14Student/Workbook Unit 8Unit 8 Urban and rural life اﻟﺤﯿﺎة اﻟﻤﺪﻧﯿﺔ واﻟﺮﯾﻔﯿﺔKey Words اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎت اﻟﺮﺋﯿﺴﯿﺔKey Words: Unit 8 ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻲ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎت اﻟﺮﺋﯿﺴﯿﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ وردت ﻓﻲ اﻟﻮﺣﺪة اﻟﺜﺎﻣﻨﺔdeserted empty because people have left ﻣﮭﺠﻮرinhabitant someone who lives in a place أﺣﺪ اﻟﺴﻜﺎنovercrowding having too many people ا ًﻣﺰدﺣﻢ ﺟﺪpermanent(ly) everlasting داﺋﻢ/ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮphenomenon something that happens or exists ﻇﺎھﺮةprofitable making money ﻣﺮﺑﺢpubic services transport, education and health ﺧﺪﻣﺎت ﻋﺎﻣﺔstress physical, mental, or emotional tension إﺟﮭﺎد/ﺗﻌﺐ ﺷﺪﯾﺪrural adjective to describe the countryside (not town) رﯾﻔﻲtrend tendency to do something ﻧﺰﻋﺔ/ اﺗﺠﺎهurban adjective to describe the city or town ﺣﻀﺮي/ ﻣﺪﯾﻨﺔKey Words ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻲ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎت اﻟﮭﺎﻣﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ وردت ﻓﻲ ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﻧﮭﺎﯾﺔ ﺣﯿﺎة اﻟﻘﺮﯾﺔlarge big; huge ﻛﺒﯿﺮ/ﺿﺨﻢmove to pass from one place or position ﯾﻨﺘﻘﻞ to anotherbetter-paid much money ﯾﺪﻓﻊ ﻧﻘﻮد ﻛﺜﯿﺮةempty vacant; nobody there ﺧﺎﻟﻲphenomenon something that happens or exists ﻇﺎھﺮةrural adjective to describe the countryside (not رﯾﻔﻲ town)depopulation the reduction over time in a regions number ﺗﻨﺎﻗﺺ اﻟﺴﻜﺎن/ أو of people ھﺠﺮة اﻟﺴﻜﺎنovercrowding having too many people ﻣﺰدﺣﻢclose near ﻗﺮﯾﺐ ﻣﻦannual yearly ﺳﻨﻮيsuccessful winning; thriving ﻧﺎﺟﺢ/ﻣﺰدھﺮagricultural concerned with cultivating land; farming زراﻋﻲwell-known famous ﻣﺸﮭﻮرtypical conforming to a particular type ﻧﻤﻄﻲinhabitants people who live in a place اﻟﺴﻜﺎنpermanent everlasting داﺋﻢ/ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮprofitable make money ﻣﺮﺑﺢunemployment without a job ﺑﻄﺎﻟﺔtrend tendency ﻧﺰﻋﺔ/اﺗﺠﺎهelderly people old people ﻛﺒﺎر اﻟﺴﻦ
15Student/Workbook Unit 8 public services transport, education and health ﺧﺪﻣﺎت ﻋﺎﻣﺔ deserted empty because people have left ﻣﮭﺠﻮر reversed inverted ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻜﺲ wealthy rich ﻏﻨﻲ escape run away ﯾﮭﺮب stress physical, mental, or emotional tension إﺟﮭﺎد (SB) The end of village life ﻧﮭﺎﯾﺔ ﺣﯿﺎة اﻟﻘﺮﯾﺔ ﻛﺒﯿﺮة ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ أﻋﺪاد ﯾﻨﺘﻘﻠﻮن ﺑﯿﻮﺗﮭـــــــــﻢ اﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ اﻟﺮﯾﻔﯿﺔ When large numbers of people move from (1)their homes in country areas toأﻋﻤﺎل ﻣﺮدود أﻓﻀﻞ ﻹﯾﺠﺎد اﻟﺒﻠﺪات اﻟﻤﺪن اﻟﻘﺮى اﻟﻤﺰارع ﯾﻮﻣﺎfind better-paid jobs in towns and cities, the villages and farms (2)they once ﻋﺎﺷﻮا ﻓﯿﮭﺎ ﺧﺎﻟﯿﺔ ﺗﺘﺮك ﻻ أﺣﺪ ﺑﯿﻮت ﯾﺸﺘﺮي ﯾﺮﯾﺪ ھﻨﺎكlived in are often left empty. No one wants to buy homes (3)there because (4)theyﻻ ﯾﻌﻤﻠﻮن/ﯾﺮﺑﺤﻮن ﻣﻦ اﻟﺒﯿﻮت اﻟﻈﺎھــــــــــﺮة ُﺴﻤﻰﯾcannot make money out of (5) them. This phenomenon, (6)which is called اﻟﺮﯾﻔﻲ ﺗﻨﺎﻗﺺ اﻟﺴﻜﺎن ﯾﺆدي إﻟﻰ اﻻزدﺣﺎم وأﯾﻀـــــــــً اﻟﻤﺪن ﺎ أﻗــــﻞrural depopulation, can lead to overcrowding in cities as well as for fewer people اﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ اﻟﺮﯾﻔﯿﺔin country areas. ﻣﺜﺎل اﻟﻈﺎھــــــــــــــــﺮة ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺟﺎرﯾﺠﻮس ﺣﻮاﻟﻲ اﺳﺒﺎﻧﯿﺎ One example of this phenomenon is the Garrigues area of Spain, about one ﺳﻮاﻗﺔ ﺑﺮﺷﻠﻮﻧﺔ ﻣﻨﺎخ ﺣﻮض اﻷﺑﯿﺾ اﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻟﮭﺎ اﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔhour’s drive from Barcelona. The area has a Mediterranean climate, but because ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮب ﻣﻦ درﺟﺎت اﻟﺤﺮارة اﻟﺸﺘﺎء اﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﺎ ًﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺗﻤﺎﻣ(7) it is high and not close to the sea, winter temperatures are quite low. ﻓﯿﮭﺎ اﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻣﻌﺪل ﺳﻘﻮط ﻣﻄﺮ ﺳﻨﻮي ﯾﺴﻘﻂ ﯾﻮمThe area has an annual rainfall level of 482mm (8)which falls in only 47 days of ﺧﻼل اﻟﺨﺮﯾﻒ اