defined in terms of payment are defaulted in the line item when the terms of payment are used. If you are using Sales Order Management, read notes 132701 and 217021. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 213
  • 222. Unit 4: Posting Control TFIN50 Figure 93: Baseline Date Baseline date The baseline date is the starting date the system uses to calculate the invoice due date. The following rules apply for the calculation of the baseline date: • The default values from which the baseline date can be determined are as follows: No default, document date, posting date or entry date • Specifications for calculating the baseline date: Fixed day used to overwrite the calendar day of the baseline date. The number of month(s) to be added to the calendar month of the baseline month. For further information about the system behavior with default values for the terms of payment baseline date and changing the date by adding months, see note 162885. 214 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 223. TFIN50 Lesson: Payment Terms and Cash Discounts Figure 94: Cash Discount To calculate the cash discount, you enter a percentage rate in the terms of payment. You also enter the number of days that the percentage is valid for in the same line. You can also add fixed days and months. The days and months specified in the terms of payment are used in conjunction with the baseline date to calculate the correct cash discount amount for the payment date. You can enter up to three cash discount periods. Figure 95: Day Limits Day limits enable date-specific terms of payment in one terms of payment key. You can define several versions of terms of payment, with each version having a different day limit. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 215
  • 224. Unit 4: Posting Control TFIN50 The day limit is the baseline date up to which the payment term version applies. For terms of payment that are dependent, for example, on whether the baseline date is before the 15th of the month, you can enter two-part terms of payment under the same terms of payment key. The entry for the specified day limit is added to the terms of payment key. This results in two entries where different terms of payments can be defined. The following terms of payment require the specification of a day limit: • Documents with invoice date up to the 15th of the month are payable on the last day of the following month • Documents with a later invoice date are payable on the 15th of the month after Figure 96: Installment Payments An invoice can be paid over several months using an installment plan, or a portion of the invoice amount may be retained for payment at a later date. The total invoice amount is divided into partial amounts due on different dates. The system carries out this split automatically if installment payment is defined in the terms of payment. To do this, select installment payment and do not assign cash discount periods or cash discount percentage rates. Define an installment number, a percentage rate, and terms of payment for each installment. The percentage rates specified must total 100%. 216 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 225. TFIN50 Lesson: Payment Terms and Cash Discounts The system creates a line item for each installment specified. The line item amounts correspond to the percentages of the total amount. The total of the line item amounts corresponds to the total amount. The terms of payment for the line items are the terms of payment defined for the individual installments. Figure 97: Cash Discount Base Amount Depending on the national regulations of your country, the cash discount base amount is the net value (total of G/L account and fixed assets line items, taxes not included, for example in the USA) or gross value (including taxes, as is the case in Germany). For each company code or tax jurisdiction code, specify which value the system is to use as cash discount base - this setting belongs to the global parameters of a company code. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 217
  • 226. Unit 4: Posting Control TFIN50 Figure 98: Posting Cash Discount - Gross Procedure The cash discount amount is entered either manually or automatically by the system using the rates in the terms of payment. You can still change the cash discount after you post the invoice. When an open item on a customer or vendor account is cleared, the possible cash discount is posted automatically to an account for “cash discount expense” or “cash discount received”. You define the accounts for cash discount expense or cash discount revenue in the configuration. 218 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 227. TFIN50 Lesson: Payment Terms and Cash Discounts Figure 99: Net Procedure - Invoice (1) and Payment (2) If you post a vendor invoice with a document type for the net procedure, the amount posted to the expense or balance sheet account is reduced by the cash discount amount. The same amount is also posted to a cash discount clearing account to clear the posting. When you use the net procedure, the cash discount amount is automatically posted when the invoice is posted. When the invoice is paid, the system carries out a clearing posting to the cash discount clearing account. If the invoice is paid after the cash discount deadline, the cash discount loss is posted to a separate account. The cash discount clearing account must be managed on an open item basis. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 219
  • 228. Unit 4: Posting Control TFIN50 220 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 229. TFIN50 Lesson: Payment Terms and Cash Discounts Exercise 15: Terms of Payment and Cash Discounts Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: • Configure terms of payment • Post cash discount automatically Business Example The company uses different terms of payment. Cash discounts are to be posted automatically by the system. The company has negotiated new terms of payment with a vendor. Task 1: Create a new terms of payment key. 1. You are required to implement a new terms of payment key, AC##, and test it to ensure it works. The new terms negotiated with your vendor are: 5% for immediately payment, 2% cash discount for payment within 14 days No deduction for payment in 30 days The posting date is the baseline date. Task 2: Assign the new terms of payment to your vendor. 1. Assign the new terms of payment to your vendor. Task 3: Use the new terms of payment key the next time you enter an invoice. 1. Test your new terms of payment by posting an invoice for 50,000 units of local currency. Use your account for entertainment expenses for the debit posting. Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 221
  • 230. Unit 4: Posting Control TFIN50 Task 4: True or false? 1. Credit memos can be linked to invoices to ensure that invoice and credit memos are due on the same date. Determine whether this statement is true or false. □ True □ False 2. The day limits define the dates of the cash discount periods. Determine whether this statement is true or false. □ True □ False 3. Every installment of an installment plan must have its own terms of payment. Determine whether this statement is true or false. □ True □ False Task 5: Answer the following question. 1. “Terms of Payment” is a field in the and segment of the customer master record. Fill in the blanks to complete the sentence. Task 6: Answer the following question. 1. The is the date that the system uses to determine the due date of the invoice. Fill in the blanks to complete the sentence. Continued on next page 222 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 231. TFIN50 Lesson: Payment Terms and Cash Discounts Task 7: Answer the following question. 1. Which cash discount accounts are used in the net procedure? Task 8: Answer the following question. 1. Which cash discount accounts are used in the gross procedure? 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 223
  • 232. Unit 4: Posting Control TFIN50 Solution 15: Terms of Payment and Cash Discounts Task 1: Create a new terms of payment key. 1. You are required to implement a new terms of payment key, AC##, and test it to ensure it works. The new terms negotiated with your vendor are: 5% for immediately payment, 2% cash discount for payment within 14 days No deduction for payment in 30 days Continued on next page 224 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 233. TFIN50 Lesson: Payment Terms and Cash Discounts The posting date is the baseline date. a) Create terms of payment. IMG: Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable and Accounts Payable → Business Transactions → Incoming Invoices/Credit Memos → Maintain Terms of Payment Edit → New Entries Field Name or Data Type Values Terms of Payment AC## Account Type Customer BLANK Vendor Default for Baseline Date Posting Date Terms of Payment Term 1 Percentage 5% No. of Days BLANK Term 2 Percentage 2% No. of Days 14 Term 3 No. of Days 30 Choose Continue. In the “Explanations” area, the terms of payment are automatically described in words. Check that you have considered the terms of payment correctly. Choose "Save“. Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 225
  • 234. Unit 4: Posting Control TFIN50 Task 2: Assign the new terms of payment to your vendor. 1. Assign the new terms of payment to your vendor. a) Enter terms of payment in the vendor master record. SAP Easy Access menu: Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Payable → Master Records → Change Field Name or Data Type Values Vendor Vendor## Company Code GR## Company Code Data Payment Transactions Choose “Enter“. Field Name or Data Type Values Terms of Payment AC## Choose “Save“. Task 3: Use the new terms of payment key the next time you enter an invoice. 1. Test your new terms of payment by posting an invoice for 50,000 units of local currency. Use your account for entertainment expenses for the debit posting. a) Post a vendor invoice SAP Easy Access menu: Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Payable → Document Entry → Invoice If prompted, enter your Company code, GR##, then select “Enter”. Field Name or Data Type Values Basic Data Vendor Vendor## Invoice Date Current date Posting Date Current date Continued on next page 226 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 235. TFIN50 Lesson: Payment Terms and Cash Discounts Amount 50 000 Currency Local Currency Calculate Tax Tax Code 0I (input tax training 0%) Item G/L Account AE01## D/C Debit Amount in Document Currency 50 000 Tax Code 0I (input tax training 0%) Item text Dinner for staff Click on the “Payments” tab page to check whether the terms of payment are proposed from the vendor master record. Document → Simulate Check your document. Doubleclick on a line item to display or change data. Select “Post” to save your document. Document number: _________________ _________________ Note: You have just… • Created new terms of payment • Assigned it to your vendor master record When you posted an invoice, the new terms of payment were defaulted from the vendor master record. Display the line items as follows to check that this has actually happened: Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Payable → Account → Display/Change Line Items Enter your vendor number and company code on the selection screen and execute the report. Doubleclick on the line item for which you want to see the individual terms of payment. Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 227
  • 236. Unit 4: Posting Control TFIN50 Task 4: True or false? 1. Credit memos can be linked to invoices to ensure that invoice and credit memos are due on the same date. Answer: True When you link a credit memo to the original invoice, the terms of payment are copied from the invoice so that the invoice and the credit memo are due on the same date. 2. The day limits define the dates of the cash discount periods. Answer: False The day limits are used to store several versions of terms of payment under the same terms of payment key. 3. Every installment of an installment plan must have its own terms of payment. Answer: True The terms of payment for the line items are the terms of payment defined for the individual installments. Task 5: Answer the following question. 1. “Terms of Payment” is a field in the company code and sales area segment of the customer master record. Answer: company code, sales area You can define terms of payment in the company code segment and in the sales area segment of a customer master record. When you create an invoice/billing document, the origin principle applies. Task 6: Answer the following question. 1. The baseline date is the date that the system uses to determine the due date of the invoice. Answer: baseline date In order to calculate cash discount periods, the system must be able to access a baseline date as the start date. Continued on next page 228 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 237. TFIN50 Lesson: Payment Terms and Cash Discounts Task 7: Answer the following question. 1. Which cash discount accounts are used in the net procedure? Answer: • Cash discount clearing account • Cash discount loss account Task 8: Answer the following question. 1. Which cash discount accounts are used in the gross procedure? Answer: • Cash discount revenue account • Cash discount expense account 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 229
  • 238. Unit 4: Posting Control TFIN50 Lesson Summary You should now be able to: • Define terms of payment • Explain the account determination for automatic postings of cash discount 230 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 239. TFIN50 Lesson: Taxes Lesson: Taxes Lesson Overview This lesson describes the settings for tax codes in the system. Lesson Objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to: • Describe the treatment of taxes in mySAP ERP Financials • Create tax codes and define tax accounts in the configuration Business Example Management has requested that due to time constraints, you should provide the basic tax requirements of your country for the prototype. It was suggested that you use your country’s mySAP ERP tax template. Figure 100: Taxes SAP supports the tax systems for different countries: • Tax on sales and purchases • US sales tax • Additional taxes (country-specific, for example, investment tax in Norway, clearing tax in Belgium) • Withholding tax (not covered in this course) 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 231
  • 240. Unit 4: Posting Control TFIN50 There are basically two types of taxation that can be processed in the mySAP ERP System: • Taxes are levied at a national level, with uniformly defined rates. • Taxes are levied at a state/jurisdictional level, with rates defined by the state/jurisdiction. Due to the complications involved with this type of taxation (there are over 67,000 possible jurisdictions in the USA), third party software is often used to determine the tax allocation. SAP provides a generic interface software to support this. In some countries (for example, Canada, India, Brazil) taxes are even levied on both levels. US sales and use taxes are typical examples of taxes below national level. Figure 101: Tax - Support The system supports the treatment of taxes as follows: • Checks the tax amount entered or automatically calculates the tax • Posts the tax amount to tax accounts. • Performs tax adjustments for cash discounts or other forms of deductions The expense or revenue amount is the base amount, which can include a cash discount (tax base is gross) or exclude a cash discount (tax base is net). The tax code is used for the calculation procedure required to perform taxation functions on the SAP system. 232 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 241. TFIN50 Lesson: Taxes National regulations determine whether the tax base amount must be: • Net amount (taxable expense or revenue items minus cash discount) • Gross amount (taxable expense or revenue items including cash discount) • You define which amount is to be used for each company code or for the highest level of the jurisdiction code. Figure 102: Tax on Sales and Purchases The tax on sales and purchases is the balance of the output tax and the input tax. • The output tax is levied on the net value of the goods and is billed to the customer. It is a liability of the company to the tax authorities. • Input tax is levied on the net invoice amount and is billed by the vendor. The input tax is a receivable which the company claims from the tax authority. Under certain circumstances, a company can deduct input tax that it has paid from its tax liability to the tax authorities: Only taxes that have been levied on the added value of goods have to be paid over to the tax authorities. The tax liability minus deductible input tax is the tax payable. Tax authorities can define that part of the input tax is not deductible. This tax amount can be posted to a separate expense account, or it can be distributed to the G/L account and assets line items. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 233
  • 242. Unit 4: Posting Control TFIN50 Figure 103: US Tax on Sales and Purchases - Sales Tax In the USA, there is a distinction between sales tax and use tax. Both taxes only apply to goods which are consumed by the customer. Goods that are used in production or for resale to a third party remain untaxed. If a taxable good is sold either sales or use tax is levied. Therefore, goods are only taxed once. This graphic shows how sales taxes are posted. Sales tax is collected by a vendor on a sale and remitted to the jurisdiction of the customer. The system calculates sales tax based on material and customer location and posts it in Sales Order Management and Purchasing Management. If customers are exempt from taxation, you can specify this in their master records by entering the appropriate indicator. 234 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 243. TFIN50 Lesson: Taxes Figure 104: US Tax on Sales and Purchases - Use Tax In the USA, there is a distinction between sales tax and use tax. Both taxes only apply to goods which are consumed by the customer. Goods that are used in production or for resale to a third party remain untaxed. If a taxable good is sold either sales or use tax is levied. Therefore, goods are only taxed once. This graphic shows how use taxes are posted. The customer only has to pay use tax if he was not charged sales tax by the vendor. This may be the case if the vendor does not have a “presence” in the state of the customer or if the customer has a “self-assessment permit”. The customer determines the use tax amount and remits it to the jurisdiction where the goods are consumed. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 235
  • 244. Unit 4: Posting Control TFIN50 Figure 105: Tax Calculation Procedure A tax calculation procedure is assigned to every country for carrying out tax calculations. The mySAP ERP system is delivered with pre-configured tax calculation procedures for most countries. The tax calculation procedure contains: • The order of steps which have to be taken in the tax calculation procedure (the “from step” indicates where the system calls the base value for the “step”). • Tax types (condition types) that apply for the country. The system is delivered with the condition types necessary for each type of tax calculation. The tax calculation procedure already covers the correct condition types. • Account key/transaction key that covers additional specifications and is used for the automatic account determination for the taxes concerned. Predefined accounts keys are included in the mySAP ERP system. We recommend that you use these standard account keys. For the USA two tax calculation procedures are relevant: • TAXUSJ: Standard tax procedure including handling of jurisdiction codes • TAXUSX: Tax procedure used when employing an external tax package Condition types are tax calculations that are valid for the country. The base amount is an expense or revenue item. 236 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 245. TFIN50 Lesson: Taxes Figure 106: Jurisdiction Code A jurisdiction code is a combination of the codes of tax authorities that tax movements of goods and use their own tax rates. There are four possible levels below national level: State, county, city, district. Using tax jurisdiction codes involves two steps: • You have to define the length of the individual elements of the code for the format of the jurisdiction code. This activity also automatically switches over tax processing for this tax procedure to the tax jurisdiction code method. • The tax jurisdiction codes must be defined on every level, for example: • 25 000 0000 0 for state level • 25 022 0000 0 for county level • 25 022 1105 0 for city level • 25 022 1105 1 for sub-city level When you post taxes with a jurisdiction code, you can enter the taxes per jurisdiction code or per tax level. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 237
  • 246. Unit 4: Posting Control TFIN50 Figure 107: Tax Code You enter the tax code when you post the document and this is the main connection to the tax calculation. This connection is different depending on whether the country uses a tax calculation procedure with tax jurisdiction codes or not. The tax code is linked with either of the following: • Country key • Combination of country key and tax jurisdiction code • The tax codes within a jurisdictional taxation method are date-specific. In the configuration, you can choose whether the document date or the posting date is valid for the tax calculation. Figure 108: Tax Rates 238 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 247. TFIN50 Lesson: Taxes In addition to other information, the tax code contains the tax rates. Tax rates are assigned to the tax types used in the tax calculation procedure. A tax code may have several tax rates entered for different tax types (if a line item is to be taxed with several tax types), but usually only one tax rate is entered. Example for tax code with more than one tax rate: • 10% input tax on an item, whereby 40% of the tax amount is non-deductible (for the tax rates, this means: 6% input tax, 4% non-deductible input tax). Some postings to tax-relevant G/L accounts must have a tax rate of zero. This applies to: • Items that are tax-exempt but have to be reported to the tax authorities. For these items a special tax code with a tax rate of zero is created. • Items that are created by tax exempt transactions such as goods issue, goods movement, and so on. A special tax code must be assigned to these transactions in configuration. The tax type definition determines if the base amount is “percentage included” or “percentage separate”. If the system detects a deviation between the tax calculated and the tax amount entered, it either issues an error message (check indicator set) or a warning message (check indicator not set). The check indicator should not be set for input tax codes because the user must post the tax amount from the invoice regardless of whether it is correct or not. Figure 109: Tax Postings 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 239
  • 248. Unit 4: Posting Control TFIN50 Tax Postings • The taxes calculated by the system are usually posted via a separate line item to a special tax account. This is the standard scenario. • Taxes with certain transaction/account keys (for example, NVV) are distributed to the relevant expense/revenue item. This is the case for sales tax payables or other non-deductible input taxes. Figure 110: Tax Account Determination To enable the automatic tax account determination you have to assign the following data to the account/transaction keys that generate the tax items during posting: • Posting keys (40 and 50 are recommended) • Rules that determine which fields the account determination is based on (the account determination can be based on the tax code or the account key) • Tax accounts When exchange rate differences occur because of tax adjustments in foreign currencies, these exchange rate differences are usually posted to the normal account for exchange rate differences. However, for each company code, you can specify that the exchange rate for tax items can also be entered manually or is determined by the posting or the document date. The resulting differences are posted to a special account. 240 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 249. TFIN50 Lesson: Taxes Figure 111: Tax Accounts You define tax accounts, that is, accounts to which tax items are posted, in the field Tax Category by entering one of the following signs: • < For input tax • > For output tax • The properties of the tax code define whether or not the tax posted is an input or an output tax. “Post Automatically Only” must be selected if you do not want to post tax manually. Figure 112: Other G/L Accounts 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 241
  • 250. Unit 4: Posting Control TFIN50 All other G/L accounts may have one of the following entries in the “Tax Category” field: • „ “ For non tax-relevant postings (e.g. bank postings) • "-" For postings that require an input tax code (for example, reconciliation account for payables from goods and services) • "+" For postings that require an output tax code (for example, reconciliation account for receivables from goods and services) • "*" For postings that require any tax code • "xx" For postings with the predefined tax code xx • The properties of the tax code define whether or not the tax posted is an input or an output tax. If the ”Postings Without Tax Allowed” field is selected, you can post to this G/L account without specifying a tax code. This is especially necessary for tax postings within a jurisdiction code tax calculation procedure to foreign customers who do not have a jurisdiction code. Hint: Accounts for cash discounts need an entry in the “Tax Category” field if the system is supposed to post tax adjustments. Figure 113: EU Single Market - Tax on Sales and Purchases Calculation Deliveries to customers in non-EU countries are exempt from tax (output tax 0%). The customer has to pay import tax, which is usually equal to the domestic input tax. 242 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 251. TFIN50 Lesson: Taxes Within the EU single market, the country of destination principle generally applies. This means that deliveries are tax exempt (output tax 0%) with acquisition tax being levied in the country of destination. The import and export restrictions have been replaced by more extensive reporting for deliveries between companies in EU countries: • The customer assesses the acquisition tax and reports it to the tax authorities in an extended advance return for tax on sales/purchases. In the same report, the acquisition tax can be claimed as input tax. The company therefore does not have to pay taxes when it acquires goods. The acquisition tax is used to report the acquisition of goods within the EU to the tax authorities. • The vendor has to report the tax exempt deliveries/goods movements to their tax authorities in an EC sales list. This sales list also contains the recipients of the goods. To identify the recipients every company is assigned a VAT registration number. This number must be specified on every invoice between EU companies. Figure 114: Acquisition Tax Codes Special tax codes: • The acquisition tax code creates two posting items: It posts the acquisition tax to the credit side of the acquisition output tax account and the same amount to the debit side of the acquisition input tax account. • The output tax code for the tax exempt deliveries must have an EU code for goods, services, and subcontracting within the EU to determine the relevant sales for the EC sales list. For technical reasons, you have to assign a tax account to the tax code even though no tax is posted. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 243
  • 252. Unit 4: Posting Control TFIN50 244 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 253. TFIN50 Lesson: Taxes Exercise 16: Taxes Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: • Create a new tax code • Post a customer invoice with taxes Business Example Management has requested that due to time constraints, you should provide the basic tax requirements of your country for the prototype. It was suggested that you use your country’s mySAP ERP tax template. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 245
  • 254. Unit 4: Posting Control TFIN50 Task 1: Answer the following question: 1. Name the two types of taxation that can be represented in the mySAP ERP system. Task 2: Answer the following question: 1. What data is required for the automatic account determination for tax amounts? Task 3: Create a new tax code. Complete either task 3-1 or 3-2 according to your country’s requirements. 1. Taxes not dependent on the jurisdiction code: The government of your country implements a tax reform and sets the tax on sales and purchases rate to 20%. Create a new output tax code ## to adjust to the new tax requirements. 2. Jurisdiction-specific taxes: Your instructor will give you the code of a jurisdiction that has just changed its sales tax rate to 5%. Your company code has a presence in this jurisdiction and is therefore obliged to collect sales tax. Create a new output tax code ## to adjust to the new tax requirements. 3. Define that the new tax code is relevant for “outgoing invoices in Financial Accounting” and should therefore be offered in the input help in the Enjoy transactions. Continued on next page 246 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 255. TFIN50 Lesson: Taxes Task 4: Test the new tax code by entering a customer invoice. 1. Post a customer invoice for 300,000 units of local currency to your customer account. Choose the option "Calculate Tax". Use the tax code that you created (and, if necessary, its jurisdiction code). Post the revenue side of the transaction to the account that is supplied by your instructor. Hint: Note the document number on your data sheet. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 247
