MODEL PENGEMBANGAN KURIKULUMDOSEN MK: PROF. DR. ISHAK ABDULHAK, M.PD SEMISTER III TAHUN AKADEMIK 2012/2013MODELS OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT By Juma Abdu Wamaungo
Introduction1. Models serve as 1. In curriculum, there are guidelines to action. models of curriculum as opposed to models of2. Models are found in curriculum dev’t almost every form of 2. According to Oliver in education. chapter five, 4 models of3. The education curriculum development profession has are presented. models of instruction, 3. Using a model in activities like curriculum of administration, of development can result in evaluation, of greater efficiency and supervision etc. productivity.
The Four Models in the Chapter Curriculum Categorised Models as: Specification Belief Hilda Taba Deductive/ Grass-root Cur sh’d be Model approach to developed by Inductive cur. Dev’t teachers4 Taylor Deductive Special focus Process- Model to the planning selecting phase educational obj3 Saylor , Deductive Planners begin Depicted Alexander, & by major edu. elements of Lewis Model Goals and cur. Dev’t obj’s2 Didactic Comprehensiv From source of Oliver Model e step-by-step cur to process evaluation1
Hilda Taba Model1. Hilda Taba believed that there should be a clear definate order to curriculum design and that teachers must be involved in the process. There are 8 steps to the Taba model of curriculum development: a. Identify the needs of the students, b. Develop objectives, c. Choose content that matches the objectives, d. Organize content considering the learners experiences and background, e. Select instructional method that promote student engagement, f. Organize learning experiences by sequencing content, g. Evaluate to ensure mastery, and h. Checking for the balance and sequence.
Application of the Taba ModelTaba model is currently used today in mostcurriculum designs. The steps still used are:a. Identifying the needs of the studentsb. Developing objectivesc. Selecting instructional methodsd. Organizing learning experiencese. Evaluating
Tyler Model1. From Tyler’s model of curriculum development, there are four basic questions:a. What is the purpose of the education?b. What educational experiences will attain the purposes?c. How can these experiences be effectively organized?d. How can we determine when the purposes are met?
This image summarizes the steps of theTyler Model
Saylor, Alexander and LewisModelThe curriculum planner must begin by setting educational goals and specific objectivesthat they wish to accomplish. Saylor, Alexander and Lewis classified sets of broad goalsinto four domains under which learning experiences may take place: personaldevelopment, social competence, continued learning skills, and specialization.a.Once the learning goals, objectives and domains have been established, the plannerscan then move into the process of planning the curriculum.b.The first step, curriculum designing, is made by the curriculum planning groups.Here, the curriculum workers decide on the appropriate learning opportunities foreach domain and how and when these opportunities will be made available.c.After the designs have been created, curriculum implementation begins. Teachersselect the methods through which the curriculum will be related to the learner.Teachers identify the specific instructional objectives before selecting the strategies toimplement.d.Finally, teachers and curriculum planners evaluate the curriculum. They evaluate thetotal educational program and the evaluation program itself during this step of theprocess. This process allows educators to determine whether or not the goals andlearning objectives have been met.
Oliva Model of Curriculum DevAccording to Oliva, a model curriculum should be simple, comprehensive andsystematic. The Oliva Curriculum development model is composed of 12components, namely:a.Component 1: Philosophical formulation, target, mission and vision of theinstitutionb.Component 2: Analysis of the needs of the community where the school islocatedc. Components 3 and 4: General purpose and special purpose curriculumd. Component 5: Organizing the design and implement curriculume.Component 6 and 7: Describe the curriculum in the form of the formulationof general objectives and specific learningf.Component 8: Define the learning strategyg. Component 9: Preliminary studies on possible strategies or assessmenttechniques to be usedh. Component 10: Implement the learning strategyi.Components 11 and 12: Evaluation of learning and curriculum evaluation
To make the Oliva Model more simplistic, it canbe set forth in 17 specific steps:1. Specify the needs of the students in general.2. Specify the needs of society.3. Write a statement of philosophy and aims of education.4. Specify the needs of students in your school.5. Specify the needs of the particular community.6. Specify the needs of the subject matter.7. Specify the curriculum goals of your school.8. Specify the curriculum objectives of your school.9. Organize and implement the curriculum.10. Specify instructional goals.11. Specify instructional objectives.12. Specify instructional strategies.13. Begin selection of evaluation techniques.14. Implement instructional strategies.15. Make final selection of evaluation techniques.16. Evaluate instruction and modify instructional components.17. Evaluate the curriculum and modify curricular components.