Curriculum Development Models Curriculum Perspectives and Practices [John P. Miller & Wayne Seller, 1985: 204-230] Lecture Presentation Wed, 24/Oct/2012
Pendahuluan1) Dalam bab ini, beberapa model dalam pengembangan kurikulum telah dikaji, yaitu:2) Sistem Gagne’s (Gagne & Briggs, 1979) yang berdasarkan teori belajar behavioral dan pada dasarnya dipandang secara atomistik dlm pengembangan kurikulum, serta merupakan perwakilan dari transmission position.3) Rasionale Tyler (1949), merupakan paradigma kurikulum yang dominan (Tanner & Tanner, 1980), model ini adalah sebuah model yang berbasis luas dan mencerminkan pengaruh dari dua posisi, yaitu: transmission position and transaction position.4) Dan dua dari model-model yang telah disajikan dalam bab ini: model Taba dan Model Robinson, Ross dan White (985) dgn jelas terletak pada transaction position dan juga Miller dan Seller (1985) dalam bab yang sama menyampaikan model mereka yg dihasilkan dari 3 perspektif atau posis yg sudah disampaikan.
Sistem Desain PembelajaranGagne (Gagne’s Gagne advocates a “system approach” to the design of instruction that is based on “logical, systematic thinking” and empirical test and fact finding.” He claims that this approach to curriculum development is “closer to a science of education than other approaches to the design of instruction
12-Steps in Gagne’s Model Gagne’s model includes 12 steps, they are:1. Needs analysis2. Analysis of goals and objectives,3. Analysis of alternative ways to meet needs,4. Designing instructional components,5. Analysis of resources and constraints,6. Constraints-removal actions,7. Selecting or developing materials,8. Designing student-performance assessment,9. Field testing and formative evaluation,10. Adjustments, revisions, an further evaluation11. Summative evaluation of systems, and12. Operational installation.
A Model Combining Transmission andTransaction Principles: The Tyler Rationale This model deals with four basic questions:1. What educational purposes should the school seek to attain?2. What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes?3. How can these educational experiences be effectively organised?4. How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained?
Tyler’s Four Values He Believes Schools shouldConsider when Formulating an EducationalPhilosophy The four values are: 1) the recognition of the importance of every individual human being as a human being regardless of his race, or national, social, or economic status; 2) opportunity for wide participation in all phases of activities in the social groups in society; 3) encouragement of variability rather than demanding a single type of personality; and 4) faith in intelligence as a method of dealing with important problems rather than depending upon the authority of an autocratic or aristocratic group
Tyler’s Possible Learning ExperiencesTyler outlines four general categories of possible learning experience:1) Development of thinking skills;2) Acquisition of information;3) Development of social attitudes; and4) Development of student interests
Two Transaction Models: Taba andRobinsonThe Taba Model:Taba (1962) argues for an inductive approach to curriculum development. She believes that teachers should develop curriculum and that curriculum should not be handed down from higher authorities
Taba’s Steps of Inquiry in CurriculumThinking and Curriculum Planning Step 1: Diagnosis of needs Step 2: Formulation of objectives Step 3: Selection of content Step 4: Organization of content Step 5: Selection of learning experience Step 6: Organization of learning experience Step 7: Determination of what to evaluate and of the ways and means of doing it, and Step 8: Checking for balance and sequence
Robinson Model Robinson, Ross & White’s (1985) model of curriculum development is related to the inquiry and problem-solving model described in the education spectrum (Miller, 1983) and in John & Seller (1985:99-102). Robinson and friends focus on curriculum design-to ensure that inquiry programs can be more easily integrated into the existing school curricula.
Robinson Model Specific tasks that teachers/curriculum workers usually address when designing or revamping curricula. These task are called surface tasks, they are:1. Developing goal statements,2. Developing defensible sets of objectives,3. Developing descriptions of growth (growth schemes),4. Developing instructional objectives,5. Sequencing objectives,6. Devising growth schemes related to instruction and assessment methods, and7. Developing written curriculum materials
Key Assumptions in Robinson-Hedges(1982) Model There are three key assumptions:1. Curriculum guidelines do not provide the teacher with much assistance in actually instructing students about complex intellectual tasks,2. The task of curriculum design involves matters of choice, such as the selection of objectives and intended learning outcomes. These choices can be broken down into manageable steps, and3. The goals of the curriculum developer is to make defensible choices that can be supported with references to specific criteria.
Uniqueness of Robinson Model Each task is approached as a problem to be solved, so that the curriculum worker must identify the framework for each problem, and An image of what is an educated person is used to develop the content of the matrix. (Robinson calls this recovery task).
Growth Schemes in the RobinsonModel There are five basic steps in developing a growth scheme for any objective:1. Identify a task that calls for a behavior designated by the objective,2. Administer the task to groups of increasingly greater maturity in respect to this behavior,3. By Comparing performances of groups of different maturity, identify major differences and articulate them as dimensions of growth,4. Identify describable levels within each dimension (these also must meet several practical critical), and5. Where necessary and useful, render this multidimensional growth scheme into a linear sequence.
The Miller-Seller Model Miller & Seller contend that curriculum work is based on the particular orientation of the curriculum worker. This orientation will reflect one’s philosophy, one’s view of psychology and learning theory, and one’s view of society, which, in turn, are related to one’s basic world view, or paradigm.