  • 256. Unit 4: Posting Control TFIN50 Solution 16: Taxes Task 1: Answer the following question: 1. Name the two types of taxation that can be represented in the mySAP ERP system. Answer: • Taxation at national level • Taxation at regional/jurisdictional level Task 2: Answer the following question: 1. What data is required for the automatic account determination for tax amounts? Answer: • Rules • Posting key • Tax accounts Task 3: Create a new tax code. Complete either task 3-1 or 3-2 according to your country’s requirements. 1. Taxes not dependent on the jurisdiction code: The government of your country implements a tax reform and sets the tax on sales and purchases rate to 20%. Create a new output tax code ## to adjust to the new tax requirements. a) Create a new tax code. Taxes not dependent on the jurisdiction: Create a tax code. IMG: Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Settings → Tax on Sales/Purchases → Calculation → Define Tax Codes for Sales and Purchases Field Name or Data Type Values Country Course country Choose “Enter”. Continued on next page 248 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 257. TFIN50 Lesson: Taxes Field Name or Data Type Values Tax Code ## Choose “Enter“. Field Name or Data Type Values Tax Code ## Description Output tax 20% Tax Type A Choose “Enter“. Field Name or Data Type Values Tax Type Output tax AccKy MWS Tax Percent. 20,000 Choose “Enter”. Assign a tax account: Select the “Tax Accounts” pushbutton. Field Name or Data Type Values Chart of Accounts INT Choose “Enter“. Field Name or Data Type Values MWS Your instructor will give you the account for tax liabilities. Choose "Save“. Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 249
  • 258. Unit 4: Posting Control TFIN50 2. Jurisdiction-specific taxes: Your instructor will give you the code of a jurisdiction that has just changed its sales tax rate to 5%. Your company code has a presence in this jurisdiction and is therefore obliged to collect sales tax. Create a new output tax code ## to adjust to the new tax requirements. a) Jurisdiction-specific taxes: Create a tax code IMG: Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Settings → Tax on Sales/Purchases → Calculation → Define Tax Codes for Sales and Purchases Field Name or Data Type Values Country Course country Choose “Enter“. Field Name or Data Type Values Tax Code ## Jurisdiction Code Your instructor will give you this information Choose “Enter”. Field Name or Data Type Values Tax Code ## Description Sales tax 5% Tax Type A Check Choose “Enter”. Field Name or Data Type Values Tax Type A/R Sales tax 3 AccKy MW3 Tax Percent. 5 Assign a tax account. Select the “Tax Accounts” pushbutton. Continued on next page 250 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 259. TFIN50 Lesson: Taxes Field Name or Data Type Values Chart of Accounts INT Choose “Enter“. Field Name or Data Type Values MW3 Your instructor will give you the account for tax liabilities. Choose "Save“. 3. Define that the new tax code is relevant for “outgoing invoices in Financial Accounting” and should therefore be offered in the input help in the Enjoy transactions. a) Define your tax code for the Enjoy transaction. IMG: Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable and Accounts Payable → Business Transactions → Outgoing Invoices/Credit Memos → Outgoing Invoices Credit Memos - Enjoy → Define Tax Code per Transaction Field Name or Data Type Values Country Key Course country Choose “Enter“. Choose “New Entries“. Field Name or Data Type Values Tax Code ## Transaction Outgoing invoices in Financial Accounting Choose "Save“. Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 251
  • 260. Unit 4: Posting Control TFIN50 Task 4: Test the new tax code by entering a customer invoice. 1. Post a customer invoice for 300,000 units of local currency to your customer account. Choose the option "Calculate Tax". Use the tax code that you created (and, if necessary, its jurisdiction code). Post the revenue side of the transaction to the account that is supplied by your instructor. Hint: Note the document number on your data sheet. a) Application: Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable → Document Entry → Invoice Field Name or Data Type Values Basic Data Customer Your customer Invoice Date Current date Posting Date Current date Amount 300 000 Currency Local currency Calculate Tax Tax Code ## (Your new tax code) Item G/L Account Your instructor will give you the revenue account. D/C Credit Amount in Document Currency 300 000 Tax Code Your new tax code Document → Simulate Check your document. Doubleclick on a line item to display or change data. Select “Post” to save your document. Document number: Continued on next page 252 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 261. TFIN50 Lesson: Taxes _________________ Note: You have just… • Created a new tax code • Assigned a general ledger account to the tax code to enable automatic postings • Defined your tax code to be used in the Enjoy transaction • Posted a customer invoice to demonstrate the automatic tax posting 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 253
  • 262. Unit 4: Posting Control TFIN50 Lesson Summary You should now be able to: • Describe the treatment of taxes in mySAP ERP Financials • Create tax codes and define tax accounts in the configuration 254 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 263. TFIN50 Lesson: Cross-Company Code Transactions Lesson: Cross-Company Code Transactions Lesson Overview This lesson gives an overview of cross-company code transactions. Lesson Objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to: • Explain cross-company code transactions • Post cross-company code transactions Business Example Management is considering setting up an additional domestic subsidiary and is concerned with mySAP ERP’s ability to handle cross-company code postings. Figure 115: Cross-Company Code Transaction (1) Figure 116: Cross-Company Code Transaction (2) 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 255
  • 264. Unit 4: Posting Control TFIN50 A cross-company code transaction involves two or more company codes in one business transaction. Examples: • One company code makes purchases for other company codes (Central Procurement) • One company code pays invoices for other company codes (Central Payment) • One company code sells goods to other company codes A cross-company code transaction posts to accounts in several company codes. This cannot be done by posting only one document because a document is always assigned to exactly one company code. Instead, the system creates and posts a separate document in each company code involved. In order to balance debits and credits within these documents, the system generates automatic line items which are posted to clearing accounts, for payables or receivables. The documents which belong to one cross-company code transaction are linked by a common cross-company code transaction number. You can use report RFBVOR00 to display cross-company code transactions. Figure 117: Central Procurement (Example) The graphic “Central Procurement (Example)” shows an example of a cross-company code transaction. A vendor delivers goods to company code 1000 and other goods to company code 2000, but sends only one invoice for all the goods to company code 1000. You enter a part of the expense and post the invoice 256 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 265. TFIN50 Lesson: Cross-Company Code Transactions to the vendor account in company code 1000. When entering the invoice, you have to post the other part of the expense in company code 2000. The clearing postings and the tax postings are created automatically. The tax is not distributed between the company codes according to their expenses. Therefore, this function may only be used if the transaction itself is not tax-relevant or if the company codes form a taxable entity. The tax calculated is always posted to the company code of the first item. Therefore, to ensure that the tax is posted to the same company code as the invoice, the invoice item must always be entered first. Certain countries' tax regulations (for example, in Japan and Denmark) require that the tax amounts are posted in the company codes in which the expenses occurred. Therefore, the tax must be distributed from the first company code to the other company codes according to their expense amount. You can do this using report RFBUST10. Figure 118: Clearing Accounts Clearing accounts must be defined in every company code before a cross-company code transaction may be carried out. The clearing accounts may be G/L accounts, customer, or vendor accounts. In the configuration you must assign clearing accounts to every possible combination of two company codes to allow cross-company code postings between these combinations (for example, three company codes need 3*2= 6 clearing accounts) 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 257
  • 266. Unit 4: Posting Control TFIN50 To reduce the number of clearing accounts, you can use just one company code as the clearing company code. In this case, you only have to assign clearing accounts to every combination of the clearing company code and the other company codes, (that is three company codes need 2*2= 4 clearing accounts) Posting keys must be assigned to the clearing accounts to identify their account types. Figure 119: Cross-Company Code Document Number When the cross-company code document is posted, the system generates a cross-company code document number to link all of the new documents together. The document number is a combination of the document number of the first company code, the first company code number, and the fiscal year. It is stored in the document header of all of the documents created for a complete audit trail. Cross-company code documents can be reversed: To do this, use the reversal function for cross-company code transactions. 258 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 267. TFIN50 Lesson: Cross-Company Code Transactions Exercise 17: Cross-Company Code Transactions Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: • Configure your company code to perform cross-company code transactions • Post a cross-company code transaction Business Example Management is considering setting up a foreign subsidiary and is concerned with mySAP ERP’s ability to handle cross-company code postings. Task 1: Answer the following question: 1. List two examples for cross-company code transactions: Task 2: True or false? 1. A cross-company code transaction consists of at least two documents. Determine whether this statement is true or false. □ True □ False 2. Tax amounts of a cross-company code transaction are automatically distributed to the company codes in which the expenses/revenues occurred. Determine whether this statement is true or false. □ True □ False Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 259
  • 268. Unit 4: Posting Control TFIN50 3. Cross-company code clearing accounts must be G/L accounts. Determine whether this statement is true or false. □ True □ False 4. The company codes of a cross-company code transaction may have different local currencies. Determine whether this statement is true or false. □ True □ False Task 3: Answer the following question: 1. Describe the components the system uses to create the cross-company code transaction number. Task 4: Create cross-company clearing accounts and configure the automatic postings for the cross-company postings. 1. Create a clearing account 1946## to process cross-company code transactions with your instructor's company code in your company code. To do so, copy the G/L account 194500. (Delete the entry in the Alternative Account Number field in account 1946##.) Set the field status group in both accounts to G001. Define the account to be posted to automatically by the system for cross-company code transactions. Hint: If the "With Reference" pushbutton is not active, follow the menu path Settings → Start Activity, and select the "Create GL Account with Reference" radiobutton. Select the green arrow to return to the Easy Access Menu and restart the transaction. Once in the transaction, select Enter to display a new window. 2. Assign your company code to a company. Choose the company that belongs to the company code of the instructor. Continued on next page 260 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 269. TFIN50 Lesson: Cross-Company Code Transactions 3. Configure the automatic postings for the cross-company code transaction. Task 5: Hint: Delete your user assignments to tolerance group SUPV, otherwise you will not be authorized to post in the course instructor's company code. You can find your user assignments to the tolerance group in the IMG under Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Settings → Document → Line Item → Define Tolerance Groups for Employees and Assign User/Tolerance Groups. Post an example transaction for central purchasing. 1. You receive an invoice from your vendor for 50,000 units of the local currency for material you purchased for the instructor’s company code. Use the tax code 1l (input tax (course) 10%). Post a cross-company code invoice to record the invoice in your company code and record the expense in the instructor’s company code. Record your document number(s). Hint: Choose the “Tree Off” button so that the document entry window fills the entire screen. Use the horizontal scroll bars if you cannot see all of the fields that you need. Task 6: Check your posting. 1. Look at your cross-company code document again. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 261
  • 270. Unit 4: Posting Control TFIN50 Solution 17: Cross-Company Code Transactions Task 1: Answer the following question: 1. List two examples for cross-company code transactions: Answer: • Central purchasing • Central payment Task 2: True or false? 1. A cross-company code transaction consists of at least two documents. Answer: True A cross-company code transaction posts to accounts in several company codes. This cannot be done by posting only one document because a document is always assigned to exactly one company code. 2. Tax amounts of a cross-company code transaction are automatically distributed to the company codes in which the expenses/revenues occurred. Answer: False The tax is completely posted to the first company code. In some countries (Denmark, Japan, Belgium) the proportional tax amounts for the respective company code must each be listed separately. The report RFBUST10 enables you to do this. 3. Cross-company code clearing accounts must be G/L accounts. Answer: False Cross-company code clearing accounts can be G/L accounts as well as customer/vendor accounts. 4. The company codes of a cross-company code transaction may have different local currencies. Answer: True Hint: In an earlier SAP release, the company codes had to have the same local currency. This requirement is no longer necessary. Continued on next page 262 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 271. TFIN50 Lesson: Cross-Company Code Transactions Task 3: Answer the following question: 1. Describe the components the system uses to create the cross-company code transaction number. Answer: The cross-company code transaction number is a combination of the document number in the first company code, the first company code number, and the fiscal year. Task 4: Create cross-company clearing accounts and configure the automatic postings for the cross-company postings. 1. Create a clearing account 1946## to process cross-company code transactions with your instructor's company code in your company code. To do so, copy the G/L account 194500. (Delete the entry in the Alternative Account Number field in account 1946##.) Set the field status group in both accounts to G001. Define the account to be posted to automatically by the system for cross-company code transactions. Hint: If the "With Reference" pushbutton is not active, follow the menu path Settings → Start Activity, and select the "Create GL Account with Reference" radiobutton. Select the green arrow to return to the Easy Access Menu and restart the transaction. Once in the transaction, select Enter to display a new window. a) Create a General Ledger Account: Application: Accounting → Financial Accounting → General Ledger → Master Records → G/L Accounts → Individual Processing → Centrally Or transaction code: FS00 Field Name or Data Type Values G/L Account 1946## Company Code GR## Choose the "With Reference" button. Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 263
  • 272. Unit 4: Posting Control TFIN50 Field Name or Data Type Values Account Number 194500 Company Code GR## Choose “Enter”. Field Name or Data Type Values Short text Clearing account G/L Account Long Text My cross-company clearing account Choose the “Control Data” tab page. Delete the entry in the field “Alternative Account Number”. Select the “Create/Bank/Interest“ tab page. Field Name or Data Type Values Field Status Group G001 Post Automatically Only Choose “Save”. 2. Assign your company code to a company. Choose the company that belongs to the company code of the instructor. a) IMG: Enterprise Structure → Assignment → Financial Accounting → Assign Company Code to Company Choose “Position...” to call up your company code and assign it to the company that belongs to the instructor's company code. 3. Configure the automatic postings for the cross-company code transaction. a) IMG: Financial Accounting → General Ledger Accounting → Business Transactions → Prepare Cross-Company Code Transactions Enter the following data for clearing between company codes: Continued on next page 264 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 273. TFIN50 Lesson: Cross-Company Code Transactions Field Name or Data Type Values Company Code 1 Your company code Company Code 2 Instructor’s company code Choose “Enter“. Where you have entered your own company code under “Posted In“, enter the following data: Field Name or Data Type Values Receivable Debit Posting Key 40 Debit Account Your clearing account (1946##) Payable Credit Posting Key 50 Credit Account Your clearing account (1946##) In the area where you entered the company code specified by your instructor under “Posted In“ enter the following data: Field Name or Data Type Values Receivable Debit Posting Key 40 Debit Account Instructor’s clearing account Payable Credit Posting Key 50 Credit Account Instructor’s clearing account Choose “Save“. Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 265
  • 274. Unit 4: Posting Control TFIN50 Task 5: Hint: Delete your user assignments to tolerance group SUPV, otherwise you will not be authorized to post in the course instructor's company code. You can find your user assignments to the tolerance group in the IMG under Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Settings → Document → Line Item → Define Tolerance Groups for Employees and Assign User/Tolerance Groups. Post an example transaction for central purchasing. 1. You receive an invoice from your vendor for 50,000 units of the local currency for material you purchased for the instructor’s company code. Use the tax code 1l (input tax (course) 10%). Post a cross-company code invoice to record the invoice in your company code and record the expense in the instructor’s company code. Record your document number(s). Hint: Choose the “Tree Off” button so that the document entry window fills the entire screen. Use the horizontal scroll bars if you cannot see all of the fields that you need. a) Cross-company code invoice SAP Easy Access menu: Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Payable → Document Entry → Invoice Field Name or Data Type Values Basic Data Vendor Vendor## Invoice Date Current date Document Type Vendor Invoice Posting Date Current date Amount 50 000 Curr/ExchRate Local currency Calculate Tax Tax ID 1I (10 % input tax) Items Continued on next page 266 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 275. TFIN50 Lesson: Cross-Company Code Transactions G/L account (expense account) Your instructor will give you this information D/C Debit Amount in Document Currency 50 000 Tax ID 1I (10 % input tax) Company Code Instructor’s company code Cost Center Instructor's cost center Document → Simulate Check your document. Doubleclick on a line item to display or change data. Note the cross-company code clearing postings. Choose “Post” to save the document. Document number: _________________ Task 6: Check your posting. 1. Look at your cross-company code document again. a) Display your cross-company code document. SAP Easy Access menu: Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Payable → Document → Cross-CC Transaction → Display Enter your document number, if necessary. Select “Enter” to display your document. Note: You have just… • Created a general ledger account for cross-company code transactions • Configured the automatic postings for cross-company code clearing with your instructor’s company code • Posted a cross-company code document. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 267
  • 276. Unit 4: Posting Control TFIN50 Lesson Summary You should now be able to: • Explain cross-company code transactions • Post cross-company code transactions 268 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 277. TFIN50 Unit Summary Unit Summary You should now be able to: • Define default values • Configure user-specific default values • Determine default values in the system and the configuration • Explain the rules governing changes to documents • Change documents • Analyze changes to documents • Reverse documents • Find reversal reasons in Customizing • Define terms of payment • Explain the account determination for automatic postings of cash discount • Describe the treatment of taxes in mySAP ERP Financials • Create tax codes and define tax accounts in the configuration • Explain cross-company code transactions • Post cross-company code transactions 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 269
  • 278. Unit Summary TFIN50 270 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 279. Unit 5 Clearing Unit Overview Unit Objectives After completing this unit, you will be able to: • Explain the clearing process • Clear an account • Post with clearing • Post incoming and outgoing payments • Reset clearing • Post payment differences • Describe tolerance groups and their role for posting payment differences • Post partial and residual payments • Create and use payment difference reason codes • Explain the system treatment of exchange rate differences Unit Contents Lesson: Clearing Open Items .................................................272 Exercise 18: Open Item Clearing.........................................279 Lesson: Incoming and Outgoing Payments .................................288 Exercise 19: Post with Clearing ..........................................297 Lesson: Payment Differences.................................................301 Exercise 20: Payment Differences .......................................309 Lesson: Exchange Rate Differences .........................................318 Exercise 21: Exchange Rate Differences ...............................321 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 271
  • 280. Unit 5: Clearing TFIN50 Lesson: Clearing Open Items Lesson Overview Lesson Objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to: • Explain the clearing process • Clear an account • Post with clearing Business Example Open items need to be cleared for a transaction to be completed. mySAP ERP provides two basic transactions for clearing; both are of interest for your company. Figure 120: Clearing Open Items Open items are incomplete transactions, such as invoices that have not been paid. For a transaction to be considered as completed, it must be cleared. A transaction is cleared when a clearing posting has been carried out for an item or group of items, so that the resulting balance of the items is zero. Documents with open items cannot be archived and stay in the system until all open items are cleared. 272 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 281. TFIN50 Lesson: Clearing Open Items Example for posting with clearing(see graphic above): • An invoice is posted to a customer account. This invoice is regarded as an open item because at this point it is unpaid. • The customer pays the invoice and the payment is assigned to the open item. • The invoice is cleared with the payment and the resulting balance is zero. Example for account clearing: • Manually clearing an open invoice with a related credit memo and payment on account. A clearing transaction always creates a clearing document. Figure 121: Post with Clearing When you use the "posting with clearing" function, enter the clearing document amount and then select the open items that are to be cleared. • If the total amount of selected open items equals the amount of the clearing document, the system clears the open items by creating one or more clearing items. • If the total amount of selected open items does not equal the amount of the clearing document, the system allows you to post the difference. “Posting with clearing” can be carried out for several accounts, account types, and for any currency simultaneously. You can carry out the “posting with clearing” transaction manually or automatically using the automatic payment program. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 273
  • 282. Unit 5: Clearing TFIN50 Figure 122: Account clearing Using the “account clearing” function, choose those open items from an account that balance to zero. The system marks them as cleared and creates a clearing document. The clearing document number and the clearing date is entered in the cleared items. The clearing date can be the current date or a date that the user determines. The “account clearing” function works for any account managed with open items in the general ledger and in subledgers. Since most of the time postings do not have to be made to clear items within an account, the clearing document usually contains no line items. However, if the items to be cleared belong to different business areas, the system may have to carry out clearing postings to balance the business areas to zero. The “account clearing” transaction may be performed manually or automatically by using the automatic clearing program. 274 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 283. TFIN50 Lesson: Clearing Open Items Figure 123: Automatic Clearing Program The user can clear open items for general ledger and subledger accounts with the automatic clearing program. The program groups items from an account together where they have the same entries in the following fields: • Reconciliation account number • Currency • Special G/L indicator • Five freely defined criteria from document header or line item, for example, assignment field, reference number, and so on. If the balance, in local currency, of the items within a group is zero, the system automatically clears them and creates clearing documents. All accounts requiring automatic clearing must be defined in Customizing. The automatic clearing program does not clear: • Noted items • Statistical postings and certain special G/L transactions relating to bills of exchange • Down payments can only be cleared if down payment clearing items of the same amount have already been posted. • items with withholding tax entries 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 275
  • 284. Unit 5: Clearing TFIN50 Figure 124: The Assignment Field as Sort Field The assignment field of a line item is automatically filled in accordance with the “Sort Field” entry in the master record when you post. The assignment field can be a combination of up to 4 fields with a maximum of 18 characters. For example, to display the document number (10 characters) and the posting date (6 characters), these 2 field names are included in the assignment field definition. For example, if the sort key is set to the purchase order number in the business partner master record, then the assignment field in the business partner line item is filled with the purchase order number. However, if the sort key is set to the cost center in a general ledger master record, then the assignment field in the general ledger line item is filled with the number of the cost center when that G/L account is used. 276 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 285. TFIN50 Lesson: Clearing Open Items The line item sorting in the line item display and clearing functions is based on the assignment field. An application example: • When an invoice is posted in Sales order Management, an accounting document is created in Financial. The accounting document has a document number that is normally different to the number of the Sales order Management invoice. You can use the reference and the assignment to trace which document in Sales order Management the accounting document is based on. The reference and the assignment in the accounting document are copied from the reference and the assignment in the Sales Order Management billing document. You can define which numbers (purchase order, order, delivery, or billing document number) are copied into the Sales Order Management document as reference and assignment and then transferred to Financial Accounting. You can then use these fields as selection criteria in Financial Accounting. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 277
