AELIC Spring 2012
DLIELC
Dr. Michael W. Campbell
 KWL
 History
 Competencies
 References
What I
Know

What I
Want
To Know

What I have
Learned
What do we know when
we know a language?
 Linguistic
 Sociolinguistic
 Discourse
 Strategic
History
 Competence-linguistic knowledge of the ideal native

speaker
 Performance-language in use

 Colorless green ideas slee...
 PHONOLOGY: The mental organization of physical

sounds and the patterns formed by the way sounds are
combined in a langu...
 SYNTAX: The structure and

formation of sentences. One can
distinguish between grammatical
sentences and ungrammatical
s...
 MORPHOLOGY: The identification, analysis and

description of units of meaning in a language. One
will know the inflectio...
 SEMANTICS: Understanding the meaning of sentences.

This is also how a user of the language is able to
understand and in...
 Linguistic theory is concerned primarily with an ideal

speaker-listener, in a completely homogeneous
speech-communicati...
Sociolinguistic context
 argued that a speaker can be able to produce

grammatical sentences that are completely
inappropriate
 also points out ...
 Canale and Swain (1980)
 1. grammatical competence-concerned with mastery

of the language code itself: knowledge of th...
 3. sociolinguistic competence-addresses the extent to

which utterances are produced and understood
appropriately in dif...
 how well a person speaks and is

understood in various social contexts.
This depends on factors such as status of
those ...
Sociolinguistic

activity
 The Three Most Common Patterns:
 1. NOUN PHRASE is/looks (really) ADJECTIVE.

"Your new kitchen looks great!"
"That dre...
• You VERB (a) (really) ADJECTIVE NOUN PHRASE.
e.g. "You did a good job."
"You have beautiful hair."
 • You VERB (NOUN PH...
 Adjectives most often used:

1. nice
2. good
3. beautiful
4. pretty
5. great
 Verbs most often used:

like, love
 Some...
1. Compliments are given most often to friends and co-workers, and less often to
strangers or people in your immediate fam...
1. Self-praise avoidance strategies
• This strategy involves downplaying some aspect of that which was
complimented,
but w...
 the ability to fully analyze a languages meaning in its

proper context
Student 1: Got the time? Student 2:
Yes, noon.
Waiter: Another drink? Customer: No
thanks?
Parent: Lunch time. Reply: Just...
TELEPHONE COVERSATIONS
Ring....Child answers: Hello
Voice: Is your father home?
Child: Yes, just a minute.
Child: Dad, tel...
TECHNICAL EXAMPLE
Child: Mom I need a new
mouse, my other one died.
Mother: I don’t want a mouse in the
house!
Child: Mom....
EDUCATION
Teacher: Oh Vyta, would you like
to read the paragraph on the top of
page 27?

ESL Student: I would rather not.
Oratorical Style

Deliberative Style
Consultative Style
Casual Style
Intimate Style
 It is something like a chair that you put a child in and push








it (Stroller)-Circumlocution
The car is unmo...
 Appeal for help
 Asking for repetition

-Pardon, beg your pardon, what, can you say that again
 Asking for clarificati...
 Canale, M.; Swain, M. (1980). "Theoretical bases of

communicative approaches to second language
teaching and testing". ...
Communicative competence campbell[2013
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Communicative competence campbell[2013

  1. 1. AELIC Spring 2012 DLIELC Dr. Michael W. Campbell
  2. 2.  KWL  History  Competencies  References
  3. 3. What I Know What I Want To Know What I have Learned
  4. 4. What do we know when we know a language?
  5. 5.  Linguistic  Sociolinguistic  Discourse  Strategic
  6. 6. History
  7. 7.  Competence-linguistic knowledge of the ideal native speaker  Performance-language in use  Colorless green ideas sleep furiously.
  8. 8.  PHONOLOGY: The mental organization of physical sounds and the patterns formed by the way sounds are combined in a language, and the restrictions on permissible sound combinations.  E.g.: slip vs *slib and *sbill
  9. 9.  SYNTAX: The structure and formation of sentences. One can distinguish between grammatical sentences and ungrammatical sentences.  E.g.: My hair needs washing is acceptable but not *My hair needs wash
  10. 10.  MORPHOLOGY: The identification, analysis and description of units of meaning in a language. One will know the inflectional and derivational morphology present in the language, such as the affixes of words.  E.g.: re-started can be derived but not *re-rich
  11. 11.  SEMANTICS: Understanding the meaning of sentences. This is also how a user of the language is able to understand and interpret the non-literal meaning in a given utterance. They are three distinctions drawn here:  (i) Meaningful and non-meaningful sentences E.g.: The accident was seen by thousands is meaningful but not *The accident was looked by thousands  (ii) Same structure but different meanings E.g.: The cow was found by the stream but not *The cow was found by the farmer  (iii) Different structures and still be able to relate the meanings E.g.: The police examined the bullet. The bullet was examined by the police.
  12. 12.  Linguistic theory is concerned primarily with an ideal speaker-listener, in a completely homogeneous speech-communication, who knows its (the speech community's) language perfectly and is unaffected by such grammatically irrelevant conditions as memory limitations, distractions, shifts of attention and interest, and errors (random or characteristic) in applying his knowledge of this language in actual performance. (Chomsky, 1965, p. 3)
  13. 13. Sociolinguistic context
  14. 14.  argued that a speaker can be able to produce grammatical sentences that are completely inappropriate  also points out that Chomsky's notion of performance seems confused between actual performance and underlying rules of performance
  15. 15.  Canale and Swain (1980)  1. grammatical competence-concerned with mastery of the language code itself: knowledge of the lexical items and rules of morphology, syntax, sentence grammar semantics, and phonology  2. discourse competence-concerns mastery of how to combine grammatical forms and meanings to achieve a unified spoken or written text in different genres- Intersentential meanings
  16. 16.  3. sociolinguistic competence-addresses the extent to which utterances are produced and understood appropriately in different sociolinguistic contexts depending on contextual factors  4. strategic competenceis composed of mastery of verbal and non-verbal communication strategies that may be called into action for two main reasons: (a) to compensate for breakdowns in communication due to limiting conditions in actual communication or to insufficient competence in one or more of the other areas of communicative competence; and (b) to enhance the effectiveness of communication
  17. 17.  how well a person speaks and is understood in various social contexts. This depends on factors such as status of those speaking to each other, the purpose of the interaction, and the expectations of the interaction. The main question is: how socially acceptable is the person’s use of English in different settings?
  18. 18. Sociolinguistic activity
  19. 19.  The Three Most Common Patterns:  1. NOUN PHRASE is/looks (really) ADJECTIVE. "Your new kitchen looks great!" "That dress is beautiful I"  2. I (really) like/love NOUN PHRASE. " I love your tie!" " I really like that presentation you made during the meeting."  3. PRONOUN is (really) (a) ADJECTIVE NOUN PHRASE. "Those are really nice shoes!" "That was a good point you brought up in class."  • Isn't NOUN PHRASE ADJECTIVE! e.g. "Isn't your ring beautiful!" " Isn't your room nice!"
  20. 20. • You VERB (a) (really) ADJECTIVE NOUN PHRASE. e.g. "You did a good job." "You have beautiful hair."  • You VERB (NOUN PHRASE) (really) ADVERB. e.g. "You really handled that situation well." "You explain things so clearly."  • What (a) ADJECTIVE NOUN PHRASE! e.g. "What a wonderful little girl you have!" ''What a terrific opportunity for you!"  • ADJECTIVE NOUN PHRASE! e.g. "Nice game!" "Good job!"
  21. 21.  Adjectives most often used: 1. nice 2. good 3. beautiful 4. pretty 5. great  Verbs most often used: like, love  Some other possibilities: wonderful, amazing, neat, gorgeous, cute, cool~ (used informally)
  22. 22. 1. Compliments are given most often to friends and co-workers, and less often to strangers or people in your immediate family. 2. Gender • Women receive far more compliments than men, especially compliments on appearance. • Both men and women give women compliments. It is less common for a man to give another man a compliment, especially on appearance. • When men do receive compliments from someone, they are most often complimented on their ability or accomplishments. 3. Status  Compliments on ability Qr accomplishments are most often given by a superior to a subordinate, such as a boss telling a worker "Good job!" or a teacher telling a student "Nice paper!" • A high status woman may receive compliments on her appearance, but a high status man will very rarely receive such compliments.
  23. 23. 1. Self-praise avoidance strategies • This strategy involves downplaying some aspect of that which was complimented, but without disagreeing with the person making the compliment. • Often the newness or the cost of an object is downplayed. e.g. A person tells you they like your hat, and you respond with "Really?, I've had it forever!" or "Oh, I got it on sale, you wouldn't believe bow little it cost me." • Americans value equality and use self-praise avoidance strategies as a way of expressing that they are not better than the other person. This strategy is m:::st often used with friends. 2. Returning compliment 3. Thank you • Used when the compliment cannot be returned to the other person. • Also often used to respond to a compliment from a superior.
  24. 24.  the ability to fully analyze a languages meaning in its proper context
  25. 25. Student 1: Got the time? Student 2: Yes, noon. Waiter: Another drink? Customer: No thanks? Parent: Lunch time. Reply: Just 10 more minutes please.! Teacher: Thinking caps on.
  26. 26. TELEPHONE COVERSATIONS Ring....Child answers: Hello Voice: Is your father home? Child: Yes, just a minute. Child: Dad, telephone! Dad: I’m busy, take a message. Child: My dad can’t come to the phone right now can I take a message? Voice: Yes, please have him call Dr. Smith at his earliest convenience.
  27. 27. TECHNICAL EXAMPLE Child: Mom I need a new mouse, my other one died. Mother: I don’t want a mouse in the house! Child: Mom...for the computer.
  28. 28. EDUCATION Teacher: Oh Vyta, would you like to read the paragraph on the top of page 27? ESL Student: I would rather not.
  29. 29. Oratorical Style Deliberative Style Consultative Style Casual Style Intimate Style
  30. 30.  It is something like a chair that you put a child in and push       it (Stroller)-Circumlocution The car is unmoved. (The car is broken down)-Word coinage Electrical stairs (escalator)-Literal translation What is this called? –Appeal for help The car was damaged (The car broke down) – Approximation He just completed his road…his way.-Self-correction They are cleaning stuffs,…,things (detergent)-All purpose word strategy
  31. 31.  Appeal for help  Asking for repetition -Pardon, beg your pardon, what, can you say that again  Asking for clarification  Asking for confirmation -You mean he did not understand it  Comprehension check
  32. 32.  Canale, M.; Swain, M. (1980). "Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing". Applied Linguistics 1 (1): 1–47.  Chomsky, Noam(1957). Syntactic Structures. The Hague/Paris: Mouton. pp. 15.  Hymes, D., "The Ethnography of Speaking", pp. 13–53 in Gladwin, T. & Sturtevant, W.C. (eds), Anthropology and Human Behavior, The Anthropology Society of Washington, (Washington), 1962.
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