INTRODUCTIONHuman beings may differ because oftheir differences & uniqueness. People often see the samesituation/ phenomenon differentlywithin the organisation & outside theorganisation. For example: when thereis an accident in the factory,thesupervisor may treat it as thecarelessness of worker while theworker may treat it as lack of adequateprovision of security measures.
Thus the situation remaining thesame, cause have been assigneddifferently by different group ofpeople. In order to understandwhy people see the samesituation differently,one has tounderstand PERCEPTION & itsdifferent aspect.
WHAT IS PERCEPTION ?Perception is a congnitive process.congnition is basically bit of information,congnitive process involves the way in whichpeople process/understand that information. Perception process involvesselecting,organising and interpreting thestimulus. Thus perception is the processselecting, organising and interpreting orattaching meaning to the events happeningin the environment. However, what one canperceive can be different from objective
reality. Their need not be but thereis often, disagreement. For example:it’s possible that all the employee ina firm may view it as a great placeto work favourable workingconditions, intresting jobassignment, good pay and excellentbenefit but as most of us know,itsvery unusal to find such agreement.
DEFINITION“PERCEPTION may be defined as aprocess by which individualorganise and interpret theirsensory impression in order to givemeaning to their environment.”
FEATURES OFPERCEPTIONPerception is the intellectual processthrough which a person select the data fromthe environment, organise it, and obtainsmeaning from it.Perception is a psychological process also.The manner in which a person perceive theenvironment affects his behaviour..Perception, being an intellectual andpsychological process, become a subjective
process and different peoplemay perceive the sameenvironmental eventdifferently.
PERCEPTUAL PROCESS :Perception process is explained byinput-throughput-output approach.This approach emphasises that thereis input which is processed and givesoutput.
PROCESS OFPERCEPTIONCharacteristics ofstimuli or inputPerceptual Perceptual mechanism Perceptualinputs output-Objects Selection Interpretation -Attitude Behaviour-Event -Opinion-People Organisation -Values. Characteristics Characteristics of of the situation the perceiver
Perceptual process present threeelements of perception. These are:existence of stimuli(objects,event,&people) perceptual mechanism(selecting,organising,& interpretation)and perceptual outputs(attitude,opinion,& values). Perceptual outputalong with other determinant of humanbehaviour affects and shape behaviour.Let us see how perceptual processworks in terms of its three basicelements.
PERCEPTUALINPUT :The stimuli in the environment- objects, events,or people- can be considered as the perceptualinputs. Thus everything in the setting wherethe events occur, or which contributes to theoccurrence of the events, can be treated asperceptual input. When the perceiver interactswith a stimulus,sensation take place whichstarts perceptual process.(Sensation be describe as the response of aphysical sensory organ. The physical sensesare vision, hearing, touch, smell,and taste.)
PERCEPION MECHANISM :Perceptual mechanism involves threeelements- selection of stimuli,organisationof stimuli, and interpretation of stimuli.SELECTION OF STIMULI : After receiving the stimuli from theenvironment, some are selected for furtherprocessing while others are screened out becauseit is not possible for a person to select all stimuliwhich he see in the environment. There are twotypes of factors which affects the selection ofstimuli. These are external and related to stimuliand internal related to the perceiver.
ORGANISATION OFSTIMULI :After the stimuli are selected theseare organised in some form of inorder to make sense out of that.The various forms of organisingstimuli are figure-ground,perceptual grouping, simplificationand closure.
INTERPRETATION OFSTIMULI:The perceptual inputs that have beenorganised will have to be interpreted bythe perceiver to extract some meaning ofwhat is going on in the situation. Peopleinterpret the meaning of what they haveselected and organised in term of theirown assumption of people, things andsituations. They interpret the things asgood/bad, beautiful/ugly, and so on.Interpretation of stimuli is affected bysituation under which perception takeplace and characteristics of perceiver.
PERCEPTUALOUTPUT :Based on perceptual mechanism whichends with interpretation of stimuli,perceptual output emerge. The outputmay be in the form of attitudes, opinions,beliefs, impression about the stimuli.These output along with other factorsaffecting human behaviour may result inovert behaviour.