  • 286. Unit 5: Clearing TFIN50 278 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 287. TFIN50 Lesson: Clearing Open Items Exercise 18: Open Item Clearing Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: • Explain both options for clearing open items • Clear an account Business Example Open items need to be cleared for a transaction to be completed. mySAP ERP offers two transactions for clearing. Task 1: Answer the following question: 1. Name the two basic transactions that you can use to clear open items. Task 2: True or false? 1. Documents with open items cannot be archived because open items represent incomplete transactions. Determine whether this statement is true or false. □ True □ False 2. A clearing document must have at least two line items. Determine whether this statement is true or false. □ True □ False Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 279
  • 288. Unit 5: Clearing TFIN50 3. The automatic clearing program (SAPF124) cannot carry out automatic postings. Determine whether this statement is true or false. □ True □ False Task 3: Answer the following questions: 1. Clearing a credit memo with an open invoice is an example of . Fill in the blanks to complete the sentence. 2. Posting a payment for an open invoice with a resulting zero balance is an example of . Fill in the blanks to complete the sentence. Continued on next page 280 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 289. TFIN50 Lesson: Clearing Open Items Task 4: Carry out the following exercise for “Account Clearing”. 1. Post a customer invoice for 5,500 units local currency. When you enter the customer invoice, change the proposed terms of payment key to "0001" (due immediately). Use the tax code 1O (output tax (course) 10%). Then clear the items with the credit memo that you created for the same amount and check the line items in the customer account before and after clearing. Hint: All open items have been selected for processing. There are several ways of deactivating each item. • Doubleclick on each item’s amount (Gross). • Choose Select All in the lower part of the screen. Then choose Deactivate Items to deactivate all items. Double-click on the amounts of the individual items that you want to clear together. • Process additional business transactions by choosing “Editing Options”. Select the “Selected Items Initially Inactive” indicator so that all items are deactivated the next time the business transaction is processed. Hint: To clear the cash discount, enter the value 0 (zero) in the “Cash Discount” field. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 281
  • 290. Unit 5: Clearing TFIN50 Solution 18: Open Item Clearing Task 1: Answer the following question: 1. Name the two basic transactions that you can use to clear open items. Answer: • Account clearing • Post with clearing Task 2: True or false? 1. Documents with open items cannot be archived because open items represent incomplete transactions. Answer: True 2. A clearing document must have at least two line items. Answer: False A clearing document may have no line items. 3. The automatic clearing program (SAPF124) cannot carry out automatic postings. Answer: False As of R/3 Release 4.0, the automatic clearing program can carry out automatic postings. Task 3: Answer the following questions: 1. Clearing a credit memo with an open invoice is an example of account clearing. Answer: account clearing The transaction “Account Clearing” is one option for clearing open items. Continued on next page 282 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 291. TFIN50 Lesson: Clearing Open Items 2. Posting a payment for an open invoice with a resulting zero balance is an example of posting with clearing. Answer: posting with clearing The transaction “Post with Clearing” is the second option for clearing open items and is carried out during entry of the incoming payment. Task 4: Carry out the following exercise for “Account Clearing”. 1. Post a customer invoice for 5,500 units local currency. When you enter the customer invoice, change the proposed terms of payment key to "0001" (due immediately). Use the tax code 1O (output tax (course) 10%). Then clear the items with the credit memo that you created for the same amount and check the line items in the customer account before and after clearing. Hint: All open items have been selected for processing. There are several ways of deactivating each item. • Doubleclick on each item’s amount (Gross). • Choose Select All in the lower part of the screen. Then choose Deactivate Items to deactivate all items. Double-click on the amounts of the individual items that you want to clear together. • Process additional business transactions by choosing “Editing Options”. Select the “Selected Items Initially Inactive” indicator so that all items are deactivated the next time the business transaction is processed. Hint: To clear the cash discount, enter the value 0 (zero) in the “Cash Discount” field. a) Customer Invoice SAP Easy Access menu: Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable → Document Entry → Invoice Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 283
  • 292. Unit 5: Clearing TFIN50 Field Name or Data Type Values Basic Data Customer Your customer Invoice Date Current date Posting Date Current date Amount 5 500 Currency Local currency Calculate Tax Tax ID 1O (Output tax (course) 10%) Terms of Payment 0001 Items – 1st detail line G/L Account Your instructor will give you the revenue account. D/C Credit Amount in Document Currency 5 500 Tax ID 1O (Output tax (course) 10%) Document → Simulate Check your document. Doubleclick on a line item to display or change data. Select “Post” to save your document. Document number: _________________ Display the line items in your customer account: SAP Easy Access menu: Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable → Account → Display/Change Line Items Field Name or Data Type Values G/L Account Your customer Company Code GR## Line Item Selection Choose “All Items” Choose “Execute” to display all the values posted to your customer account. Note that both the invoice for 5500 units and the credit memo are open items. Continued on next page 284 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 293. TFIN50 Lesson: Clearing Open Items Clear the account. SAP Easy Access menu: Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable → Account → Clear Field Name or Data Type Values Account Your customer Company Code GR## Choose the button “Process Open Items“. Hint: All open items have been selected for processing. There are several ways to deactivate each item, (except the clearing invoice for 5500 units and the credit memo). • Doubleclick on each item’s amount (Gross). • Choose Select All in the lower part of the screen. Then choose Deactivate Items to deactivate all items. Double-click on the amounts of the individual items that you want to clear together. • Process additional business transactions by choosing “Editing Options”. Select the “Selected Items Initially Inactive” indicator so that all items are deactivated the next time the transaction is called. Hint: To clear the cash discount, enter the value 0 (zero) in the “Cash Discount” field. Choose “Post” to save the document. Document number: _________________ Display the line items in your customer account: SAP Easy Access menu: Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable → Account → Display/Change Line Items Field Name or Data Type Values Account Your customer Company Code GR## Line Item Selection Select “All Items”. Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 285
  • 294. Unit 5: Clearing TFIN50 Choose "Execute" to display all the costs posted to your customer account. Note that the invoice for 5500 units and the credit memo are now cleared items. 286 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 295. TFIN50 Lesson: Clearing Open Items Lesson Summary You should now be able to: • Explain the clearing process • Clear an account • Post with clearing 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 287
  • 296. Unit 5: Clearing TFIN50 Lesson: Incoming and Outgoing Payments Lesson Overview This lesson explains how to post manual incoming and outgoing payments. Lesson Objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to: • Post incoming and outgoing payments • Reset clearing Business Example Customers pay open invoices taking advantage of cash discounts. The cash discount is to be posted in the system automatically. Figure 125: The Manual Payment Process A manual payment is a transaction that clears an open item, typically an invoice, by manually assigning a clearing document. An incoming payment, typically used in Accounts Receivable, clears an open debit amount. An outgoing payment, typically used in Accounts Payable, clears an open credit amount. 288 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 297. TFIN50 Lesson: Incoming and Outgoing Payments A manual payment is processed in three steps: • Data is entered in the document header. • Open items are selected to be cleared. • The transaction is saved. Possible payment differences will be dealt with in the next lesson. Figure 126: Document Header - Payment Header The data entered in the document header is similar to the data entered when posting invoices. The document header consists of three sections: The payment header, the bank data, and the open item selection. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 289
  • 298. Unit 5: Clearing TFIN50 Enter the following information in the payment header section of the document header: • Enter the document date. This is the date on the physical document. • The system proposes the document type dependent on the transaction called (see lesson “Default Values”). • If the company code is not proposed, you have to enter it (see lesson “Default Values”). • The period specifications include the posting date and the posting period. The current date is defaulted as the posting date and the posting period is derived from the posting date. • The currency specifications include the currency code, the exchange rate and the date for currency translation. If no exchange rate or translation date is entered, the exchange rate from the exchange rate table on the posting date is used. • Any references needed to identify the incoming payment may be entered in the reference document number, document header text, and clearing text fields. Figure 127: Document Header - Bank Data 290 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 299. TFIN50 Lesson: Incoming and Outgoing Payments Enter the following bank data in the next section of the document header: • The account is a general ledger account used for incoming or outgoing payments. • The payment amount is the total payment amount. • The bank may charge bank charges for its services, and these are posted automatically to a special expense account. With incoming payments, the system adds the bank charges to the payment amount to form the clearing amount. With outgoing payments, it subtracts the bank charges from the payment amount to determine the clearing amount. • The value date is the date used to evaluate the position in Cash Management. It may be defaulted by the system (see lesson “Default Values”). • The text is an optional description of the item. Start the line with ”*” to enable the text to be printed on external correspondence too. You can also work with text templates - the user can select an entry from a list of standard texts. • The assignment number is either created by the system or you can enter it manually. Figure 128: Document Header - Open Item Selection 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 291
  • 300. Unit 5: Clearing TFIN50 Enter the following “open item selection” data in the next section of the document header: • Account and account type: In this area, “Account” refers to the account number of the business partner and the account type for this account. The account and account type are required to determine the account that contains the open items. • Normal open items and/or special G/L transactions: You can select normal open items and/or special G/L transactions for processing. • Payment advice note number: You can use the number of a payment advice note (either entered manually or created by the system) to select the open items. • Other accounts: You can select other accounts to process their open items at the same time. • Additional selections: You can use additional selection criteria defined in the configuration to select open items. You can use “distribute by age” or “automatic search” to speed up the selection process. Figure 129: Process Open Items The next screen lists all of the unassigned, open items. These could be payments, debit or credit memos, or invoices. Depending on your settings all of the items can be active or inactive. The first step in processing open items is to activate the required line items before you can assign a payment. 292 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 301. TFIN50 Lesson: Incoming and Outgoing Payments The amount entered is assigned to the appropriate line items and their cash discount. There are several options for activating or deactivating line items: • Selection of editing options for open items: Select “Selected Item Initially Inactive”. • Double-click on the amount. • Selection from action menus and function keys: There are different menus and keys available. You can post the document if the amount entered is the same as the amount assigned. The cash discount granted is determined by the terms of payment of the line item. The cash discount is taken into consideration for calculating the assigned amount. You can change the cash discount by overwriting the absolute cash discount or by changing the cash discount percentage rate. It must not exceed the limits set in the tolerances. Figure 130: Posting the Payment You can then check the document you have entered. Via Document → Simulate you can display all of the items including those created automatically. If the debits and the credits agree, you can post the complete document. If you subsequently discover that the document contains an error that has to be corrected, reset the cleared items and then reverse the document. You then have to re-enter the original posting correctly. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 293
  • 302. Unit 5: Clearing TFIN50 Figure 131: Automatic Postings for Clearing Open Items If necessary, the system carries out automatic postings during clearing. We have already seen the configuration for most of these automatic postings in previous lessons. You can enter bank charges when you enter the bank data; they are automatically posted to the G/L account. In order to perform manual cross-company code payments you have to assign a clearing transaction (either “Incoming Payment” or “Outgoing Payment”) to the combination of paying company code and the company code for which the payment is being made. Then, when you select open items, open items are displayed from each company code. The treatment of over and underpayments is dealt with in the lesson “Payment Differences”. Figure 132: Resetting Clearing Users can reset clearing for individual documents. When you reset clearing, the clearing data is removed from the items. 294 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 303. TFIN50 Lesson: Incoming and Outgoing Payments The changes are logged and can be displayed in change documents. In Accounts Receivable, the payment history and the credit limit are corrected, if applicable. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 295
  • 304. Unit 5: Clearing TFIN50 296 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 305. TFIN50 Lesson: Incoming and Outgoing Payments Exercise 19: Post with Clearing Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: • Post an incoming payment with cash discount Business Example Customers pay open invoices taking advantage of cash discounts. Task: Carry out the following exercise for posting with clearing. 1. Your have received a payment of 213,400 units of local currency from your customer to clear the open item of 220,000 units that you posted in the lesson “Simple Documents in mySAP ERP Financials”. If you did not grant cash discount when you entered the invoice, enter 6,600 units cash discount manually. Use the bank account supplied by your instructor. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 297
  • 306. Unit 5: Clearing TFIN50 Solution 19: Post with Clearing Task: Carry out the following exercise for posting with clearing. 1. Your have received a payment of 213,400 units of local currency from your customer to clear the open item of 220,000 units that you posted in the lesson “Simple Documents in mySAP ERP Financials”. If you did not grant cash discount when you entered the invoice, enter 6,600 units cash discount manually. Use the bank account supplied by your instructor. a) Incoming Payments Application: Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable → Document Entry → Incoming Payments Field Name or Data Type Values Document Header Document Date Current date Document Type DZ Company Code Your company code Posting Date Current date Currency Local currency Bank Data Account Your instructor will give you this information. Amount 213 400 Value Date Current date Open Item Selection Account Your customer Choose the button “Edit Open Items“. Select the invoice for 220,000 currency units. If necessary, enter cash discount for 6,600 units of currency. When the “Not assigned” value equals zero: Document → Simulate Check your document. Doubleclick on a line item to display or change data. Continued on next page 298 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 307. TFIN50 Lesson: Incoming and Outgoing Payments Choose “Post” to save the document. Document number: _________________ Note: You are now familiar with two clearing options: • Account clearing: In the lesson "Clearing Open Items", you cleared an open invoice with an open credit memo. • Posting with clearing: In this lesson you posted an incoming payment from a customer against an open invoice. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 299
  • 308. Unit 5: Clearing TFIN50 Lesson Summary You should now be able to: • Post incoming and outgoing payments • Reset clearing 300 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 309. TFIN50 Lesson: Payment Differences Lesson: Payment Differences Lesson Overview This lesson describes ways of posting in the context of payment differences. Lesson Objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to: • Post payment differences • Describe tolerance groups and their role for posting payment differences • Post partial and residual payments • Create and use payment difference reason codes Business Example Customers often pay invoices with deductions that sometimes exceed the tolerance limits of the company. Figure 133: Tolerance Groups In accounting there are three types of tolerances: Employee tolerance groups, G/L account tolerance groups, and customer/vendor tolerance groups. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 301
  • 310. Unit 5: Clearing TFIN50 The employee tolerance group is used to control: • Upper limits for posting transactions (see lesson "Posting Authorizations"), • Permitted payment differences The G/L account tolerance group is used to control: • Permitted payment differences (for example, for automatic clearing procedures). The customer/vendor tolerance groups provide specifications for: • Clearing transactions • Permitted payment differences • Posting residual items from payment differences • Tolerances for payment advice notes Configuration of tolerance groups • Tolerance groups for employees, for example: – Accountant I – Accountant II – Accounting manager • Tolerance groups for customers/vendors, for example: – Good customers/vendors – Not so good customers/vendors – Cash only customers/vendors • Tolerance groups for G/L accounts, for example: – Clearing accounts (external procurement) – Clearing accounts (in-house production) Define permitted payment differences using tolerances. Assign the tolerance groups to • User master data • G/L account master records • Customer/vendor master records 302 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 311. TFIN50 Lesson: Payment Differences You have to carry out two steps to use tolerance groups: • Group definition – The tolerance group is defined by a group key, company code, and a currency code. – The group key is a four character alphanumeric key. – The key "____" (BLANK) is the standard tolerance group and is required as the minimum tolerance group. • Group assignment – Employee tolerance groups may be assigned to employees. – G/L account tolerance groups may be assigned to G/L account master records. – Customer/vendor tolerance groups may be assigned to a customer or vendor master record. – If no tolerances are assigned, the default tolerance group “____” (blank) applies. Figure 134: Permitted Payment Differences The specifications for permitted payment differences can be found in both types of tolerance groups. They control the automatic posting of cash discount adjustments and unauthorized customer deductions. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 303
  • 312. Unit 5: Clearing TFIN50 The system takes the entries in both groups into account during clearing. The payment difference has to be within both tolerances to be handled automatically, for example: • A payment difference has to be lower than 3.00 and 2.00 currency units to be written off automatically as a cash discount adjustment. • A payment difference has to be lower than 200.00 and 100.00 currency units as well as lower than 2.5% and 2.0% of the open amount to be written off automatically as an unauthorized deduction. The lower of the two tolerances always applies: For an open amount of 1,000 currency units, this would be an unauthorized customer deduction of 20 currency units; for an open amount of 100,000 currency units this would be an unauthorized customer deduction of 100 currency units. The entries in the tolerance groups are always in local currency. Figure 135: Payment Differences A payment difference normally occurs during the clearing of an open item. The difference is then compared to the tolerance groups of the employee and the customer/vendor and is handled accordingly. • Within tolerances Automatically posted as either cash discount adjustment or unauthorized deduction • Outside tolerances Processed manually 304 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 313. TFIN50 Lesson: Payment Differences Figure 136: Processing Payment Differences If the payment difference is immaterial, it may be processed automatically by allowing the system to adjust the cash discount up to certain amounts or to write it off to a special account. The limits to which a payment difference is considered to be immaterial are defined in tolerance groups. Within the tolerance group for an employee, you can allow an adjustment of the cash discount (within defined limits), so that the employee has the authorization to make the adjustment. If the payment difference is too high to be immaterial, it must be processed manually. The payment can be posted as follows: • Partial payment • The payment difference may be posted as a residual item • The payment difference can be posted to an account assigned to a reason code or written off by manually entering a new posting item. • Payment on account 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 305
  • 314. Unit 5: Clearing TFIN50 Figure 137: Partial and Residual Payments If the payment difference is outside of the tolerances it has to be processed manually. The user can: • Post the payment as a partial payment, where all the documents remain in the account as open items • Post the payment difference as a residual item, whereby only the residual item remains in the account and the original document and the payment are cleared. A new document number is created with reference to the original documents. • Post the payment difference to a different account as a difference posting using reason codes and automatic determination. • Write off the difference (manual account assignment) The customer/vendor tolerance groups contain entries that control the residual items. These specify: • Whether the terms of payment of a residual item are the same as those of the cleared item or whether the terms of payment are fixed • Whether cash discount is granted only partially and not for the whole amount • By specifying a dunning key, whether the residual item has a maximum dunning level or is printed separately If you know the reason for a payment difference, you can enter a reason code. 306 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 315. TFIN50 Lesson: Payment Differences Figure 138: Reason Codes Reason codes are used to describe the reason for the payment difference. To assign more than one reason code to a payment difference, click on “distribute difference”. Reason codes can be assigned to: • Difference postings • Partial payments • Residual items The reason code can be used to analyze and postprocess payment differences. Additional optional functions are: • Control of the type of payment notice which is sent to the customer • Control the account where a residual item is posted • Automatic posting of a residual item to a specified G/L account. • Exclusion of residual items from credit limit checks because they are disputed 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 307
  • 316. Unit 5: Clearing TFIN50 308 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 317. TFIN50 Lesson: Payment Differences Exercise 20: Payment Differences Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: • Enter a partial payment • Create a reason code for damaged goods • Post an incoming payment with cash discount and a reason code Business Example Some of your customers only make partial payments of open invoices. These underpayments have to be posted in accounts receivable accounting. Task: Answer the following questions: 1. A clears the invoice and the payment to create a new open item. Fill in the blanks to complete the sentence. 2. A results in the open invoice and the incoming payment remaining in the customer account as open items. Fill in the blanks to complete the sentence. 3. A customer has cash flow problems and cannot pay an invoice in full. As a basis for the incoming payment, post a customer invoice for 100,000 units of local currency to your customer account. Choose the option "Calculate Tax". Use the tax code 1O (output tax (course) 10%). Post the revenue side of the transaction to the account which is supplied by your instructor. You receive an incoming payment of 40,000 units in local currency from your customer for the invoice for 100,000 units of local currency that you have just posted. Post the incoming payment as a partial payment to your customer account. Display your customer’s line items to check the postings you have made. 4. Customers are reducing their payments as a result of damage to goods during transport. You want to record these amounts. You decide to create a reason code, “Goods damaged during transport”, Z##, to write off this difference. Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 309
  • 318. Unit 5: Clearing TFIN50 5. Your have received a payment of 250,000 units of local currency from your customer and you must post this against the open item for 300,000 units. Your customer is requesting a price reduction for the remaining amount since the goods were damaged in transit. Post the difference as a residual item using the reason code that you created, Z##. 310 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 319. TFIN50 Lesson: Payment Differences Solution 20: Payment Differences Task: Answer the following questions: 1. A residual item clears the invoice and the payment to create a new open item. Answer: residual item 2. A partial payment results in the open invoice and the incoming payment remaining in the customer account as open items. Answer: partial payment 3. A customer has cash flow problems and cannot pay an invoice in full. As a basis for the incoming payment, post a customer invoice for 100,000 units of local currency to your customer account. Choose the option "Calculate Tax". Use the tax code 1O (output tax (course) 10%). Post the revenue side of the transaction to the account which is supplied by your instructor. You receive an incoming payment of 40,000 units in local currency from your customer for the invoice for 100,000 units of local currency that you have just posted. Post the incoming payment as a partial payment to your customer account. Display your customer’s line items to check the postings you have made. a) SAP Easy Access menu: Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable → Document Entry → Invoice Field Name or Data Type Values Company Code Your company code Customer Your customer Invoice Date Current Date Posting Date Current Date Amount 100.000 Calculate Tax Tax Code 1O (Output tax (course) 10%) Items Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 311
