Water(Rain Water)


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Water(Rain water) research group slides preliminary findings report prepared by me when I was attached as a lecturer in the School of Electrical and Electronics for the renewable energy project. The project was run together with Wind power and Solar power research group and all of these project and research group were funded by PPKS/ICATS, Sarawak.

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Water(Rain Water)

  1. 1. Water(Rain Water)
  2. 2. Background Introduction on hydropower  Water power can be harnessed in many ways  Micro-hydro power is the small-scale harnessing of energy from falling water; for example, harnessing enough water from a local river to power a small factory or village.  It is a technology that has been utilized throughout the world, by a diverse range of societies and cultures, for many centuries. Water can be harnessed on a large or a small scale - Table 1, below outlines the categories used to define the power output form hydropower.
  3. 3. Background1. Objectives:  To provide power for isolated home or small community  To make use an economical source of energy  To be connected to electric power network2. Mini Hydro specification:  A hydroelectric power, produce power up to 1 MW, operating at small damned pool with a waterfall and several hundred feet of pipe leading to a small generator housing
  4. 4. Problem Statement1. Fuel energy is becoming more expansive  Hydro power is an economical alternative source of energy without purchase of fuel2. Compliment the limitation of other energy systems, for instance  Photovoltaic solar energy systems  Wind energy systems3. An appropriate scale hydro-power  Many argue that large hydro is not only environmentally damaging (as large areas of land are flooded) but that there is also a negative social impact where large imported technologies are used.
  5. 5. Problem Statement 4. “Small” is not universally defined  Size of project related not just to electrical capacity but also to whether low or high headType Typical Power Flow Runner DiameterMicro < 100 kW < 0.4 m3/s < 0.3 mMini 100 to 1000 kW 0.4 to 12.8 m3/s 0.3 to 0.8 mSmall 1 to 50 MW >12.8 m3/s >0.8 m Table 1: Typical Hydropower Classification 5. To assess the suitability of a potential site, the hydrology of the site needs to be known and a site survey carried out, to determine actual flow and head data.  Hydrological information can be obtained from the meteorology or irrigation department usually run by the national government.
  6. 6. The technology and types Types Of Hydropower Plants 1. Conventional  Most hydropower plants are conventional in design, meaning they use one-way water flow to generate electricity. There are two categories of conventional plants: 1.1. Run-of-river plants  These plants use little, if any, stored water to provide water flow through the turbines. Although some plants store a day or weeks worth of water, weather changes - especially seasonal changes - cause run-of-river plants to experience significant fluctuations in power output.
  7. 7. The technology and types 1.2. Storage plants  These plants have enough storage capacity to off-set seasonal fluctuations in water flow and provide a constant supply of electricity throughout the year. Large dams can store several years‟ worth of water. Pumped Storage  In contrast to conventional hydropower plants, pumped storage plants reuse water. After water initially produces electricity, it flows from the turbines into a lower reservoir located below the dam. During off-peak hours (periods of low energy demand), some of the water is pumped into an upper reservoir and reused during periods of peak- demand.
  8. 8. Example of Existing Projects1. Mini Hydro Power in Ghana2. Figure No1,The Tazimina project in Alaska is an example of a diversion hydropower plant. No dam was required Figure 1: Turbine Selection based on Head and Discharge
  9. 9. Example of Existing Projects 3. Micro-hydro: reservoir and powerhouse projects in Thailand  Here are some photos to give you a sense of the size and scale of the technology. Figure 3: Powerhouse at Mae Kam Pong village. The turbine and generation equipment is inside. You can see the water Figure 2: The picture is exiting the turbine in the located at Pang Hai village in waterfall below the powerhouse Chiang Mai. floor.
  10. 10. Suitable conditions formicro-hydro power1. The best geographical areas for exploiting small- scale hydro power are those where there are steep rivers flowing all year round,  For example, the hill areas of countries with high year- round rainfall, or the great mountain ranges and their foothills  Like the Andes and the Himalayas.2. Islands with moist marine climates,  Caribbean Islands, Philippines and Indonesia are also suitable.  Low-head turbines have been developed for small-scale exploitation of rivers where there is a small head but sufficient flow to provide adequate power.