PERCEPTUALSELECTIVITYPerception is a selective process. Whileselection, certain aspects of stimuli arescreened out and others are admitted.For example: when people read anewspaper, they do not read the entirenewspaper but read only those news whichintrest them. This is known as perceptualselectivity. This caused by variety of factorswhich may be grouped into two categories:1. Extrenal factor2. Internal factor
EXTERNALFACTORS The external factors are Nature,Location, Size, Intensity,Repetition, Novelty & Familiarity,Contrast And Motion. Theirimpacct on the perceptualselectivity is as follow:
NATURE : By nature we mean,whether the object is visual orauditory, and whether it involvespictures, peoples or animals. It iswell known that pictures attractattention more readily than words.LOCTION : The best location of avisual stimulus for attractingattention is in the center of the
page. When this position is not available inthe newspaper or a magazine, a position inthe upper portion of a page is morefavourable than on in the lower portion andleft hand side receive more attention thanthe right hand side.SIZE : Generally objects of larger or biggersize attract more attention than the smallerones. For Example: in an advertisement innewspaper full page spread attract moreattention than a few lines in the classifiedsection.
INTENSITY : The intensityprinciple states that more intentsethe external stimulus is, the morelikely is to be perceived. A loudsound, or bright light is noticed moreas compared to soft sound, or dimlight. For Example: advertisement ontelevisions are slightly louder thanthe regular programmes to gaincustomer’s attention.
REPETITION : The repetitionprinciple state that a repeatedexternal environment is moreattention- getting than a single one.Repetition increase people’salertness to the stimulus.For example: Advertisers use thisprinciple by repeated advertisementof the same product to attractpeople’s attention.
NOVELTY & FAMILIAIRTY : Novelty & familiarity principle statethat either a novel or a familiar externalsituation can serve as attention-getter.New objects or events in a familiar setting,or familiar objects or events in new settingdraw better attention. For Example: in jobrotation, when workers’ jobs are changedfrom time to time, they become moreattentive to their new jobs as compared tothe previous ones.
CONTRAST : cnntarst is a kind ofuniqueness which can be usedfor attention getting. Letters ofbold types, persons dresseddifferently than others, buildings ofdifferent colours in the samelocality,etc. get more attention.
MOTION : Motion principle statesthat a moving object draws moreattention as compared to astationary object. For Example:commercial on televisions(movingones) get more attention than printmedia.
INTERNAL FACTORSWhile external factors are related toenvironment stimuli, internal factors arerelated to the individual’s complexpsychological makeup or oneself.peoplegenerally select those stimuli andsituation which are compatible to theirpersonality, motivation, and otherpersonal factors. Such factors are- self-concept, inner- needs, responsedisposition, individual attitude, interset,learning, and experience. A briefdiscription of their impact on perception
selectivity is as follow:SELF-CONCEPT : The way a person viewsthe world depends a great deal onthe concept or image he has abouthimself. Knowing oneself makes iteasier to see others accurately.People’s own characteristics affectthe characteristics which they arelikely to see in others. They selectonly that aspects which they findmatch with their characteristics.
INNER NEEDS :People’s perception is determined by theirinner needs. The need is feeling of tensionor discomfort when one thinks he missingsomething or when he feels he has notquite closed a gap in his knowledge. People with different needsselect different items to remember orrespond to. When people are not able tosatisfy their needs’ they are engaged inwishful thinking, which is a way to satisfythe needs not in real world but imaginaryworld , the day dreaming.
RESPONSE DISPOSITION :Response disposition refers to aperson’s tendency to perceivefamiliar stimuli rather than unfamiliarones. Thus, a person perceive thethings with which he is familiar.For Example: persons havingdominant religious value took lessertime in recognising such related wordas ‘priest’ whereas they took longertime in recognising words relatedwith economic value such as ‘cost’ or‘price’.
INDIVIDIAL ATTITUDE :The person tries to fit his attitude(whether positive or negative) in thesituation and perceive something .For Example: if a person always thinknegative,he thinks that whatever ishappen in his life will be negative, hewill perceive everything in thenegative way. On the contrary if hethinks positive, he is an optimistic, hewill perceive everything in a positiveway.
INTREST :If a person is interested insomething he will perceive thatthing in better way. On the otherhand, if the person is not interestedin that thing, he will not perceivethat thing in a better way. For Example: children watchtelevision with the good interestand curiosity, so they perceivequickly whatever is shown in TV.
LEARNING & EXPERIENCE :People perceive many thingsdifferently according to theirlearning and experience of the past.If a person has wrong impression orbad past experience of something,he see the things negative and heperceive that thing in only negativeway because it is his experiencethat forces him to perceive in thisway.