  • 320. Unit 5: Clearing TFIN50 G/L account (sales revenue account) Your instructor will give you this information Amount in doc. curr. 100.000 Tax Code 1O (Output tax (course) 10%) Select “Post”. b) SAP Easy Access menu: Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable → Document Entry → Incoming Payments Field Name or Data Type Values Document Header Document Date Current Date Company Code Your company code Posting Date Current Date Currency Local Currency Bank Data Account Your instructor will name the house bank G/L account. Amount 40 000 Value Date Current Date Open Item Selection Account Your customer Choose Process Open Items. Choose the open item for 100,000 units. Next, choose the “Partial Payment” tab page. Double-click on the amount in the “Payment Amount” field to update the value with the partial payment amount. Select “Post”. c) SAP Easy Access menu: Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable → Account → Display/Change Line Items Continued on next page 312 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 321. TFIN50 Lesson: Payment Differences Field Name or Data Type Values Customer Account Your customer Company Code Your company code Item Selection Open Items Selection Open at key date Current Date Result: The partial payment and the assigned invoice remain open items. Double-click on the partial payment and display the invoice reference in the “Payment for” field. Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 313
  • 322. Unit 5: Clearing TFIN50 4. Customers are reducing their payments as a result of damage to goods during transport. You want to record these amounts. You decide to create a reason code, “Goods damaged during transport”, Z##, to write off this difference. a) IMG: Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable and Accounts Payable → Business Transactions → Incoming Payments → Incoming Payments Global Settings → Overpayment/Underpayment → Define Reason Codes Field Name or Data Type Values Company Code GR## Choose “Enter”. Edit → New Entries Field Name or Data Type Values RCd Z## Short Text Damage in transit (for example) G/L Account Long Text Goods damaged in transit C (charge of difference via separate account) Choose “Save“. Check accounts for payment differences IMG: Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable and Accounts Payable → Business Transactions → Incoming Payments → Incoming Payments Global Settings → Overpayment/Underpayment → Define Accounts for Payment Differences Choose Chart of Accounts “INT”. Choose “Enter”. Choose “Back” without changing the account determination. 5. Your have received a payment of 250,000 units of local currency from your customer and you must post this against the open item for 300,000 units. Your customer is requesting a price reduction for the remaining amount since the goods were damaged in transit. Post the difference as a residual item using the reason code that you created, Z##. a) Incoming payment with difference Continued on next page 314 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 323. TFIN50 Lesson: Payment Differences SAP Easy Access menu: Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable → Document Entry → Incoming Payments Field Name or Data Type Values Document Header Document Date Current Date Company Code Your company code Posting Date Current Date Currency Local Currency Bank Data Account Your instructor will name the house bank G/L account. Amount 250 000 Value Date Current date Open Item Selection Account Your customer Choose the button “Process Open Items“. Choose the open item for 300,000 units. Delete the cash discount amount or enter 0%. Then choose “Continue”. Create residual item: Select the "Res. Items" tab. Enter the short payment amount by entering the following values or drilling down on the Residual Items field. Field Name or Data Type Values Residual Item 50 000 RCd Z## Document → Simulate Result: The residual item is written off using your reason code Z##. Check your document. Doubleclick on a line item to display or change data. Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 315
  • 324. Unit 5: Clearing TFIN50 Choose “Post” to save the document. Document number: _____________ _____________ Note: You have just… • Created a write-off reason code • Posted an incoming payment with a difference • Created a residual item • Assigned the write-off reason code 316 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 325. TFIN50 Lesson: Payment Differences Lesson Summary You should now be able to: • Post payment differences • Describe tolerance groups and their role for posting payment differences • Post partial and residual payments • Create and use payment difference reason codes 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 317
  • 326. Unit 5: Clearing TFIN50 Lesson: Exchange Rate Differences Lesson Overview Lesson Objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to: • Explain the system treatment of exchange rate differences Business Example The company has a large number of vendors based abroad. The accounting department would like to know how realized exchange rate differences flow into accounting. Figure 139: Realized Exchange Rate Differences When clearing open items in a foreign currency, exchange rate differences may occur due to fluctuations in exchange rates. The system posts these exchange rate differences automatically as realized gains or losses. The system posts the differences automatically to the revenue/expense account for exchange rate differences that you defined during configuration. This prevents incorrect postings. The realized difference is stored in the cleared line item. Exchange rate differences are also posted when open items are valuated for the financial statements. These exchange rate differences from valuation are posted to another exchange rate difference account and to a financial statement adjustment 318 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 327. TFIN50 Lesson: Exchange Rate Differences account. When clearing an open item that has already been valuated, the system reverses the balance sheet correction account and posts the remaining exchange rate difference to the account for realized exchange rate differences. Figure 140: Account Determination All reconciliation accounts and all G/L accounts with open item transactions in foreign currency must be assigned revenue/expense accounts for realized losses and gains. One gain/loss account can be assigned: • To all currencies and currency types • Per currencies and currency type • Per currency • Per currency type 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 319
  • 328. Unit 5: Clearing TFIN50 320 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 329. TFIN50 Lesson: Exchange Rate Differences Exercise 21: Exchange Rate Differences Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: • Explain the basics of exchange rate differences Business Example Management is considering purchasing goods from a foreign country and would like to be able to post any exchange rate differences. Task 1: True or False? 1. The mySAP ERP system generates the exchange rate differences automatically. Determine whether this statement is true or false. □ True □ False 2. G/L accounts must be defined for exchange rate losses or gains. Determine whether this statement is true or false. □ True □ False Task 2: Answer the following question: 1. List the number of ways the G/L account can be determined for exchange rate differences. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 321
  • 330. Unit 5: Clearing TFIN50 Solution 21: Exchange Rate Differences Task 1: True or False? 1. The mySAP ERP system generates the exchange rate differences automatically. Answer: True When clearing open items in a foreign currency, exchange rate differences may occur due to fluctuations in the exchange rate table. The system posts these differences automatically as realized gains or losses. 2. G/L accounts must be defined for exchange rate losses or gains. Answer: True The system posts the differences automatically to the revenue/expense account. Therefore, you have to define the accounts during the configuration. Task 2: Answer the following question: 1. List the number of ways the G/L account can be determined for exchange rate differences. Answer: A single G/L account can be used for all currencies and currency types. • A single G/L account can be used per currency and currency type. • A single G/L account can be used per currency. • A single G/L account can be used per currency type. 322 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 331. TFIN50 Lesson: Exchange Rate Differences Lesson Summary You should now be able to: • Explain the system treatment of exchange rate differences 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 323
  • 332. Unit Summary TFIN50 Unit Summary You should now be able to: • Explain the clearing process • Clear an account • Post with clearing • Post incoming and outgoing payments • Reset clearing • Post payment differences • Describe tolerance groups and their role for posting payment differences • Post partial and residual payments • Create and use payment difference reason codes • Explain the system treatment of exchange rate differences 324 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 333. Unit 6 Cash journal Unit Overview Unit Objectives After completing this unit, you will be able to: • Create a cash journal and assign it to a general ledger account • Explain business transaction categories • Create business transactions • Save and post business transactions in the cash journal Unit Contents Lesson: Cash Journal Configuration .........................................326 Exercise 22: Setting Up the Cash Journal ..............................331 Lesson: Cash Journal Transaction ...........................................336 Exercise 23: Business Transactions in the Cash Journal.............339 Exercise 24: Document Split..............................................343 Exercise 25: Posting to One-Time Accounts ...........................347 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 325
  • 334. Unit 6: Cash journal TFIN50 Lesson: Cash Journal Configuration Lesson Overview Lesson Objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to: • Create a cash journal and assign it to a general ledger account • Explain business transaction categories • Create business transactions Business Example The accounting department requires special general ledger accounts to handle the cash journal. You want to be able to post to this account automatically. Figure 141: Cash Journal Assignment The cash journal is a tool for managing cash that was offered with R/3 release 4.6. It supports posting cash receipts and payments. With this tool you can: • Create a separate cash journal for each currency • Post to customer, vendor, and general ledger accounts • Run several cash journals in each company code • Choose a random number for cash journal identification (a four-digit alphanumeric key) 326 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 335. TFIN50 Lesson: Cash Journal Configuration Figure 142: Setting Up the Cash Journal To set up a new cash journal for a company code, you have to enter the appropriate values for the following fields: • The company code in which you want to use the cash journal • The four digit cash journal identification and name • The G/L accounts to which you want to post the cash journal business transactions • The currency in which you want to run the cash journal • The document types for: – G/L account postings – Outgoing payments to vendors – Incoming payments from vendors – Outgoing payments to customers – Incoming payments from customers 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 327
  • 336. Unit 6: Cash journal TFIN50 Figure 143: Business Transaction Types Within the cash journal you process different transactions that you have to set up beforehand using business transaction categories. Below are standard business transaction categories and their postings: • Expense (E) Expense/Cash desk • Revenue (R) Cash desk/Revenue • Cash transfer: • From cash journal to bank (B) Bank/Cash desk • From bank to cash journal (C) Cash desk/Bank • Accounts receivable (D) Customer payment receipt Cash office / customer Customer outgoing payment Customer / cash office • Accounts payable (K) Vendor payment issue Vendor / cash office Vendor incoming payment Cash journal/Vendor 328 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 337. TFIN50 Lesson: Cash Journal Configuration Figure 144: Creating Business Transactions You can define new business transactions for the cash journal in two places: In the cash journal itself or in the Implementation Guide (IMG). When you give the business transaction a name, you can base it on the type of business transaction. For example, for the business transaction for creating postings to cash sales, you could assign the name “Cash Sale”. To create a business transaction, make the following settings: • The company code in which the business transaction should be created • The type of business transaction (note: You cannot make entries in the "G/L Account Number" field for the cash journal business transactions D and K) • Specify tax codes for the business transactions E (Expense) and R (Revenue) • For business transaction categories E, R, C, and B, you can set and indicator to enable the general ledger account for the business transaction to be changed when the document is entered. In this case, the general ledger account is only a default value. • For business transaction categories E and R, you can set and indicator to enable the tax code for the business transaction to be changed when the document is entered. If no tax code has been defined, you have to specify one (if required for the account) when you create the document. • Once saved, the business transaction is assigned a number automatically. During document entry, the business transaction can be called up by its name or its number. • You can set an indicator that blocks the business transaction for further postings. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 329
  • 338. Unit 6: Cash journal TFIN50 330 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 339. TFIN50 Lesson: Cash Journal Configuration Exercise 22: Setting Up the Cash Journal Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: • Create a G/L account for the cash journal • Set up your cash journal Business Example The accounting department requires special general ledger accounts for the new cash journal to handle various cash transactions. Task: Carry out the Customizing for setting up a cash journal in your company code. 1. Create a G/L Account, 1002##, for the cash journal in your company code. Create your G/L account with the reference account 100000. Ensure that the G/L account can only be posted to automatically and that the account currency is the same as the company code currency. 2. Create cash journal 20##, for your company code using the course currency. Use document types “AB” for G/L account postings, for payments to/from vendors “KZ”, for payments to/from customers “DZ”. Name your cash journal “Cash ##” and check whether the number range 01 for your cash journal documents has been created. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 331
  • 340. Unit 6: Cash journal TFIN50 Solution 22: Setting Up the Cash Journal Task: Carry out the Customizing for setting up a cash journal in your company code. 1. Create a G/L Account, 1002##, for the cash journal in your company code. Create your G/L account with the reference account 100000. Ensure that the G/L account can only be posted to automatically and that the account currency is the same as the company code currency. a) Create a G/L account for your cash journal. IMG: Financial Accounting → Bank Accounting → Business Transactions → Cash Journal → Create G/L Account for Cash Journal Or: Application: Accounting → Financial Accounting → General Ledger → Master Records → G/L Accounts → Individual Processing → Centrally Or transaction code: FS00 Field Name or Data Type Values G/L Account 1002## Company Code GR## Select the “Create with Template” pushbutton. Field Name or Data Type Values G/L Accounts 100 000 Company Code GR## Choose “Enter“. Tab page: “Type/Description“: Field Name or Data Type Values Short Text Petty Cash ## G/L Account Long Text Petty cash for cash journal Tab page “Create/Bank/Interest“ Continued on next page 332 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 341. TFIN50 Lesson: Cash Journal Configuration Field Name or Data Type Values Post Automatically Only Delete the alternative account number on the “Control Data” tab page. Choose “Save“. 2. Create cash journal 20##, for your company code using the course currency. Use document types “AB” for G/L account postings, for payments to/from vendors “KZ”, for payments to/from customers “DZ”. Name your cash journal “Cash ##” and check whether the number range 01 for your cash journal documents has been created. a) Create cash journal. IMG: Financial Accounting → Bank Accounting → Business Transactions → Cash Journal → Set Up Cash Journal Choose “New Entries” and enter the following information: Field Name or Data Type Values Company Code GR## Cash Journal Number 20## Account Number 1002## Currency Local currency Document Type: G/L Account Posting AB Document type for outgoing G/L account posting Leave blank Document Type: Payment to Vendor KZ Document Type: Payment from Vendor KZ Document Type: Payment from Customer DZ Document Type Payment to Customer DZ Split indicator Leave blank Name Group ## Cash Journal 20## Choose “Save”. Determine whether the number range interval 01 has already been predefined by the system. Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 333
  • 342. Unit 6: Cash journal TFIN50 IMG: Financial Accounting → Bank Accounting → Business Transactions → Cash Journal → Define Number Range Intervals for Cash Journal Documents Field Name or Data Type Values Company Code GR## Choose “Display Intervals”. If the number range interval 01 is not predefined: Choose “Change Intervals” Choose “Insert Interval” Field Name or Data Type Values Number 01 From 0 000 000 001 To 0 000 999 999 Choose “Insert“. Choose “Save“. Select “Enter“ to confirm the information message about transporting number ranges. 334 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 343. TFIN50 Lesson: Cash Journal Configuration Lesson Summary You should now be able to: • Create a cash journal and assign it to a general ledger account • Explain business transaction categories • Create business transactions 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 335
  • 344. Unit 6: Cash journal TFIN50 Lesson: Cash Journal Transaction Lesson Overview This lesson describes how to post business transactions in the cash journal. Lesson Objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to: • Save and post business transactions in the cash journal Business Example Our department still handles various kinds of transactions in cash. These transactions have to be saved locally and posted/transferred to the general ledger every day. Figure 145: Posting Business Transactions in the Cash Journal The cash journal is one of the Enjoy business transactions that you can process on a single screen. On this screen, you can enter, display, and change cash journal entries. You can save cash journal entries locally in the cash journal subledger, and copy or delete them. The cash journal entries saved are posted to the general ledger, for example, at the end of the working day. You can also print the cash journal entries you have saved (receipts) as well as the cash journal entries posted in the time period displayed. The print forms are selected in Customizing. 336 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 345. TFIN50 Lesson: Cash Journal Transaction The follow-on documents that are posted as a result of cash journal entries are displayed. You can also copy and delete cash journal entries saved and display the deleted cash journal entries. From Release 4.6C, you can also enter checks in the cash journal. Figure 146: Cash Journal Document with Document Split In the SAP system you can enter a cash journal document with a document split. In other words, a cash journal document can contain several items with different tax codes and/or account assignments relevant to cost accounting. When the cash journal document is forwarded to Financial Accounting, only one accounting document is therefore created. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 337
  • 346. Unit 6: Cash journal TFIN50 Figure 147: Cash Journal Document with One-Time Account In the cash journal you can create a business transaction linked to a one-time account. If you use a one-time account in the cash journal, the dialog box for entering the one-time data is called automatically and the entries saved in the cash journal. 338 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 347. TFIN50 Lesson: Cash Journal Transaction Exercise 23: Business Transactions in the Cash Journal Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: • Post an incoming payment • Control the balances calculated and displayed automatically • Check the follow-on documents Business Example Our department pays for some vehicle costs, such gas, in cash. Cash expenses have to be saved locally and have to be posted to the general ledger every day. Task: Use the functions of the cash journal that you have created for the first time. 1. Create a business transaction for vehicle costs in your company code. To do this, use the expense business transaction, E, and the vehicle costs account, 475000 with the appropriate tax code for your country. Create a cash receipt transaction, with business transaction category C, to record cash transfers from your bank account to the cash journal. Use G/L account 113100 as the bank account for the offsetting postings of G/L account postings. 2. Pay gas costs to the value of 120 units of local currency in cash and create a cash document. Remember: Before you pay the vehicle costs you also need some money in your new cash journal. Transfer 1,000 units (local currency) from the bank to the cash journal. Save your cash journal entries locally in your cash journal subledger. Check the balance display for displayed period. Post the saved Cash Journal entries to the G/L account and check the accounting follow-on documents. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 339
  • 348. Unit 6: Cash journal TFIN50 Solution 23: Business Transactions in the Cash Journal Task: Use the functions of the cash journal that you have created for the first time. 1. Create a business transaction for vehicle costs in your company code. To do this, use the expense business transaction, E, and the vehicle costs account, 475000 with the appropriate tax code for your country. Create a cash receipt transaction, with business transaction category C, to record cash transfers from your bank account to the cash journal. Use G/L account 113100 as the bank account for the offsetting postings of G/L account postings. a) Create business transactions to use in your cash journal. IMG: Financial Accounting → Bank Accounting → Business Transactions → Cash Journal → Create, Change, Delete Business Transactions Choose the "New Entries" button and enter the following information: Field Name or Data Type Values Business Transaction for Expenses Company Code GR## Business Transaction Category E G/L Account 475000 Tax ID Your instructor will give you this information. Transaction Name Vehicle costs ## Business Transaction for Cash Company Code GR## Business Transaction Category C G/L Account 113100 Transaction Name Bank to journal ## Choose “Save“. Continued on next page 340 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 349. TFIN50 Lesson: Cash Journal Transaction 2. Pay gas costs to the value of 120 units of local currency in cash and create a cash document. Remember: Before you pay the vehicle costs you also need some money in your new cash journal. Transfer 1,000 units (local currency) from the bank to the cash journal. Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 341
  • 350. Unit 6: Cash journal TFIN50 Save your cash journal entries locally in your cash journal subledger. Check the balance display for displayed period. Post the saved Cash Journal entries to the G/L account and check the accounting follow-on documents. a) Record business transactions in the cash journal. Application: Accounting → Financial Accounting → Banks → Incomings → Cash Journal Field Name or Data Type Values Company Code GR## Cash Journal 20## Choose “Enter“. Record the cash transfer to the cash journal: Choose the “Cash Receipts” tab and enter the following information: Field Name or Data Type Values Business Transaction Bank to journal ## Amount 1,000 units local currency Text Transfer cash to cash journal Choose the “Save” pushbutton. Record the expense to the cash journal (only for company codes WITHOUT tax jurisdiction codes): Choose the “Cash Payments” tab and enter the following information: Field Name or Data Type Values Business Transaction Vehicle costs ## Amount 120 units local currency Text Cash for gas Choose the “Save” pushbutton. To save the entries in the subledger and transfer them to the general ledger at the same time, choose the “Post” button. To display the accounting documents, select the business transaction and choose Goto → FI Follow-On Documents. 342 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 351. TFIN50 Lesson: Cash Journal Transaction Exercise 24: Document Split Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: • Use the document split function in the cash journal Business Example Our department wants to model the purchase of advertising articles from a major software company as a business transaction in the cash journal. A colleague is to purchase the advertising articles from the software maker's sales stand while he attends a training course at the company in a small town in California. We need to create a new transaction in our cash journal to reflect the purchase of office supplies with the software maker's logo and flower arrangements with the three initials of the group. Task: Cash Journal Document with Document Split 1. In your company code, create a business transaction for the (cash) purchase of advertising articles. Create this business transaction as part of the business transaction category for expenses (E). To do this, use the office supply account (476000) with the appropriate tax code for your country. Note that the scenario described above requires that you enter a further expense account and a further tax code. 2. Enter a business transaction for purchasing advertising articles with a value of 100 currency units. The transaction involves the purchase of office supplies and a flower arrangement (see scenario). Use the business transaction you just created. Assign the transaction to accounts 476000 (office supplies) and 477100 (advertising articles). Make sure you use different tax codes. First save the business transaction in the cash journal. Then post the business transaction in the general ledger and take a look at the accounting document. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 343
  • 352. Unit 6: Cash journal TFIN50 Solution 24: Document Split Task: Cash Journal Document with Document Split 1. In your company code, create a business transaction for the (cash) purchase of advertising articles. Create this business transaction as part of the business transaction category for expenses (E). To do this, use the office supply account (476000) with the appropriate tax code for your country. Note that the scenario described above requires that you enter a further expense account and a further tax code. a) Create the new business transaction in Customizing. IMG: Financial Accounting → Bank Accounting → Business Transactions → Cash Journal → Create, Change, Delete Business Transactions Edit → New Entries Field Name or Data Type Values Company Code GR## Transaction Type E (Expense) G/L Account 476000 Tax Code 1l (input tax - course 10%) Cash Journal Business Transaction Advertising articles Account Modifiable Select Tax Modifiable Select Choose “Save”. 2. Enter a business transaction for purchasing advertising articles with a value of 100 currency units. The transaction involves the purchase of office supplies and a flower arrangement (see scenario). Use the business transaction you just created. Assign the transaction to accounts 476000 (office supplies) and 477100 (advertising articles). Make sure you use different tax codes. First save the business transaction in the cash journal. Then post the business transaction in the general ledger and take a look at the accounting document. a) Enter the business transaction. Application: Accounting → Financial Accounting → Banks → Outgoings → Cash Journal Continued on next page 344 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 353. TFIN50 Lesson: Cash Journal Transaction Field Name or Data Type Values Company Code GR## Cash Journal 20## Choose ENTER. Choose the Cash Payments tab page. Field Name or Data Type Values Business Transaction Cash purchase of advertising articles Amount 100 Choose the Split pushbutton. Item 1: Field Name or Data Type Values Business Transaction Advertising articles Amount 80 Tax Code 1l (input tax - course 10%) General Ledger 476000 Item 2: Field Name or Data Type Values Business Transaction Advertising articles Amount 20 Tax Code V2 General Ledger 477100 Choose the COPY pushbutton Choose the SAVE pushbutton Choose the POST pushbutton Select the item you just posted, click the FOLLOW-ON DOCUMENTS pushbutton, and choose the accounting document. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 345