  11. 11. Suitable conditions formicro-hydro power3. Site survey gives more detailed information of the site conditions to allow power calculation to be done and design work to begin.  Data may gives a good overall picture of annual rain patterns and likely fluctuations in precipitation and, therefore, flow patterns.4. Flow data should be gathered over a period of at least one full year where possible, so as to ascertain the fluctuation in river flow over the various seasons.  There are many methods for carrying out flow and head measurements
  12. 12. Working Principle  Run-of-the-river micro-hydro scheme requires no water storage but instead diverts some of the water from the river which is channeled along the side of a valley before being „dropped‟ into the turbine via a penstock. Figure 4: Layout of a typical micro hydro scheme
  13. 13. Working Principle In previous figure, Figure 4 the turbine drives a generator that provides electricity for a workshop. The transmission line can be extended to a local village to supply domestic power for lighting and other uses. There are various other configurations which can be used depending on the topographical and hydrological conditions, but all adopt the same general principle.
  14. 14. Working Principle  Turbines can be categorized mainly in two types: Impulse turbine and Reaction turbine. Table 2: Turbine type and Head Classification Figure 5: Turbine Selection based on Head and Discharge
  15. 15. Another typicalHydropower Layout Head (m) Flow (m3/s)Power in kW 7 x Head x Flow
  16. 16. Operational Components1. Civil works  Diversion of dam or weir  Low dam of simple construction for run-of-river  Concrete, wood, masonry  Cost of dam alone can render project unviable  Water passage  Intake with trashrack and gate; tailrace at exit  Excavated canal, underground tunnel and/or penstock  Valves/gates at turbine entrance/exit, for maintenance  Power house  Houses turbine, mechanical, and electrical equipment
  17. 17. Operational Components2. Turbine & generator Figure 6: This is a crossflow Figure :7 The picture shows a turbine pelton type  Shown here are the turbine and generator for two village systems.  These systems use 220 volt 3-phase synchronous generators, typically 15 to 40 kVA.  The boxes on the right of Figure 7 house are meters and control equipment.
  18. 18. Operational Components2. Turbine & generator  Scaled-down version of large-hydro turbines  In run-of-river, flow rate is quite variable  Turbine should function well over a range of flow rates or multiple turbines should be used  Reaction:  For low to medium head applications  Submerged turbines uses water pressure and kinetic energy  Impulse:  For high head applications  Uses kinetic energy of a high speed jet of water
  19. 19. Operational Components3. Electrical and equipments  Generator  Induction  Synchronous  Other equipment  Speed increaser to match turbine to generator  Valves, electronic controls, protection devices  Transformer
  20. 20. Cost and Price The price will vary with turbine style, generally impulse turbines cost less than reaction turbines. High head site - 3000 watt turbine (3kW) Site conditions: 100 feet (30.5 meters) of head, and 275 gallons per minute (17.3 liters/second) Impulse Turbine - Turgo style This turbine will cost $3250.00 FOB Amsterdam, NY Moderately Low head site - 3000 watt turbine (3kW) Site conditions: 13 feet (4 meters) of head, and 2150 gallons per minute (136 liters/second) Reaction Turbine - Kaplan style This turbine will cost $5250.00 FOB Amsterdam, NY Very Low head site - 4000 watt turbine (4kW) Site conditions: 7 feet (2 meters) of head, and 5000 gallons per minute (315 liters/second) Reaction Turbine - Kaplan style This turbine will cost $22,250.00 FOB Amsterdam, NY
  21. 21. Conclusion To implement the mini hydro projects, middle or high head sites should be considered rather than low head sites. Low head sites are relatively more expensive to construct and bear the risk of flooding. Hydropower is a clean, domestic and renewable source of energy. Hydropower plants provide inexpensive electricity and produce no pollution. And, unlike other energy sources such as fossil fuels, water is not destroyed during the production of electricity—it can be reused for other purposes.
  22. 22. Conclusion Hydropower plants can significantly impact the surrounding area—reservoirs can cover towns, scenic locations and farmland, as well as affect fish and wildlife habitat. To mitigate impact on migration patterns and wildlife habitats, dams maintain a steady stream flow and can be designed or retrofitted with fish ladders and fish ways to help fish migrate upstream to spawn.