  • 354. Unit 6: Cash journal TFIN50 346 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 355. TFIN50 Lesson: Cash Journal Transaction Exercise 25: Posting to One-Time Accounts Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: • Post cash journal documents to one-time accounts Business Example Our customers enjoy the candy we provide in our reception area. To make sure that we never run out, we constantly buy more stock at various weekly markets. Our department wants to record a transaction in the cash journal for cash purchases of candy from small suppliers as one-off business partners. Task: Create a one-time account and post a business transaction 1. Create an account for one-time vendors in your company code. Use vendor 1960 from company code 1000 as a template. 2. Enter a business transaction for a cash purchase of candy with a value of 50 currency units. The transaction involves quality class A toffees from a traveling salesperson Mr. S. Ugar with an address in Sweet Street 11, Candytown (zip code 12345). Use an existing business transaction. First save the business transaction in the cash journal. Then post the business transaction and take a look at the accounting document. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 347
  • 356. Unit 6: Cash journal TFIN50 Solution 25: Posting to One-Time Accounts Task: Create a one-time account and post a business transaction 1. Create an account for one-time vendors in your company code. Use vendor 1960 from company code 1000 as a template. a) Create your one-time vendor. Application: Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Payable → Master Records → Create Field Name or Data Type Values Vendor 1960 Company Code GR## Reference Field Name or Data Type Values Vendor 1960 Company Code 1000 Accept the data from the template vendor and choose SAVE. 2. Enter a business transaction for a cash purchase of candy with a value of 50 currency units. The transaction involves quality class A toffees from a traveling salesperson Mr. S. Ugar with an address in Sweet Street 11, Continued on next page 348 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 357. TFIN50 Lesson: Cash Journal Transaction Candytown (zip code 12345). Use an existing business transaction. First save the business transaction in the cash journal. Then post the business transaction and take a look at the accounting document. a) Enter the cash payment for candy. Application: Accounting → Financial Accounting → Banks → Outgoings → Cash Journal Field Name or Data Type Values Company Code GR## Cash Journal 20## Choose ENTER. Choose the Cash Payments tab page. Field Name or Data Type Values Business Transaction payment to vendor Amount 50 Text Candy Vendor 1960 Choose ENTER. Enter the address of Mr. S. Ugar. Field Name or Data Type Values Title Mr. Name S. Ugar Street Sweet Street 11 ZIP code 12345 City Candytown Choose ENTER. Choose the SAVE pushbutton Choose the POST pushbutton Choose the FOLLOW-ON DOCUMENTS pushbutton and select the posting document. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 349
  • 358. Unit 6: Cash journal TFIN50 Lesson Summary You should now be able to: • Save and post business transactions in the cash journal 350 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 359. TFIN50 Unit Summary Unit Summary You should now be able to: • Create a cash journal and assign it to a general ledger account • Explain business transaction categories • Create business transactions • Save and post business transactions in the cash journal 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 351
  • 360. Unit Summary TFIN50 352 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 361. Unit 7 Special G/L transactions Unit Overview First, the application view of special G/L transactions will be presented. The system settings are dealt with afterwards. Unit Objectives After completing this unit, you will be able to: • Describe special G/L transactions • Explain the particularities of special G/L transactions • Explain the functions of special G/L transactions • Configure special G/L transactions or check their configuration • Create your own special G/L transactions as needed Unit Contents Lesson: Application Area for Special G/L Transactions ...................354 Exercise 26: Guarantee Made (Customer) .............................369 Exercise 27: Down Payment Request, Received Down Payment, Customer Invoice and Clearing...........................................373 Exercise 28: Individual Value Adjustment - Optional ..................381 Lesson: Configuration of Special G/L Transactions ........................386 Exercise 29: Configuration of Special G/L Transactions ..............393 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 353
  • 362. Unit 7: Special G/L transactions TFIN50 Lesson: Application Area for Special G/L Transactions Lesson Overview The application area for special G/L transactions in financial accounting is introduced in this lesson by means of selected examples. It is explained why and when it is possible or appropriate to work with special G/L transactions. Lesson Objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to: • Describe special G/L transactions • Explain the particularities of special G/L transactions • Explain the functions of special G/L transactions Business Example Certain business transactions should be displayed separately in the general ledger and subledger in financial accounting. In this context, down payments and down payment requests and individual value adjustments of doubtful receivables, for example, should be displayed in financial accounting. What are reconciliation accounts? Transactions in the subledgers (e.g. accounts receivable/payable) are also posted on the reconciliation accounts in the general ledger. The aim is to have the values available in form of totals as well in the general ledger in order to be able to quickly create a financial/income statement. To determine the payables/receivables, the balances of the reconciliation accounts can be directly displayed instead of having to search for the values in the subledger. The reconciliation account to be posted to is entered in each customer/vendor master record. The Reconciliation Account field can be found in the company code segment of the customer/vendor master record. 354 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 363. TFIN50 Lesson: Application Area for Special G/L Transactions Figure 148: Display Customer: Company Code Segment-Account Management Postings in the Subledger If, for example, a customer invoice or customer credit memo is entered on an account receivable, it is posted in the same way on the created reconciliation account. The account number of the reconciliation account posted to can be seen on the FI document. The transaction figures are updated on the reconciliation account in concern. Figure 149: Enter Customer Invoice 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 355
  • 364. Unit 7: Special G/L transactions TFIN50 Sp. G/L Transactions – Alternative Reconciliation Accounts Special G/L transactions are transactions in the accounts receivable and payable, which are displayed separately in the general ledger and the subledgers. This may be necessary for internal reasons or for certain report purposes. Down payments, for example, may not figure in the balance sheet together with receivables and payables for goods and services. Transactions in the subledgers are linked to the general ledger by the reconciliation account defined in the subledger master record. If subledger account assignments are made using a special G/L indicator, the postings are performed on alternative reconciliation accounts (special G/L accounts) to allow these transactions to be able to be displayed separately. Figure 150: Sp. G/L Transactions – Alternative Reconciliation Accounts Special General Ledger Classes Special G/L transactions can be divided roughly into three classes: • Down payments • Bill of exchange • Other transactions 356 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 365. TFIN50 Lesson: Application Area for Special G/L Transactions Figure 151: Special General Ledger Classes The numerous purposes of special G/L transactions can be divided into three classes: • Transactions in connection with down payments: The SAP system provides special preconfigured programs and entry screens for the administation of requested, received and used down payments. They can be used for accounts receivable or payable and can be called up via the respective standard menus. Furthermore, the processing of down payments is integrated in the dunning and payment programs. • Transactions in connection with bills of exchange: Bills of exchange are processed in order to be able to deal with country-specific particularities. The SAP sytem contains special preconfigured programs and entry screens which utilize the functions of special G/L transactions in order to meet these requirements. Options for processing bills of exchange are available in the standard menus for the accounts receivable and payable. • Other transactions: The functions of the special G/L transactions are used for the most different of business tranactions. These transactions are controlled by means of the “Other” option in the Document entry menu in accounts receivable and payable. With the special main ledger indicator it is possible to pass on documents for individual items to a reconciliation account. The type of processing to be performed after entering the business transaction is regulated in this way. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 357
  • 366. Unit 7: Special G/L transactions TFIN50 Special General Ledger Types Figure 152: Special General Ledger Types There are three ways (special general ledger types) of transferring special general ledger entries to the system. Whether the posting is a free G/L account posting, a noted item or a posting with automatic offsetting entry is determined in the configuration of the special G/L indicator. 1. Automatic offsetting entries (statistical) are transactions which are always posted on the same offsetting account. They are usually included in the notes to financial statements. Example: posting of a guarantee of payment. 2. Noted items are individual account assignments which are only used to remind the respective department of due payments or payments to be made and are not intended to be displayed in the general ledger. Example: down payment request. 3. Free offsetting entries are part of the financial statements. They are postings with freely definable offsetting entries. Example: the bank posting of a received down payment. 1. Automatic Offsetting Entry (Statistical) Automatic offsetting entries (statistical) are always made on the same offsetting account. To simplify the posting procedure, the number of the account for the offsetting entry is defined in Customizing. The system then automatically makes the offsetting entries. If you clear open items in the respective account, the system also automatically clears the respective items in the offsetting account. 358 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 367. TFIN50 Lesson: Application Area for Special G/L Transactions These transactions are called statistical postings, since they are generally either not displayed at all in the financial statements or only in the notes to the financial statements. Guarantees of payment made, for example, are displayed in the appendix, but not guarantees received. For internal purposes however, it makes sense to have an overview of the guarantees received. Figure 153: Overview: Automatic Offsetting Entry (Statistical) Figure 154: Posting: Automatic Offsetting Entry (Statistical) 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 359
  • 368. Unit 7: Special G/L transactions TFIN50 Example of a statistical posting – guarantee of payment: You agree with a customer to guarantee for an amount of 10,000 and consequently accept that you can be made liable for this amount. Your liability is displayed on the customer account and on the special G/L account, “Guarantees of Payment Made”. The automatic offsetting entries are made on the clearing account for the guarantees of payment made. The guarantee of payment is cancelled once you are no longer liable. 2. Noted Items Noted items are special G/L transactions with informational character which only remind the user about due payments or payments to be made and are not displayed in the general ledger or added to it. Only one line item is updated if a noted item is created. No offsetting entry is made. That is why no zero balance check is made. The payment program and the dunning programm can access noted items for further processing. Noted items are administered as open items in the accounts payable/receivable and the special G/L account. You should therefore always activate the line item display for these accounts. Figure 155: Overview: Noted Item Examples of noted items: down payment requests, bill of exchange payment requests. 360 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 369. TFIN50 Lesson: Application Area for Special G/L Transactions A down payment request is a “reminder”, a statistical noted item which is supposed to remind you to make a down payment. No transaction figures are updated for down payment requests. Like all down payment special G/L transactions, down payment requests can be paid and dunned automatically. All information required by the payment or dunning program is available. There are customer and vendor down payment requests. The objective of customer down payment requests is to allow down payments to be processed automatically by the payment program (prerequisite: collection authorization from the customer). The down payment request entered in the system is supposed to allow one customer per system (automatic process) to be reminded about a down payment or to create a reminder about a down payment. Vendor down payment requests are required to regulate down payments by means of the payment program. Figure 156: Posting: Noted Item Displaying Noted Items in the General Ledger No transaction figures are updated when entering noted items. This means that the items can be found on the line item list, but do not affect the displayed balance of the customer and that the special G/L account posted to also always displays a balance of zero. 3. Free Offsetting Entry Special G/L transactions defined as free offsetting entries create a proper posting in the general ledger. The alternative reconciliation account is debited or credited automatically, depending on the type of posting. The G/L account must be entered by the user for the offsetting entry. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 361
  • 370. Unit 7: Special G/L transactions TFIN50 Figure 157: Overview: Free Offsetting Entry Example of a free offsetting entry – incoming down payment: The customer responds to a down payment request with a payment of 11,000 EUR. The SAP system registers the incoming payment both in the subledger account of the customer as well as in the alternative reconciliation account (received down payments) of the general ledger. The bank balance sheet account (which varies depending on the bank and account number) to be credited with the incoming payment can be selected in the SAP system during the transaction. A down payment made by the customer prior to the performance of a service is a payable and may therefore not change the receivables of the reconciliation account. The special G/L account (alternative reconcilation account) for down payments made is displayed on the financial statements in the payables area. 362 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 371. TFIN50 Lesson: Application Area for Special G/L Transactions Figure 158: Posting: Free Offsetting Entries The down payment must be transferred or written off after generating the invoice. Down Payment in the Customer Area The procedure is as follows: 1. Down payment request: Down payment requests are noted items. They do not change any account balances. With down payment requests you can automatically issue dunning notices and make payments. 2. Down payment received: Received down payments are displayed as payables on your accounts. They may not change the balance of the “Receivables” reconciliation account. Received down payments are administered in the “Down Payments Received” alternative reconciliation account in the Payables area on the financial statements. 3. Customer invoice: The customer receives an invoice whenever goods are supplied or services performed. 4. Posting a down payment clearing with invoice: At this point of time the down payment is no longer a down payment. The amount should/must be displayed as payment on the normal reconciliation account. 5. Clearing of the items during the payment of the customer's balance 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 363
  • 372. Unit 7: Special G/L transactions TFIN50 Figure 159: Down Payments in the Customer Area – Example Down Payments in the Customer Area The procedure for customer down payments is as follows: 1. The down payment request is posted. 2. The down payment made is entered. 3. The vendor invoice is created. 4. The down payment is cleared. 5. The payment is cleared during the payment of the balance. 364 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 373. TFIN50 Lesson: Application Area for Special G/L Transactions Figure 160: Down Payments in the Customer Area – Example Another Example for Special G/L Transactions: The Individual Value Adjustment Disputed or doubtful receivables are entered as individual value adjustments when preparing the balance statements for year-end closing. The special general ledger procedure is suitable here, since the transaction is entered in the customer account as well as posted to the special G/L account, Individual Value Adjustments for Receivables. Description of the procedure for individual value adjustments: 1. The receivable is entered to the customer account. 2. The individual value adjustment (without tax) is entered. The expenses are now at the right place on the “Expense for Individual Value Adjustment” account for the income statement reporting. 3. The individual value adjustment is cleared after the key date for the balance sheets, meaning it is reversed. 4. The final value adjustment is made after ascerting that the receivable is uncollectable. In this case the Expenses for Uncollectable Receivables account is posted to. No special G/L account is used, since adjustment postings must be made on the regular customer reconciliation account. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 365
  • 374. Unit 7: Special G/L transactions TFIN50 Figure 161: Individual Value Adjustment– Example Guarantees of Payment - Customer (Guarantees of Payment Made) The subject of guarantees of payments was already introduced briefly during the presentation of the special general ledger type of statistical offsetting entries (automatic). Figure 162: Guarantees of Payment - Customer (Guarantee of Payment Made) 366 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 375. TFIN50 Lesson: Application Area for Special G/L Transactions You have made an agreement with a customer for you to take over the guarantee of payment for a fee of 10,000 EUR. There is a risk of having to account for the fulfillment of the claims. This transaction is displayed on the account of the customer and on a special G/L account. Guarantees made are displayed in the notes to the financial statements. Posting transaction (1) shows the posting of the guarantee made. Posting transaction (2) shows the cancellation of the guarantee made. Guarantees of payment are stored in SAP as transactions with automatic offsetting entries. Guarantees of Payment – Vendor (received guarantees of payment) You have made an agreement with a vendor for the vendor to make the guarantee for you. This transaction is displayed on the vendor account and on a special G/L account. Posting transaction (1) shows the posting of the guarantee made. Posting transaction (2) shows the cancellation of the guarantee made. Figure 163: Guarantees of Payment – Vendor (Received Guarantee of Payment) 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 367
  • 376. Unit 7: Special G/L transactions TFIN50 Bills of Exchange - Optional Bills of exchange are a type of short-term financing. If an invoice is paid with a bill of exchange, the payment period is extended for your customers (e.g. to three months). If you wish, you can pass on the bill of exchange to a third party in order to refinance it. It can be discounted at a bank prior to the due date, which means the bank charges interest. Bills of exchange are treated like special G/L transactions in the SAP system. These transactions are therefore automatically recorded in the subledger, separately from other transactions, and posted to a special G/L account. As a result, you can obtain an overview of the activities concerning bills of exchange at any time. You can post receivable and payable bills of exchange and incoming and outgoing checks and bills of exchange. Example of a receivable bill of exchange free of charge as displayed above: 1. The receivable is entered to the customer account. 2. The customer initiates the payment with a bill of exchange. The account balance is now registered as a receivable bill of exchange and not as the normal balance of the account recivable. 3. The bank collects the money from the account of the customer on a fixed date. 4. The collected amount is transferred to your company account. 5. The amount is posted to the account of the customer and the respective accounts cleared. Figure 164: Bill of Exchange – Example (Free of Charge) 368 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 377. TFIN50 Lesson: Application Area for Special G/L Transactions Exercise 26: Guarantee Made (Customer) Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: • Enter a guarantee made to the system Business Example Guarantees made must be displayed in the notes to the financial statements. Task: Enter a guarantee made to the system. 1. Enter a guarantee made of 6,000 EUR (due in 12 months) on your account receivable AC202-##C in your company code AC## on the first of the current month. 2. Display the guarantees made in the line item list. 3. Reverse the statistical posting (guarantee of payment made). 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 369
  • 378. Unit 7: Special G/L transactions TFIN50 Solution 26: Guarantee Made (Customer) Task: Enter a guarantee made to the system. 1. Enter a guarantee made of 6,000 EUR (due in 12 months) on your account receivable AC202-##C in your company code AC## on the first of the current month. a) Choose SAP Easy Access → Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable → Document Entry → Other → Statistical Posting (F-38) Enter the following values: Document Date First day of the current month Posting Date First day of the current month Document Type DA Currency EUR Company Code AC## Posting Key 09 Special G/L ind G Account (customer) AC202-##C Amount 6,000 Due on In 12 months Text Guarantee made according to agreement Save/Post the entered data. The system confirms the assigned document number. Display the document. In the menu, choose Document → Display. Hint: The document is posted to the alternative reconciliation account 196100. The offsetting account automatically posted to is the Clearing of Guarantees Made Account (196110). Continued on next page 370 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 379. TFIN50 Lesson: Application Area for Special G/L Transactions 2. Display the guarantees made in the line item list. a) Choose SAP Easy Access → Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable → Account → Display/Change Line Items. Select All items and Special G/L transactions. 3. Reverse the statistical posting (guarantee of payment made). a) Choose SAP Easy Access → Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable → Document → Special General Ledger Transaction → Reverse Statistical Posting. Enter the following values: Document Date Current date Posting Date Current date Document Type DA Company Code AC## General Ledger 196100 Save/Post the document. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 371
  • 380. Unit 7: Special G/L transactions TFIN50 372 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 381. TFIN50 Lesson: Application Area for Special G/L Transactions Exercise 27: Down Payment Request, Received Down Payment, Customer Invoice and Clearing Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: • Enter a down payment request • Post the received down payment • Enter a corresponding customer invoice • Clear the down payment Business Example A down payment request is a “reminder” (a statistical noted item) which is supposed to remind you to make a down payment. No transaction figures are updated for down payment requests. Down payment requests can be paid and dunned automatically. All information required by the payment or dunning program is available. A down payment made by the customer prior to the performance of the respective service is a payable and may therefore not change the receivables of the reconciliation account. The special G/L account (alternative reconcilation account) for down payments made is displayed on the financial statements in the payables area. The down payment is no longer a down payment once an invoice has been generated. The amount must be posted to the account as payment. Task 1: Enter a down payment request to the system for a customer. 1. Enter a down payment request of 11,000 EUR to the system for your customer account AC202-## in your company code AC##. The document date and posting date are today. The item is due now. 2. Display the down payment request in the line item list of your customer account. Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 373
  • 382. Unit 7: Special G/L transactions TFIN50 Task 2: Now post a received down payment while taking into account the existing down payment request. Then enter a customer invoice. The customer invoice should be cleared after posting it. 1. Post a received down payment of 11,000 EUR to your customer account AC202-## in your company code AC##. Check, if there are any down payment requests in the system and, if so, take them into account. Post the cash receipt to your bank clearing account 113109. 2. Display the down payment in the line item list. 3. Post a customer invoice of 33,000 EUR to your customer account AC202-## in your company code AC## (document/posting date of today; make sure the ZB00 payment term is used). You can post to account 800200 as the sales revenue account. 4. Clear the customer invoice and received down payment. 374 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 383. TFIN50 Lesson: Application Area for Special G/L Transactions Solution 27: Down Payment Request, Received Down Payment, Customer Invoice and Clearing Task 1: Enter a down payment request to the system for a customer. 1. Enter a down payment request of 11,000 EUR to the system for your customer account AC202-## in your company code AC##. The document date and posting date are today. The item is due now. a) Choose SAP Easy Access → Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable → Document Entry → Down Payment → Request Enter the following values: Field Name or Data Type Value Document date/Posting date Today Company Code AC## Currency EUR Customer AC202-## Trg. sp. G/L ind. A Select Enter. Field Name or Data Type Value Amount 11,000 Tax 1O (10% course output tax) Calculate Tax X Due on Today Select Save/Post. Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 375
  • 384. Unit 7: Special G/L transactions TFIN50 2. Display the down payment request in the line item list of your customer account. a) Display the noted item on the account: SAP Easy Access → Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable → Account → Display/Change Line Items Field Name or Data Type Values Customer AC202-## Company Code AC## Open items Select Open at key date Today Normal Items Do not select Noted Items Select Select Execute. Continued on next page 376 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 385. TFIN50 Lesson: Application Area for Special G/L Transactions Task 2: Now post a received down payment while taking into account the existing down payment request. Then enter a customer invoice. The customer invoice should be cleared after posting it. 1. Post a received down payment of 11,000 EUR to your customer account AC202-## in your company code AC##. Check, if there are any down payment requests in the system and, if so, take them into account. Post the cash receipt to your bank clearing account 113109. a) Choose SAP Easy Access → Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable → Document Entry → Down Payment → Down Payment Field Name or Data Type Value Document date/Posting date Today Company Code AC## Customer - Account AC202-## Special G/L ind. A Bank clearing account 113109 Amount 11,000 Click on the Requests pushbutton. The existing down payment requests are selected and displayed. Select the desired down payment request using the switch on the left side of the screen and click on the Add Down Payments pushbutton. Save/Post the entries (disk pushbutton). The cleared down payment request is no longer displayed as open item on the customer account. Try to select the down payment request using the noted items display. You can still display the down payment request while taking into account the cleared items. Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 377
  • 386. Unit 7: Special G/L transactions TFIN50 2. Display the down payment in the line item list. a) Choose: SAP Easy Access → Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable → Account → Display/Change Line Items Field Name or Data Type Value Customer AC202-## Radio button Open Items Open at key date Today Normal Items Do not select Special G/L transactions: Select Noted Items Do not select Select Execute. Continued on next page 378 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 387. TFIN50 Lesson: Application Area for Special G/L Transactions 3. Post a customer invoice of 33,000 EUR to your customer account AC202-## in your company code AC## (document/posting date of today; make sure the ZB00 payment term is used). You can post to account 800200 as the sales revenue account. a) SAP Easy Access → Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable → Document Entry → Invoice. Field Name or Data Type Value Company Code AC## Customer AC202-## Document Date/Posting Date Today Amount 33,000 Tax Code 1O (10% course output tax) Calculate Tax X A system message is issued indicating a down payment! Switch to the Payment tab page and make sure the ZB00 payment term has been set. On the line item level, assign the down payment to the following account: Field Name or Data Type Value Account 800200 Amount * Please save the document and make a note of the document number. It is required as invoice reference for clearing. Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 379
  • 388. Unit 7: Special G/L transactions TFIN50 4. Clear the customer invoice and received down payment. a) Choose: SAP Easy Access → Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable → Document Entry → Down Payment → Clearing Please enter the following values: Field Name or Data Type Value Document date/Posting date Today Company Code AC## Currency EUR Customer - Account AC202-## Relevant invoice -Invoice ref. Your noted customer invoice number Fiscal Year Current fiscal year Click on the Process Down Payment pushbutton. Double-click into the amount field (transfer posting) and 11,000 EUR will appear there. Select Save. The down payment is cleared. Hint: The same entry is made in the Assignment field for the clearing and the outgoing invoice. In practice it is the invoice number, order number or delivery number. For training purposes this is the Financials document number of the outgoing invoice. 380 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 389. TFIN50 Lesson: Application Area for Special G/L Transactions Exercise 28: Individual Value Adjustment - Optional Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: • Enter an invoice • Adjust the individual value of a doubtful receivable Business Example Individual disputed or doubtful receivables are entered as individual value adjustments when preparing the balance statements for year-end closing. The special general ledger procedure is suitable here, since the transaction is entered in the customer account as well as posted to the special G/L account, Individual Value Adjustments for Receivables. Task: First post a customer invoice in your company code. On the basis of secure information, then make an individual value adjustment using a special G/L transaction. 1. Post a customer invoice of 11,000 EUR (incl.tax) to your customer account AC202-##B in your company code AC## (posting date/document date of 6 months ago). 2. Use the special G/L transaction E to make an individual value adjustment of 10,000 EUR for the entered invoice (due on the last day of the current period; account expenses from individual value adjustment: 210100). 3. Clear the individual value adjustment after the key date for the financial statements. Reverse the document. 4. Display the line item list of your customer account. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 381
  • 390. Unit 7: Special G/L transactions TFIN50 Solution 28: Individual Value Adjustment - Optional Task: First post a customer invoice in your company code. On the basis of secure information, then make an individual value adjustment using a special G/L transaction. 1. Post a customer invoice of 11,000 EUR (incl.tax) to your customer account AC202-##B in your company code AC## (posting date/document date of 6 months ago). a) Choose: SAP Easy Access → Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable → Document Entry → Invoice. in the company code AC##. Please enter the following values: Customer AC202-##B Invoice date Today - 6 months Posting date Today - 6 months Amount 11,000 (including VAT) Currency EUR Calculate tax Check Tax code 1O (10% course output tax) G/L account 800200 D/C Credit Amount * Save/Post your entries. 2. Use the special G/L transaction E to make an individual value adjustment of 10,000 EUR for the entered invoice (due on the last day of the current period; account expenses from individual value adjustment: 210100). a) SAP Easy Access → Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable → Document Entry → Other → Transfer Without Clearing Please enter the following values: Continued on next page 382 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 391. TFIN50 Lesson: Application Area for Special G/L Transactions Document Date/Posting Date Last day of the current period Company Code AC## Currency EUR PK (customer) 19 Account (customer) AC202-##B Sp. G/L indicator E (special G/L indicator for individual value adjustment) Hint: The reconciliation account of the customer is account 140000. The item you posted during the previous transaction has also been posted to this account. With the individual value adjustment, you transfer the item from account 140000 (domestic customer receivables) to account 142000 (individual value adjustments to customer requests). Enter the following values when posting: Amount 10,000 Due on Last day of the current period Text Value adjustment Posting key 40 Account 210100 (expense from value adjustments for receivables)) Select Enter. Now enter the following values: Amount * Tax code A0 (0% domestic output tax) Value date Last day of the current period Post your document and make a note of the document number ________________ . Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 383
  • 392. Unit 7: Special G/L transactions TFIN50 3. Clear the individual value adjustment after the key date for the financial statements. Reverse the document. a) Reverse the individual value adjustment as follows: Choose SAP Easy Access → Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable → Document → Reverse → Individual Reversal. Enter your document number and 01 as the reason for reversal. Save/Post the document. 4. Display the line item list of your customer account. a) Choose: SAP Easy Access → Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable → Account → Display/Change Line Items Please select All items, Normal items and Special G/L transactions in order to display them. Select Execute. 384 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 393. TFIN50 Lesson: Application Area for Special G/L Transactions Lesson Summary You should now be able to: • Describe special G/L transactions • Explain the particularities of special G/L transactions • Explain the functions of special G/L transactions 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 385
  • 394. Unit 7: Special G/L transactions TFIN50 Lesson: Configuration of Special G/L Transactions Lesson Overview The application area of the special G/L transactions was described in the last lesson. The required system settings are now dealt with here. Lesson Objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to: • Configure special G/L transactions or check their configuration • Create your own special G/L transactions as needed Business Example The special G/L transactions should be defined in the system using special G/L indicators. Any existing settings must be checked. The desired account determination is checked and, if necessary, stored in cooperation with the respective department. Basic Settings for Special G/L Transactions: Posting Keys Special G/L transactions are posted from the application side by means of special posting keys and using special G/L indicators. The posting keys require a particular type of outsorting here. The special G/L transactions of the standard system are assigned to the posting keys 09, 19, 29 and 39. The diagram shows the configuration of posting key 09. The special G/L indicator indicates that the posting key is used to enter special G/L transactions. The special G/L indicator should always be included in the entry. 386 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 395. TFIN50 Lesson: Configuration of Special G/L Transactions Figure 165: Posting Key Basic Settings for Special G/L Transactions: Outsorting of the Alternative Reconciliation Accounts Special G/L transactions are posted to an account stored in Customizing and not to the reconciliation account stored in the master record. These accounts must be created in financial accounting as G/L accounts and outsorted according to the requirements. Figure 166: Special General Ledger: Account Control The special G/L accounts have been defined as reconciliation accounts for the D or K account types. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 387
  • 396. Unit 7: Special G/L transactions TFIN50 As opposed to “normal” reconciliation accounts (customers/vendors), in general, special G/L accounts have the line item display activated. This means a list of the line items can be displayed. You can use the field status group to change the screen layout for postings entered. Configuration of Sp. G/L Transactions - Properties and Account Determination Figure 167: Configuration of Sp. G/L Transactions Special G/L transactions are part of the scope of delivery of the standard system. You can make individual adjustments if you, for example, wish to make changes in the following areas: • Different account numbers for reconciliation accounts or special G/L accounts • Other posting keys or G/L indicators for individual transactions • Other settings for the automatic postings, including the accounts to be posted to, posting keys and rules for account assignments with automatic postings. A particular configuration of the special G/L transactions is defined by the special G/L indicator which determines the type of transaction and the account type (customer or vendor account). The account type is important since customer and vendor down payments, for example, are configured separately. 388 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 397. TFIN50 Lesson: Configuration of Special G/L Transactions Figure 168: Special G/L Transactions: Definition of Properties and Accounts The characteristics of each special G/L indicator are defined in connection with the account type under Properties. Noted items: You can determine that a special G/L transaction does not update any account balances. Relevance to credit limit check: You can include special G/L transactions in the credit limit check for customers. Noted items are generally not taken into account. All other transactions can be marked accordingly as desired by the user. Warning against commitments: You can determine that the user is notified by a warning message about the existence of a special G/L transaction when posting to a customer or vendor account. Example: When posting a vendor invoice, it is useful to know that there is a down payment for this vendor. Target special G/L indicator: This entry only makes sense for noted items. For line items, you can set which special G/L indicators are allowed to be added as target special G/L indicators when entering (applying) a payment request. The target special G/L indicator is used in the standard system for down payment requests. Special G/L transaction class: The special G/L transaction class determines whether the transaction is a down payment, a bill of exchange or any other type of transaction. Posting key: Only these posting keys can be used with the respective special G/L indicators. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 389
  • 398. Unit 7: Special G/L transactions TFIN50 The alternative special G/L account which is to be selected when using special G/L indicators is stored separately in the account determination according to the chart of accounts. The system proceeds from the reconciliation account found in the master record of the customer or vendor and assigns it when posting the special G/L account assigned to this reconciliation account in the account determination. Automatic Statistical Offsetting Entries Figure 169: Configuration - Automatic Statistical Offsetting Entries Statistical postings are always made on the same offsetting account. The account is stored on the basis of a combination of the account type (customer or vendor account) and the special G/L indicator used. Setting Up Your Own Special G/L Transactions – Noted Items Figure 170: Setting Up Your Own Special G/L Transactions – Noted Items 390 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 399. TFIN50 Lesson: Configuration of Special G/L Transactions When setting up several special G/L transactions, you can take advantage of all of their technical features. No transaction figures are updated for noted items. There is no offsetting account assignment, only information (a “reminder”) on the customer or vendor account. An example: You are delivering goods in containers and would like to indicate the customer where the container is in the system. A corresponding special G/L indicator, which is defined as a noted item, should be created in the configuration. An alternative reconciliation account should be stored. Setting Up Your Own Special G/L Transactions – Statistical Items with Automatic Offsetting Entries Figure 171: Setting Up Your Own Special G/L Transactions – Statistical Items with Automatic Offsetting Entries To set up a special G/L transaction with automatic offsetting entry, do not only store an alternative special G/L account (alternative reconciliation account) for the selected special G/L indicator, but also a clearing account in the table for “accounts for automatic (offsetting) postings” (in the same way as with the “guarantees of payment” special G/L transaction). 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 391
  • 400. Unit 7: Special G/L transactions TFIN50 Figure 172: Setting Up Your Own Special G/L Transactions – Transaction with Manual Offsetting Entry An alternative G/L account (alternative reconciliation account) should be stored for the selected special G/L indicator. The offsetting account is entered manually during the transaction. 392 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 401. TFIN50 Lesson: Configuration of Special G/L Transactions Exercise 29: Configuration of Special G/L Transactions Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: • Understand the configuration of a special G/L transaction • Set up a noted item special G/L transaction Business Example You are supposed to explain the configuration of special G/L transactions to a new colleague using the example of a guarantee of payment made and set up a new special G/L transaction (noted item). Task 1: Show all customizing settings required for the guarantee made transaction as an example of special G/L transactions. 1. Show where the accounts for automatic offsetting entries are stored. 2. Where are the alternative reconciliation accounts stored? Task 2: Set up a new special G/L transaction. You have been sending containers to customers and their hesitant response has not only been annoying you for some time, but also causing high costs. You would now like to administer the containers in the system and, if necessary, issue reminders. 1. First create a new G/L account in your company code AC## as an alternative reconciliation account for container transactions (account number 196999). Please only define the allowed entries of your company code segment if a chart of accounts segment has already been created. 2. Create the noted item special G/L indicator transaction with a random letter (select an unused letter) in Customizing (set up special G/L indicator, store account determination...). 3. OPTIONAL: Enter a container transaction on your customer account AC202-## in your company code AC##. 4. Optional: Display the transaction on your customer account. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 393
  • 402. Unit 7: Special G/L transactions TFIN50 Solution 29: Configuration of Special G/L Transactions Task 1: Show all customizing settings required for the guarantee made transaction as an example of special G/L transactions. 1. Show where the accounts for automatic offsetting entries are stored. a) Choose IMG: Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable and Accounts Payable → Business Transactions → Postings with Alternative Reconciliation Account → Other Special G/L Transactions → Define Accounts for Automatic Offsetting Entry Select the INT chart of accounts from the subsequent screen. Entries on the account type and special G/L indicator can be found in the following table. The respective combinations are assigned to reconciliation accounts. The desired offsetting accounts are stored here together with the postings with special G/L indicators. These are fixed values. Among others the following values can be found there: DG Customer Guarantee made 196110 KG Vendor Guarantee received 196410 Continued on next page 394 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 403. TFIN50 Lesson: Configuration of Special G/L Transactions 2. Where are the alternative reconciliation accounts stored? a) Choose IMG: Accounts Receivable and Accounts Payable → Business Transactions → Postings with Alternative Reconciliation Account → Other Special G/L Transactions → Define Alternative Reconciliation Account for Customers. Choose Execute. Select the following entries from the displayed list by double-clicking on them: Account type D Special G/L indicator G You receive a list of the reconciliation accounts and the assigned special G/L accounts. Task 2: Set up a new special G/L transaction. You have been sending containers to customers and their hesitant response has not only been annoying you for some time, but also causing high costs. You would now like to administer the containers in the system and, if necessary, issue reminders. 1. First create a new G/L account in your company code AC## as an alternative reconciliation account for container transactions (account number 196999). Please only define the allowed entries of your company code segment if a chart of accounts segment has already been created. a) Create a G/L account which is to be used as a reconciliation account in your company code AC##. Choose SAP Easy Access → Accounting → Financial Accounting → General Ledger → Master Records → Individual Processing → Centrally. Enter the following values: G/L Account 196999 Company Code AC## Choose the Create w. Template pushbutton. Enter the following values: Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 395
  • 404. Unit 7: Special G/L transactions TFIN50 Reference Account - G/L Account No. 196000 Reference Account - Company Code AC## Enter “Container” in short and long text. Remove the entry from the Alternative Account Number (Control Data tab page) field. Save the new account. Acknowledge the messages. If the chart of accounts segment has already been created: Choose SAP Easy Access → Accounting → Financial Accounting → General Ledger → Master Records → Individual Processing→ In Company Code. Enter the following values: G/L Account 196999 Company Code AC## Choose the Create w. Template pushbutton. Enter the following values: Reference Account - G/L Account No. 196000 Reference Account - Company Code AC## Save your entries. 2. Create the noted item special G/L indicator transaction with a random letter (select an unused letter) in Customizing (set up special G/L indicator, store account determination...). a) Create the noted item with a free letter of your choice with the name Container for the account type D (customers). Proceed via IMG: Accounts Receivable and Accounts Payable → Business Transactions → Postings with Alternative Reconciliation Account → Other Special G/L Transactions → Define Alternative Reconciliation Account for Customers. Choose the Create pushbutton. The account type D is pre-assigned. Enter the following values: Continued on next page 396 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 405. TFIN50 Lesson: Configuration of Special G/L Transactions Special G/L indicator Your letter Description Con## Description Container## Select Continue (Enter). Enter the following values: Noted items Check Posting Key - Debit 09 Container Posting Key - Credit 19 Container Note: The text is displayed whenever documents are entered in order to be checked. Select the Accounts pushbutton to store the account determination. Save the data which has been entered up to now, if necessary. Select the INT chart of accounts and enter the following values: Recon. acct Special G/L account 140000 196999 Save your entries. Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 397
  • 406. Unit 7: Special G/L transactions TFIN50 3. OPTIONAL: Enter a container transaction on your customer account AC202-## in your company code AC##. a) Optional: Enter a container noted item with the special G/L transaction newly created by you on your customer account AC202-##. Choose SAP Easy Access → Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable → Document Entry → Other → Noted Items. Please enter the following values: Posting Date/Document Date Today Company Code AC## Currency EUR Please enter the following values under Line item: Posting Key 09 Special G/L indicator Your letter Account (customer) AC202-## Due Today Amount 2 Text Free choice Save/Post the transaction. 4. Optional: Display the transaction on your customer account. a) Select the open items and noted items from the customers area, Account → Display/Change Line Items. 398 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 407. TFIN50 Lesson: Configuration of Special G/L Transactions Lesson Summary You should now be able to: • Configure special G/L transactions or check their configuration • Create your own special G/L transactions as needed 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 399
  • 408. Unit Summary TFIN50 Unit Summary You should now be able to: • Describe special G/L transactions • Explain the particularities of special G/L transactions • Explain the functions of special G/L transactions • Configure special G/L transactions or check their configuration • Create your own special G/L transactions as needed 400 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 409. Unit 8 Parking Documents Unit Overview First, the Hold Document and Park Document functions will be explained and discussed. In the second lesson, document parking with the option of further processing of the documents will be presented in greater detail. Chapter 2, Document Parking, is rounded off by a brief insight into the subject of workflow with regard to document parking. Unit Objectives After completing this unit, you will be able to: • Describe the functionality of document parking • Identify the differences between parking documents and holding documents • Park Financial Accounting documents • Edit, delete or post parked documents • Describe how to use the workflow when parking documents • Name the advantages of using workflow when parking documents Unit Contents Lesson: Basics of Document Parking Versus Hold Document ...........404 Exercise 30: Holding Documents - Parking Documents ..............409 Lesson: Parking Documents and Processing Parked Documents .......419 Exercise 31: Processing Parked Documents ...........................425 Lesson: Document Parking and Workflow...................................431 Exercise 32: Document Parking and Workflow.........................443 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 403
  • 410. Unit 8: Parking Documents TFIN50 Lesson: Basics of Document Parking Versus Hold Document Lesson Overview The Document Parking and Hold Document functions are presented. Lesson Objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to: • Describe the functionality of document parking • Identify the differences between parking documents and holding documents Business Example Numerous documents are entered in financial accounting. If the information required for the respective posting is not yet known at the time of the entry or additional information is required, the previously entered date should not be deleted, but should be able to be further used. The respective department is interested in possible procedures. Holding / Parking Documents An employee in Financial Accounting is occupied with entering documents. The document the employee is currently dealing with consists of ten line items. At item nine the cost center to be posted to can not be clearly determined by means of the documents. What options does the employee have? The document cannot be saved or posted, since it is not complete. The addressed G/L account needs to be assigned to a cost center. If the employee interrupts the posting procedure, all the data has to be reentered the next time. This extra work is intended to be avoided. 404 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 411. TFIN50 Lesson: Basics of Document Parking Versus Hold Document Figure 173: Scenarios for Entering Documents There are different reasons for interrupting document entries. The respective department is looking for a way of temporarily saving the data entered up to the point of interruption in order to resume the entries at a later time. There are two different ways of saving documents (without performing “proper ” Financial Accounting posting): • HOLDING documents • PARKING documents These two procedures are described in the following. Figure 174: Holding/Parking Documents as Possible Solutions to Problems 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 405
  • 412. Unit 8: Parking Documents TFIN50 Holding Documents With Hold Document, data which has been entered can be saved temporarily in order to continue the entries at a later time. Documents held by the system do not have to be complete. No account balances are updated and the data of the document is not available for evaluation. No document number is assigned. The person making the entries is asked to name the document after selecting the Hold Document function. The document can be found under this name at a later time. Figure 175: Overview: Holding Documents Held documents can be completed and posted or deleted at a later point of time. There is a risk of forgetting held documents and therefore not posting them completely. Parking Documents You can enter incomplete documents in the SAP system without having to check the entries extensively by parking documents. When parking documents, the system assigns a document number via the document type in the same way as with “normal” Financial Accounting postings. The user must pass on the number if it has been assigned externally. Parked documents can be supplemented, checked and posted later on – if necessary by a different operator. No data, such as transaction figures for example, can be updated when parking documents. The data of parked documents is available to the system for real-time evaluations. In this way, amounts from parked documents can be used for example for the advance return for tax on sales/purchases. The Park Document function is available for conventional postings and the Enjoy posting mask. 406 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 413. TFIN50 Lesson: Basics of Document Parking Versus Hold Document Figure 176: Overview: Parking Documents Parked documents can be completed, changed, posted or deleted at a later point of time. When parking documents, the respective department must also make sure that, if desired, the parked documents are completed in order to turn them into “proper” Financial Accounting postings for the posting deadline. Parked documents which are no longer required should be deleted to provide a better overview. Substitutions are not supported by the document parking feature. Substitutions can only be made with posting transactions after turning parked documents into accounting documents. The Park Document functions are more effective than the Hold Document functions. Dual control, for example, is performed in a number of companies as a result of being able to park documents. Responsibilities can be clearly defined and displayed by means of authorizations. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 407
  • 414. Unit 8: Parking Documents TFIN50 Figure 177: Additional Park Document Functions 408 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 415. TFIN50 Lesson: Basics of Document Parking Versus Hold Document Exercise 30: Holding Documents - Parking Documents Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: • Hold and park documents. Business Example Employees are constantly interrupted when posting documents or information is missing so that the document is incomplete and therefore unable to be posted. To prevent the entered data from being lost, the data can be saved without posting it with Hold Document or Park Document. The complete entry/posting can be made at a later point of time. Task 1: Holding documents: You are entering a document when you are interrupted by an urgent call from your boss before finishing the transaction. You therefore use the Hold Document function in the system before rushing directly to the meeting. You complete the document and then post it after returning to your workplace. 1. Enter a customer invoice with the following values: Customer AC202-## Invoice date Today Posting Date Today Company Code AC## Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 409
  • 416. Unit 8: Parking Documents TFIN50 Amount 1,100 Currency EUR Calculate Tax X Select/set switch Tax Code 1O (10% course output tax) Text Hold 1 The telephone rings. You have to interrupt the transaction immediately and decide to hold the document. 2. Display the held document. 3. You are back at your workplace and complete the held document before posting it. Task 2: You have held a document again. Due to new information, you want to delete this document, instead of posting it. 1. Enter a document and hold it in the same way as in the previous exercise. 2. Call up the held document again and delete it. Task 3: Parking documents: Please park (!!!) a customer invoice on the customer account AC202-## in your company code AC##. 1. Please enter a customer invoice with the following data. Make sure you make the entry with the FV70 document parking transaction (Accounts Receivable → Document Entry → Document Parking → Park/Edit Invoice). Continued on next page 410 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 417. TFIN50 Lesson: Basics of Document Parking Versus Hold Document Customer AC202-## Invoice date Today Posting Date Today Company Code AC## Amount 1,100 Currency EUR Calculate Tax Check x Tax Code 1O (10% course output tax) Text Document parking 1 You are interrupted and decide to park the document. Make a note of the document number of the parked document. 2. Please display the parked document (this time not directly on the entry screen). 3. You are back at your workplace and complete the parked document before posting it. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 411
  • 418. Unit 8: Parking Documents TFIN50 Solution 30: Holding Documents - Parking Documents Task 1: Holding documents: You are entering a document when you are interrupted by an urgent call from your boss before finishing the transaction. You therefore use the Hold Document function in the system before rushing directly to the meeting. You complete the document and then post it after returning to your workplace. 1. Enter a customer invoice with the following values: Customer AC202-## Invoice date Today Posting Date Today Company Code AC## Amount 1,100 Currency EUR Calculate Tax X Select/set switch Tax Code 1O (10% course output tax) Text Hold 1 Continued on next page 412 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 419. TFIN50 Lesson: Basics of Document Parking Versus Hold Document The telephone rings. You have to interrupt the transaction immediately and decide to hold the document. a) Select: SAP Easy Access → Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable → Document Entry → Invoice (FB70). Customer AC202-## Document Date Today Posting Date Today Company Code AC## Amount 1,100 Currency EUR Calculate Tax X Select/set switch Tax Code 1O (10% course output tax) Text Hold 1 Choose the Hold pushbutton in the application toolbar (or use the menu: Document → Hold). A pop-up window appears with the Temporary document number input request. Please enter the temporary document number 1000##. Click on the Hold document pushbutton or actuate the Enter key. The message “Document 1000## was held” appears in the status bar. 2. Display the held document. a) There are two ways of displaying a held document on the posting mask of the Enjoy mask. First select SAP Easy Access → Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable → Document Entry → Invoice (FB70). Then proceed as follows: 1. Display the menu: Edit → Select Held Document or 2. Use the pushbutton to display Templates → Held Documents (a complete list of the held documents is displayed). Select the desired document by double-clicking on it. Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 413
  • 420. Unit 8: Parking Documents TFIN50 3. You are back at your workplace and complete the held document before posting it. a) Call up the document from the posting transaction as described in the previous exercise. Fill out the following fields: G/L Account 800200 Amount in doc. curr. * Select Document → Post from the menu. Or click on the Disk (posting) pushbutton. The message "Document 18000000xx was posted in company code AC##" appears in the status bar. Task 2: You have held a document again. Due to new information, you want to delete this document, instead of posting it. 1. Enter a document and hold it in the same way as in the previous exercise. a) Select SAP Easy Access → Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable → Document Entry → Invoice (FB70). Customer AC202-## Document Date Today Posting Date Today Company Code AC## Amount 1,100 Currency EUR Calculate Tax X Select/set switch Tax Code 1O (10% course output tax) Text Hold 2 Choose the Hold pushbutton in the application toolbar (or use the menu: Document → Hold). A pop-up window appears with the Temporary document number input request. Please enter the temporary document number 2000##. Click on the Hold document pushbutton or actuate the Enter key. Continued on next page 414 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 421. TFIN50 Lesson: Basics of Document Parking Versus Hold Document 2. Call up the held document again and delete it. a) Call up your held document again as described in the previous exercise. Select SAP Easy Access → Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable → Document Entry → Invoice (FB70). Delete the held document by choosing Edit → Delete Held Document. Enter the name/number of the held document or proceed via the F4 search help. Then click on the "Continue" pushbutton. The deleted amount is no longer displayed at the templates in the Held Documents column after refreshing the display (pushbutton in application toolbar). Task 3: Parking documents: Please park (!!!) a customer invoice on the customer account AC202-## in your company code AC##. 1. Please enter a customer invoice with the following data. Make sure you make the entry with the FV70 document parking transaction (Accounts Receivable → Document Entry → Document Parking → Park/Edit Invoice). Customer AC202-## Invoice date Today Posting Date Today Company Code AC## Amount 1,100 Currency EUR Calculate Tax Check x Tax Code 1O (10% course output tax) Text Document parking 1 Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 415
  • 422. Unit 8: Parking Documents TFIN50 You are interrupted and decide to park the document. Make a note of the document number of the parked document. a) Choose SAP Easy Access → Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable → Document Entry → Document Parking → Park/Edit Invoice (FV70). Enter the following values: Customer AC202-## Invoice date Today Posting Date Today Company Code AC## Amount 1,100 Currency EUR Calculate Tax x Check/Set switch Tax Code 1O (10% course output tax) Text Document parking 1 Choose the disk symbol on the standard toolbar with the text Save parked document or choose the menu path Document → Park. You receive a message in the status bar: “Document 18000000xy AC## was parked”. Please note down the document number. Hint: You can also go directly to the document display via the Document → Display menu. The parked document is displayed (title bar: Display parked customer invoice 18000000xy AC## 20XX). Continued on next page 416 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 423. TFIN50 Lesson: Basics of Document Parking Versus Hold Document 2. Please display the parked document (this time not directly on the entry screen). a) SAP Easy Access → Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable → Document → Parked Documents → Display (FBV3) Enter the data for your document: Company Code AC## Doc. Number 18000000xx Fiscal Year 20xx (You can alternatively select the path via the document list and look for the document.) Press the Enter key. You go to the overview for your parked document. 3. You are back at your workplace and complete the parked document before posting it. a) Call up the document as follows: SAP Easy Access → Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable → Document → Parked Documents → Post/Delete: Single Screen Transaction You need the templates. If they are not yet displayed, please click on the Tree on pushbutton. You can find your document in the Parked documents folder. (The documents are displayed as follows: company code, document number, fiscal year). Select your document by double-clicking on it. Complete your document with the following values: G/L Account 800200 Amount in doc. curr. * In the menu, choose Document → Post. Or click on the Disk (Posting) pushbutton. The message "Document 18000000xx was posted in company code AC##" appears on the status bar. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 417
  • 424. Unit 8: Parking Documents TFIN50 Lesson Summary You should now be able to: • Describe the functionality of document parking • Identify the differences between parking documents and holding documents 418 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 425. TFIN50 Lesson: Parking Documents and Processing Parked Documents Lesson: Parking Documents and Processing Parked Documents Lesson Overview The Document Parking function is described in detail in this lesson. Lesson Objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to: • Park Financial Accounting documents • Edit, delete or post parked documents Business Example The respective department is interested in the Document Parking functions and requires detailed information. Which data of parked documents can be changed? Can parked documents be deleted? Employment of Document Parking... and How to Proceed You can enter and store incomplete documents in SAP without having to check the entries extensively by parking the documents. There are various possible areas of application. You can alternatively also check parked documents for their completeness. You can check, for example, whether the document balance is zero and whether all mandatory fields (e. g. Posting key and Account number) are filled out. Account assignment templates can be used, but not reference documents, when parking documents. Cross-company-code transactions can also be parked. Only one parked document is created in the initial company code for such transactions (two documents with a cross-application number are then created as usual when posting). Neither transaction figures, asset values, etc. nor control totals are updated when securing parked documents. No automatic postings are created either. The balance is not checked; it is displayed in the document overview of the parked documents, however. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 419
  • 426. Unit 8: Parking Documents TFIN50 Areas of application for document parking • Temporary storage of input values when parking documents • Helpful for displaying multi-level models when parking documents (e. g. principle of dual control, approval procedures) • Work assignment by means of work lists (streamlining/acceleration of the work procedures) Ways of using document parking • Customer accounts (invoices and credit memos) • Vendor accounts (invoices and credit memos) • G/L accounts (G/L account postings) You can park documents for customer accounts, vendor accounts and G/L accounts. Documents which have been parked in the system usually have to be further processed. There are various ways of doing this. The usual procedure however, is to edit parked documents and then post them whenever necessary. Parked documents should only be deleted in exceptions. Figure 178: Further Processing of Parked Documents You can also display parked documents in the system (individually, or via list selection; also possible with the line item list). 420 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 427. TFIN50 Lesson: Parking Documents and Processing Parked Documents Editing Parked Documents You can edit parked documents and also complete them step-by-step for example. A number of header and item fields can be edited, including the amounts. The document change rules stored for documents posted in the system are not applied to parking documents! The currency, the document type/number and the company code cannot be changed. Changes can be made as often as required. Multiple changes are also possible. Dates, amounts, accounts and account assignment objects, for example, can all be changed. Changes can be made to individual documents, individual items, to several documents by means of lists or with the line item list. Figure 179: Changing Parked Documents Changes to parked documents can be displayed either before or after posting them. Posting Parked Documents You can post parked documents as standard transactions individually or via a selection list. If you post several documents via a selection list, the system subsequently issues a list, indicating whether the documents have been posted successfully. Parked documents which were unable to be posted, due to missing entries such as cost account assignments, can be post-processed in the list. Furthermore a batch input session can be created in order to post parked documents. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 421
  • 428. Unit 8: Parking Documents TFIN50 Figure 180: Posting Parked Documents What happens when a parked document is turned into a “proper” document? • The usual inspections are performed when posting documents • A normal complete Financial Accounting document is created • History (e.g. changes to parked documents) is documented • The document number remains the same. • The transaction figures are updated. • The parked document is deleted after creating a normal FI document. Whenever a parked document is posted, the data of this parked document is deleted, a document is entered to the document database and the respective data (transaction figures, etc.) is updated. The document number of the parked document becomes the number of the posted document The person who made the entries is noted in the document header of the Financial Accounting document. Document Parking – Reporting and Overview Document parking is linked to the account display and reporting functions in Financial Accounting. Numerous reports can evaluate parked documents. You can include parked documents in the document journal You can view parked documents on the line item display. 422 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 429. TFIN50 Lesson: Parking Documents and Processing Parked Documents Figure 181: Parked Documents and Reporting The differences between parked documents and “documents posted properly” are specified in the following table: Posting Documents, Parking a Document Post document or posted document Park document or document parked Update transaction figures Yes No Document deletion possible No (alternative: reversal) Yes Changes to posted/parked documents possible: Amounts, account numbers, account assignment objects, date specifications No Yes In accordance with the document change rules while taking GoB into account Yes Irrelevant 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 423
  • 430. Unit 8: Parking Documents TFIN50 424 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 431. TFIN50 Lesson: Parking Documents and Processing Parked Documents Exercise 31: Processing Parked Documents Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: • Change and post parked documents • OPTIONALLY: delete parked documents Business Example Parked documents can be further processed in several steps. In some cases a number of different persons are entrusted with their further processing. Task 1: Please make changes to a parked document. Then post the document. Display the document changes afterwards. 1. Park a customer invoice with any sort of data. Make sure you make the entry with the FV70 document parking transaction (Accounts Receivable → Document Entry → Document Parking → Park/Edit Invoice). 2. Please change the document which has just been parked. The posting date should be the current date +1. Please enter the word “Change” in the text of the customer item. Save your document again in parked status. 3. Logging of/at changes (individual document): Display the changes to your document. 4. Logging of/at changes (entire list): Display a list of all changes made to parked documents in the company codes AC00 to AC20. Task 2: OPTIONAL: Park a document and then delete the parked document. 1. Document parking with subsequent deletion of the document: Please park a document (customer invoice) in your company code with any values. Then delete this parked document. 2. Display of a document deleted after being parked: It is of interest to the respective department whether a gap is created in the document number assignment by deleting a parked document. Show that this is not the case. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 425
  • 432. Unit 8: Parking Documents TFIN50 Solution 31: Processing Parked Documents Task 1: Please make changes to a parked document. Then post the document. Display the document changes afterwards. 1. Park a customer invoice with any sort of data. Make sure you make the entry with the FV70 document parking transaction (Accounts Receivable → Document Entry → Document Parking → Park/Edit Invoice). a) Choose SAP Easy Access → Accounting → Financial Accounting → Customers → Document Entry → Document Parking → Park/Edit Invoice (FV70). Enter the following values: Customer AC202-## Invoice date Today Posting Date Today Company Code AC## Amount 1,100 Currency EUR Calculate tax x Check/Set switch Tax code 1O (10% course output tax) G/L acct 800200 D/C C Amount * Select the disk symbol on the standard toolbar with the text Save parked document or choose the Document → Park menu. You receive a message in the status bar: “Document 18000000xy AC## was parked”. Please note down the document number. Continued on next page 426 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 433. TFIN50 Lesson: Parking Documents and Processing Parked Documents 2. Please change the document which has just been parked. The posting date should be the current date +1. Please enter the word “Change” in the text of the customer item. Save your document again in parked status. a) Choose SAP Easy Access → Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable → Document → Parked Documents → Change (FBV2). Enter the document number of the desired document or click on the Document List pushbutton. You can select a list of the parked documents there according to your own criteria. Select the desired document by double-clicking on it or make the changes directly. Posting Date Current date +1 Customer item text Change To save, click on the disk in the standard toolbar Save Parked Document or choose Menu → Document → Park. You receive a message in the status bar: “Parked document 18000000xx AC## was changed”. 3. Logging of/at changes (individual document): Display the changes to your document. a) Choose SAP Easy Access → Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable → Document → Display Changes (FBV5). Enter the desired document number and actuate the Enter key. Company Code AC## Document Number 18000000xx Fiscal Year 200x Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 427
  • 434. Unit 8: Parking Documents TFIN50 4. Logging of/at changes (entire list): Display a list of all changes made to parked documents in the company codes AC00 to AC20. a) Choose SAP Easy Access → Accounting → Financial Accounting → General Ledger → Information System → General Ledger Reports → Document → General → Display of Changed Documents → Display of Changed Documents (RFBABL00). Select Parked documents as document type by clicking on the radio button. Make the following general selections: Company Code AC00 to AC20 Changed on Current date Please enter the following values for the dynamic selections: Document header data Select X Line item data Select X Carry out the report (F8). The changes are displayed. Task 2: OPTIONAL: Park a document and then delete the parked document. 1. Document parking with subsequent deletion of the document: Please park a document (customer invoice) in your company code with any values. Then delete this parked document. a) Refer to the specifications of the last exercises in order to park the document. Choose SAP Easy Access → Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable → Document → Parked Documents → Post/Delete (FV70). Select the desired document from the templates by double-clicking on it. Then choose Document → Delete Parked Document from the menu. Acknowledge the following message. The message Parked document 18000000xx AC## 200x deleted appears in the status bar. Continued on next page 428 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 435. TFIN50 Lesson: Parking Documents and Processing Parked Documents 2. Display of a document deleted after being parked: It is of interest to the respective department whether a gap is created in the document number assignment by deleting a parked document. Show that this is not the case. a) Choose SAP Easy Access → Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable → Document → Parked Documents → Display (FBV3). Enter the document number of the deleted document. Actuate the Enter key. The document header appears on the screen with the usual information. The Document Status field is filled with the value Z or with the text “parked document that was deleted”. The document does not contain any line items. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 429
  • 436. Unit 8: Parking Documents TFIN50 Lesson Summary You should now be able to: • Park Financial Accounting documents • Edit, delete or post parked documents 430 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 437. TFIN50 Lesson: Document Parking and Workflow Lesson: Document Parking and Workflow Lesson Overview The workflow option for parking documents is presented in this lesson. Extensive knowledge which cannot be provided by this course is required to set up the workflow. The lesson is intended to enable the Financial Accounting application manager to design a plan for this area and ensure coordination between the relevant department and specialists in the workflow area. Lesson Objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to: • Describe how to use the workflow when parking documents • Name the advantages of using workflow when parking documents Business Example Various employees are involved in posting Financial Accounting documents within the relevant department. One employee parks the documents, another one checks the account assignment and supplements account assignment objects, if necessary, and then ensures the posting is made in order to update the transaction figures. The department would like to find out to what extent the SAP system is able provide support for this process flow. Workflow in One Sentence Figure 182: Workflow in One Sentence 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 431
  • 438. Unit 8: Parking Documents TFIN50 In the SAP business workflow, the four process dimensions • Organizational structure (Who?) • Process structure (When? In what order? Under what circumstances?) • Function (What?) • Information (With which data?) are combined to allow business processes to be carried out as efficiently as possible. The process to be displayed as workflow is stored in the system in parameters using a graphic definition tool. During the process the workflow manager - and hence the system - performs all the tasks that were worked out when the process was defined. As a result, the user is relieved of any avoidable organisational tasks and can concentrate on the aspects of his or her actual work. Figure 183: The Five Essential Questions on Every Business Process 432 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 439. TFIN50 Lesson: Document Parking and Workflow Figure 184: Benefits of the SAP Business Workflow The SAP Business Workflow supports processes of your company within an SAP system. It also supports the communication between business processes operated on different systems. The SAP Business Workflow provides the end user with all information required to perform the next step. SAP provides standard workflow templates in order to depict business processes. You can customize these SAP workflow templates or create your own. Figure 185: Workflow Management Architecture 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 433
  • 440. Unit 8: Parking Documents TFIN50 Workflow Management Architecture In short, workflow means getting the right work to the right employee at the right time. The SAP Business Workflow is structured in three layers. This modularization of the components involved is the basis for a high degree of flexibility. The right work: Whatever you wish to perform during the workflow: it must be implemented in the Business Object Repository as a method of a business object type. At the right point of time: The process level describes the business process in a sequence of individual steps. The worklow definition is the total of all steps put together. Individual steps can refer to methods of the BOR (Business Object Rep.), but they can also be used to control the process, i.e. to, for example, enable loop-type processing, query conditions, provide values in the interface (= container). Workflow Builder is the tool used for the maintenance of the process level. To the right processor: The organizational level establishes a link to the organizational structure. • There is a group of potential processors available for each task which is able to be perfomed as part of the workflow. • This group can be restricted by specifications on the processor in the workflow step. The selected processors receive a work item at their business workplace during the runtime. The corresponding method of the business object type is started once the work item is performed. 434 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 441. TFIN50 Lesson: Document Parking and Workflow Workflow Figure 186: Workflow: Design and Procedure I Workflows are usually initiated by a triggering event. Events are used to display the changes in status of objects within the system. Like methods, they are defined in the object repository for each object type. Events are initiated in the respective applications. Example: The workflow for account assignment approval (WS0100000) is started by triggering the marking for organizational change event when saving a parked document with the specification of a measure. Work items represent single-step tasks during runtime. They are sent to the responsible processors by the workflow manager. Whenever a processor accepts a work item in order to process it, the work item disappears from the inboxes of the other processors. Whenever a work item is processed, the corresponding object method is called up. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 435
  • 442. Unit 8: Parking Documents TFIN50 Figure 187: Example: Designing the (Entire) Workflow for a Parked Document For every business step, ask yourself: • What work has to be done? You consequently know which object type and method you require. • With dialog steps: Who is carrying out the work? You consequently know which processors are responsible. • What text is supposed to be displayed at the workplace of the person receiving the work item? This text is treated as a task when creating the step. Store your answers in the design. 436 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 443. TFIN50 Lesson: Document Parking and Workflow Figure 188: Workflow: Areas of Application WHAT Is Carried Out? – Tasks Related to the Workflow • Posting invoices • Releasing purchase requisitions • Changing material masters • Approving leave • Creating customer accounts • Deleting purchase orders • Creating requirement requests via the Internet Tasks represent steps of the business process. The process to be shown must be divided into individual tasks during the definition. The definition of the workflow determines the tasks and the order in which they are to be carried in the process. Tasks refer precisely to one object type of the business object repositories and to exactly one of their methods defined there. In exceptional cases a business process may only have one task. A workflow definition should be created even in these cases, however. Tasks are represented by work items during the runtime of the workflow. The work items appear in the inbox of the receiver. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 437
  • 444. Unit 8: Parking Documents TFIN50 Figure 189: Task Definition: “Possible Processors” – WHO is doing something? Each task must be assigned possible processors. This is the group of employees at your company, who come into question for carrying out the respective task. WHO Is Doing Something? Figure 190: WHO Is Doing Something? Workflow Steps and “Responsible Processors” 438 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 445. TFIN50 Lesson: Document Parking and Workflow You define a workflow step when you enter a job in the workflow definition. In this workflow step you can enter responsible processors. Furthermore you can exclude processors explicitly. The slide shows you how to assign processors during the step. The system calculates the intersection of “possible processors” and “responsible processors” for the runtime. It is then checked whether each user included in it has been excluded in the workflow step definition. If the results of both inspections are positive, the user receives a work item in his or her inbox and then belongs to the receivers of the work item. Figure 191: User Interface: Inbox in the SAP System The Business Workplace consists of three screen areas: Selection tree: You can find the selection tree on the left side of the Business Workplace. Here you can select work items to be executed, workflows which you have started or documents. Worklist: The worklist is displayed at the top right of the Business-Workplace screen in case you want to mark the “Workflow” folder. The system automaticlly puts the entries in groups in this folder. There are special folders in which you can find overdue work items or missed deadline work items. If you mark “Inbox” in the selection tree, you can see all work items and documents in this area of the screen. Work item preview: The work item selected from the work list is displayed in a preview at the bottom right of the screen. Not all functions of the work item display or workflow protocol are available. It is possible for the user to make a decision from within the work item preview. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 439
  • 446. Unit 8: Parking Documents TFIN50 Figure 192: Inbox The work items can be performed directly in the worklist. The corresponding applications are started directly and provided with the required data by double-clicking on them. Recipients can display the attachments of the work item and add new ones. You can add various types of documents to a work item as attachments, e.g. SAPscript documents, Microsoft Office documents or Internet pages. The WebFlow Engine determines the recipients of the work item. All selected recipients can view the work item and perform it at their Business Workplace. Only one user can perform the work item, however. If, therefore, a user starts to perform the work item, the other recipients are unable to perform this work item. A recipient can accept a work item. An accepted work item can only be performed by the user who has accepted it. By selecting Put Back, you can disable the reserved status of the work item and make it accessible again to all selected processors. The status of the work item is then set back to “ready”. You can define that concluding the processing of a workflow step has to be confirmed explicitly. After processing a work item, a dialog box appears in which you can finish processing the work item. The work item remains in the worklist and is set to “performed” if you select Cancel at this point of time. You can set “Set to completed” within the worklist for work items with the “performed” status. The work item can be performed several times or passed on as long as this has not been done. Workflow and Financial Accounting Workflow variants can be created for document parking in Customizing of FI. Whether the document release is supposed to be active is specifeid here together with the minimum amount for which this is necessary. 440 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 447. TFIN50 Lesson: Document Parking and Workflow The company codes can be assigned workflow variants. No documents are released if any company code is not assigned a workflow variant. Figure 193: Assigning Workflow Variants to Company Codes It is possible to apply different release procedures to different accounts receivable and payable. This can be controlled by means of the Release Group field in the master record of accounts receivable and accounts payable. The release group is required in order to determine the release approval path at the time of processing. The release approval path is determined by the workflow variant in connection with the document type and release group. The subworkflow which is initiated by releasing the amount and who is to release are determined by the release approval path and the particular amount. If no release group is defined, the initial release group is then used for access. Figure 194: Calculation of the Release Approval Path 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 441
  • 448. Unit 8: Parking Documents TFIN50 The release procedure is represented by subworkflows in the workflow terminology. For document parking, workflow variants (in combination with release approval paths) are assigned amounts, which determine the release procedures to be initiated and performed. The subworkflows control the individual release procedures, e.g. the number of release approval levels to be run through. By default, subworkflows are supplied as workflow templates for reference. The first subworkflow (WS10000052) contains a single-level release, the second one (WS10000053) a two-level release and the third one (WS10000054) a three-level release. With the single-level release, a person must release the document. The principle of dual control can be supported with the two-level release, and the principle of triple control with the three-level release. The respective subworkflow is triggered by parked documents during the initial entry. Figure 195: Assignment of Subworkflows 442 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 449. TFIN50 Lesson: Document Parking and Workflow Exercise 32: Document Parking and Workflow Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: • Understand the process for parking documents as part of the workflow Business Example In your company, you want to use a workflow for document parking. For documents over 500 EUR, the amount should be released by an authorized employee. Task: First you make sure that the workflow variant 1000 is defined for your company code. You then park the document and thus start a workflow. Next, another employee receives the parked document for further processing (to release the amount). You log on under a different user name and release the amount for your document. 1. Make sure Workflow variant 1000 (Variant IDES FIPP-WF) is defined for your company code AC##. 2. Document parking and processing (workflow variant 1000): Park a document for a vendor invoice in your company code (AC##) (vendor AC202-## for EUR 700). Make sure that you enter the invoice with the park document transaction FV60 (Accounts Payable → Document Entry → Document Parking → Park or Edit Invoice). Choose PARK/SAVE FULLY 3. Display the document that has been parked. Where can you get information on the subject of workflow and what information is available? 4. You want to get an idea of how the workflow, which was started when your document was parked, looks. You are particularly interested to know which group of people are able to release your document. 5. Releasing a parked document: Log on to your system and client using the user name WF-FI-1. Your instructor will give you the password. Release the document you parked yourself under a different user name. Take a look at the protocol for this and log user WF-FI-1 off from the system. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 443
  • 450. Unit 8: Parking Documents TFIN50 Solution 32: Document Parking and Workflow Task: First you make sure that the workflow variant 1000 is defined for your company code. You then park the document and thus start a workflow. Next, another employee receives the parked document for further processing (to release the amount). You log on under a different user name and release the amount for your document. 1. Make sure Workflow variant 1000 (Variant IDES FIPP-WF) is defined for your company code AC##. a) Choose IMG → Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Settings → Company Code → Enter Global Parameters. Select your company code (AC##) and click the Detail (F2) pushbutton in the application toolbar. In the Processing parameters section, enter 1000 for Workflow variant. Workflow Variant 1000 (IDES FIPP-WF variant) Save your entries by clicking on the disk in the standard toolbar. 2. Document parking and processing (workflow variant 1000): Park a document for a vendor invoice in your company code (AC##) (vendor AC202-## for EUR 700). Make sure that you enter the invoice with the park document transaction FV60 (Accounts Payable → Document Entry → Document Parking → Park or Edit Invoice). Continued on next page 444 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 451. TFIN50 Lesson: Document Parking and Workflow Choose PARK/SAVE FULLY a) SAP Easy Access → Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Payable → Document Entry → Document Parking → Park or Edit Invoice (FV60). Vendor AC202-## Document date Current date Posting date Current date Company code AC## Amount 700 Currency EUR Calculate tax x Select/set switch Tax code 1I (10% course input tax) Text Invoice parking G/L acct 400020 D/C S Amount * In the application toolbar, click on Save as completed or follow the menu Document → Save as completed. You receive a message in the status bar: "Document 18000000xx AC## was parked." Please make a note of the document number. Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 445
  • 452. Unit 8: Parking Documents TFIN50 3. Display the document that has been parked. Where can you get information on the subject of workflow and what information is available? a) You can also go directly from the entry screen to the document display by choosing Document → Display. The parked document is displayed (title bar: Display parked customer invoice 19000000xx AC## 200x). Hint: (Alternatively choose SAP Easy Access → Accounting → Financial Accounting → Accounts Payable → Document → Display (FB03). Enter the company code, the fiscal year, and the document number, or use the search function with the Document List pushbutton on the application toolbar.) Click the Workflow tab page. Here you can find information about workflow control. A release is required. The release path 1000 is shown. 4. You want to get an idea of how the workflow, which was started when your document was parked, looks. You are particularly interested to know which group of people are able to release your document. a) Choose SAP Easy Access → Office. Double-click Workplace. Choose Outbox → Started workflows. Select the transaction on the right-hand side of the screen by clicking the work item title, then the Display Workflow Log button (scroll symbol). The amount still has to be released. You can find more information by means of the Processor pushbutton. 5. Releasing a parked document: Log on to your system and client using the user name WF-FI-1. Your instructor will give you the password. Continued on next page 446 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 453. TFIN50 Lesson: Document Parking and Workflow Release the document you parked yourself under a different user name. Take a look at the protocol for this and log user WF-FI-1 off from the system. a) Log on to the system using the user name WF-FI-1. System is designated by your instructor Client is designated by your instructor User WF-FI-1 Password is designated by your instructor Language: Local language When the License Information for Multiple Logon dialog box appears, choose “Continue with this log on without ending existing log-ons”. Using work list in the office area you can find a list of documents available for processing. Choose Office → Workplace → Inbox → Workflow → Grouped according to task → Release Amount On the right of the screen, select the document you want to process (usually the one posted by you under a different user name). Click the Execute icon. The document is displayed and checked by you. The document is OK and can be posted. You release the document. Click the Release pushbutton on the application toolbar (Release document). The amount release process is now finished. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 447
  • 454. Unit 8: Parking Documents TFIN50 Lesson Summary You should now be able to: • Describe how to use the workflow when parking documents • Name the advantages of using workflow when parking documents 448 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 455. TFIN50 Unit Summary Unit Summary You should now be able to: • Describe the functionality of document parking • Identify the differences between parking documents and holding documents • Park Financial Accounting documents • Edit, delete or post parked documents • Describe how to use the workflow when parking documents • Name the advantages of using workflow when parking documents 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 449
  • 456. Unit Summary TFIN50 450 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 457. TFIN50 Test Your Knowledge Test Your Knowledge 1. A document number is assigned by means of the document type with the “Hold Document” function. Determine whether this statement is true or false. □ True □ False 2. Which statements are right? Choose the correct answer(s). □ A A company code can be assigned several wokflow variants. □ B A task can be assigned one possible processor only. □ C It is possible to design multilevel workflow sequences. □ D The same workflow variant can be assigned to several company codes. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 451
  • 458. Test Your Knowledge TFIN50 Answers 1. A document number is assigned by means of the document type with the “Hold Document” function. Answer: False A number is assigned by means of the document type with the “Park Document” function. With “Hold Document”, the user assigns a designation. 2. Which statements are right? Answer: C, D One workflow variant can be used for several company codes. It is possible to create multilevel workflow secuences. Individual tasks can usually be assigned several possible processors. 452 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 459. TFIN50 Course Summary Course Summary You should now be able to: • Create organizational units for Financial Accounting • Maintain master data • Influence the entry of posting transactions • Analyze and explain posting transactions • Display special G/L transactions in the system • Use the document parking function within the system and define it appropriately 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 453
  • 460. Course Summary TFIN50 454 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 461. Appendix 1 Data Sheet Unit: Basic Settings Reference value Your data Exercise: Organizational Units • Reference company code 1000 Unit: Master Data Reference value Your data Exercise: General Ledger Accounts • Account group for “expense accounts” ERG. (chart of accounts INT) • Account group for cash expenses SAKO (chart of accounts INT) • “Entertainment costs” and “sports car rental” expense accounts. 400000 Entertainment costs account number: Sports car rental account number: • "Cash expenses" account 113100 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 455
  • 462. Appendix 1: Data Sheet TFIN50 Exercise: Customer/Vendor Accounts Reference value Your data • Account group for customers KUNA (General customers) • Account group for vendors KRED (Vendors) • Reconciliation account (customers) 140000 (Trade receivables - domestic) • Reconciliation account (vendors) 160000 (Trade payables – domestic) • My customer account • My vendor account Exercise: Bank Master Data Reference value Your data • Bank key of house bank 123456## (## = your group number) • Bank account number 111111 • Bank general ledger account 113100 • G/L Acct 113100 Unit: Document Control Reference value Your data Exercise: Simple Documents in Financial Accounting G/L account posting • Petty cash 100000 • Bank account 113100 456 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 463. TFIN50 Appendix 1: Data Sheet • Document number for G/L account posting Vendor invoices • Tax Code 1l (input tax - course 10%) • Document number of first vendor invoice • Document number of second vendor invoice Customer Invoice • Tax Code 1O (Output tax (course) 10%) • Revenue account 800000 • Document number for customer invoice Customer Credit Memo • Tax Code 1O (Output tax (course) 10%) • Revenue account 800000 • Document number of customer credit memo Unit: Posting Control Reference value Your data Exercise: Document Reversal • Account for outgoing checks 113101 Exercise: Taxes • Tax account 175000 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 457
  • 464. Appendix 1: Data Sheet TFIN50 • Jurisdiction Code Your instructor will give you this information • Revenue account 800000 Exercise: Cross-company code transactions • Clearing with company code: 1000 • Clearing account in the company code named by the instructor (debit and credit) 194200 • Instructor's expense account 400000 • Instructor's company code 1000 • Tax Code 1l (input tax - course 10%) • Instructor's cost center CC00 Unit: Clearing Reference value Your data Exercise: Clearing Open Items • Revenue account 800000 Exercise: Post with Clearing • G/L account bank 113100 Exercise: Payment Differences • Revenue account 800200 • Account for payment differences (account determination) 881000 • Your house bank G/L account 113108 458 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 465. TFIN50 Appendix 1: Data Sheet Unit: Cash Journal Reference value Your data Exercise: Business Transactions in the Cash Journal • Tax Code 1l (input tax - course 10%) Unit: Logistics Integration Reference value Your data Exercise: Purchase Order Processing • purchasing organization 1000 • Purchasing group 100 • Company code 1000 • Vendor 1006 • Material V10 • Plnt 1000 • Stor.Loc. 0001 • Purchase order number Exercise: Goods Receipt Processing • Vendor 1006 • Material V10 • Plnt 1000 • Stor.Loc. 0001 • Material document number Exercise: Invoice Verification • Vendor 1006 • Material V10 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 459
  • 466. Appendix 1: Data Sheet TFIN50 • Invoice document number Exercise: Overview of the Sales Process Standard order • Sales Organization 1000 • Distribution Channel 10 • Division 00 • Customer Customer## • Material P-109 • Number of standard order Delivery • Shipping point 1000 • Delivery number • Warehouse 010 • Number of transport request • Goods issue number Billing • Billing document number 460 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 467. Appendix 2 Menu Paths Unit: Basic Settings Transaction Codes Implementation Guide for mySAP ERP Customizing (IMG) → SAP NetWeaver → General Settings → Currencies √ Check currency codes OY03 √ Set decimal places for currencies OY04 √ Define standard quotation for exchange rates ONOT √ Enter Prefixes for Direct/Indirect Quotation Exchange Rates OPRF √ Check exchange rate types OB07 √ Define translation ratios for currency translation OBBS √ Enter exchange rates OB08 √ Maintain exchange rate spreads OBD6 √ Define rounding rules for currencies OB90 √ Define Worklist for Exchange Rate Entry √ Assign Exchange Rate to the Worklist → Enterprise Structure → Localize Sample Organizational Units O035 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 461
  • 468. Appendix 2: Menu Paths TFIN50 Unit: Basic Settings Transaction Codes → Enterprise Structure → Definition → Financial Accounting √ Edit, Copy, Delete, Check Company Code EC01 √ Define business area → Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting → Global Settings Fiscal Year √ Maintain Fiscal Year Variant (Maintain Shortened Fisc. Year) OB29 √ Assign Company Code to a Fiscal Year Variant OB37 Unit: Master Data Transaction codes (or transaction SM30, then Table/View) Implementation Guide for mySAP ERP Customizing (IMG) → Financial Accounting → General Ledger Accounting → General Ledger Accounts → Master Data → Preparation √ Edit chart of Accounts List OB13 √ Assign Company Code to Chart of Accounts OB62 √ Define an account group OBD4 √ Define retained earnings account OB53 → Financial Accounting → General Ledger Accounting → General Ledger Accounts → Master Data → Preparation → Additional Activities √ Define Screen Layout for Each Transaction OB26 462 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 469. TFIN50 Appendix 2: Menu Paths Unit: Master Data Transaction codes (or transaction SM30, then Table/View) → Financial Accounting → General Ledger Accounting → General Ledger Accounts → Master Data → Create and Edit General Ledger Accounts √ Create G/L Accounts with Reference OB_GLACC01 √ Data Transfer Workbench SXDA → Financial Accounting → General Ledger Accounting → General Ledger Accounts → Master Data → Create and Edit General Ledger Accounts → Change General Ledger Accounts in Collective Processing √ Change chart of accounts data OB_GLACC11 √ Change company code data OB_GLACC12 √ Change Account Name OB_GLACC13 → Financial Accounting → General Ledger Accounting → General Ledger Accounts → Master Data → Create and Edit General Ledger Accounts → Edit General Ledger Accounts (Individual Processing) √ Edit G/L Account Centrally FS00 √ Edit Chart of Accounts Data FSP0 √ Editing Company Code Data FSS0 → Financial Accounting → General Ledger Accounting → G/L Accounts → Master Records → G/L Account Creation → Alternative Methods → Copy G/L Accounts √ Copy Chart of Accounts OBY7 √ Copy Company Code OBY2 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 463
  • 470. Appendix 2: Menu Paths TFIN50 Unit: Master Data Transaction codes (or transaction SM30, then Table/View) → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable and Accounts Payable Accounting → Customer Accounts → Master Data → Prepare Creation of Customer Master Data √ Define Account Groups with Screen Layout (Customers) OBD2 √ Define Screen Layout per Company Code (Customers) OB21 √ Define Screen Layout per Activity (Customers) OB20 √ Change Message Control for Customer Master Data (V_T100C) √ Enter Accounting Clerk Identification Code for Customers OB05 √ Define Industries OB44 √ Create Number Ranges for Customer Accounts XDN1 √ Assign Number Ranges to Customer Account Groups OBAR √ Define Sensitive Fields for Dual Control (Customers) (V_T055F) → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable and Accounts Payable Accounting → Customer Accounts → Master Data → Application for Changes in Master Data √ Maintain Users and Accounts for Internet Services (V_FDKUSER) √ Define Own Scenarios for Request for Change to Master Data (V_SCENARIO) 464 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 471. TFIN50 Appendix 2: Menu Paths Unit: Master Data Transaction codes (or transaction SM30, then Table/View) → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable and Accounts Payable Accounting → Vendor Accounts → Master Data → Prepare Creation of Vendor Master Data √ Define Account Groups with Screen Layout (Vendors) OBD3 √ Define Screen Layout per Company Code (Vendors) OB24 √ Define Screen Layout per Activity (Vendors) OB23 √ Change Message Control for Vendor Master Data (V_T100C) √ Define Account Clerks OB05 √ Define Industries OB44 √ Create Number Ranges for Vendor Accounts XKN1 √ Assign Number Ranges to Vendor Account Groups OBAS √ Define Sensitive Fields for Dual Control (Vendors) (V_T055F) → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable and Accounts Payable Accounting → Customer Accounts → Master Data → Application for Changes in Master Data √ Maintain Users and Accounts for Internet Services (V_FDKUSER) √ Define Own Scenarios for Request to Change Master Data (V_SCENARIO) → Cross-Application Components → Bank Directory → Bank Directory Data Transfer 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 465
  • 472. Appendix 2: Menu Paths TFIN50 Unit: Master Data Transaction codes (or transaction SM30, then Table/View) √ Transfer Bank Directory Data - International BIC √ Transfer Bank Directory Data - Country-Specific BAUP → Financial Accounting → Bank Accounting → Bank Accounts √ Define house banks FI12 Unit: Document Control Transaction codes (or transaction SM30, then Table/View) Implementation Guide for mySAP ERP Customizing (IMG) → Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Settings → Document → Posting Periods √ Define variants for open posting periods OBBO √ Opening and Closing Posting Periods OB52 √ Assigning Variants to Company Code OBBP → Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Settings → Document → Document Number Ranges √ Define document number ranges FBN1 √ Copy to Company Code OBH1 √ Copy to Fiscal Year OBH2 → Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Settings → Document → Document Header √ Define Document Types OBA7 √ Define Text IDs for Documents OBT8 466 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 473. TFIN50 Appendix 2: Menu Paths Unit: Document Control Transaction codes (or transaction SM30, then Table/View) → financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Settings → Document → Document Item → Controls √ Define Posting Keys OB41 √ Define Field Status Variants (V_T004F) √ Assign Company Code to Field Status Variants OBC5 → Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Settings → Document → Document Item √ Define Tolerance Groups for Employees OBA4 √ Assign Users/Tolerance Groups OB57 → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable and Accounts Payable → Business Transactions → Incoming Invoices/Credit Memos → Incoming Invoices/Credit Memos - Enjoy √ Define Document Types for Enjoy Transaction OBZO √ Define Tax Code per Transaction OBZT √ Define Posting Key for Incoming Invoices/Credit Memos OBXJ → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable and Accounts Payable → Business Transactions → Outgoing Invoices/Credit Memos → Outgoing Invoices/Credit Memos - Enjoy √ Define Document Types for Enjoy Transaction OBZO √ Define Tax Code per Transaction OBZT √ Define Posting Key for Outgoing Invoices/Credit Memos OBXJ 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 467
  • 474. Appendix 2: Menu Paths TFIN50 Unit: Posting Control Transaction codes (or transaction SM30, then Table/View) Implementation Guide for mySAP ERP Customizing (IMG) → Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Settings → Document → Document Header √ Document Change Rules, Document Header (V_TBAER) → Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Settings → Document → Document Header → Maximum Change in Exchange Course √ Define Maximum Exchange Rate Difference per Company Code OB64 √ Define Maximum Exchange Rate Difference per Foreign Currency (V_TCURD) → Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Settings → Document → Document Item √ Define Texts for Line Items OB56 √ Document Change Rules, Line Item (V_TBAER) → Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Settings → Document → Default Values for Document Processing √ Define Default Values OBU1 √ Enable Fiscal Year Default OB63 √ Default Value Date OB68 √ Change Message Control for Document Processing (V_T100C) → Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Settings → Tax on Sales and Purchases → Basic Settings 468 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 475. TFIN50 Appendix 2: Menu Paths Unit: Posting Control Transaction codes (or transaction SM30, then Table/View) √ Check Calculation Procedure OBQ3 √ Assign Country to Calculation Procedure (V_005_E) √ Check and Change Settings for Tax Processing OBCN √ Specify Structure for Tax Jurisdiction Code OBCO √ Define Tax Jurisdictions OBCP → Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Settings → Tax on Sales and Purchases → Calculation √ Defining Tax Codes for Sales and Purchases FTXP √ Assign Company Code to Document Date for Tax Determination (V_001_Z) √ Specify Base Amount (Tax Basis) OB96 → Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Settings → Tax on Sales and Purchases → Posting √ Defining Tax Accounts OB40 √ Define Account for Exchange Rate Difference Posting OBYY √ Assign Tax Codes for Non-Taxable Transactions OBCL → Financial Accounting → General Ledger Accounting → Business Transactions √ Prepare Cross-Company Code Transactions OBYA 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 469
  • 476. Appendix 2: Menu Paths TFIN50 Unit: Posting Control Transaction codes (or transaction SM30, then Table/View) → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable and Accounts Payable → Business Transactions → Incoming Invoices/Credit Memos √ Maintain Terms of Payment OBB8 √ Define Terms of Payment for Installment Payments OBB9 √ Define Cash Discount Base for Incoming Invoices OB70 √ Define Account for -Net Procedure OBXA → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable and Accounts Payable Accounting → Business Transactions → Outgoing Payments → Outgoing Payments → Basic Settings √ Define Accounts for Cash Discounts Taken OBXU √ Define Accounts for Lost Cash Discount OBXV → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable and Accounts Payable → Business Transactions → Outgoing Invoice/Outgoing Credit Memo √ Maintain Terms of Payment OBB8 √ Define Terms of Payment for Installment Payments OBB9 √ Define Cash Discount Base for Outgoing Invoices OB70 √ Define Tax Accounts for Outgoing Invoices OB40 470 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  • 477. TFIN50 Appendix 2: Menu Paths Unit: Posting Control Transaction codes (or transaction SM30, then Table/View) → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable and Accounts Payable Accounting → Business Transactions → Incoming Payments → Incoming Payments Global Settings √ Define Accounts for Cash Discount Granted OBXI → Financial Accounting → Accounts Receivable and Accounts Payable Accounting → Business Transactions → Adjustment Posting/Reversal √ Permit Negative Postings (V_001_NP) √ Define Reasons for Reversal (T_041C) Unit: Clearing Transaction codes (or transaction SM30, then Table/View) Implementation Guide for mySAP ERP Customizing (IMG) → Financial Accounting → General Ledger Accounting → Business Transactions → Open Item Clearing √ Define Posting Keys for Clearing OBXH √ Defining Accounts for Exchange Rate Differences OB09 √ Define Clearing Rules (V_TFAG) √ Assign Clearing Rules to Account Types (V_TFAGM) √ Prepare Automatic Clearing (V_TF123) → Financial Accounting → General Ledger Accounting → Business Transactions → Open Item Clearing → Differences from Clearing 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 471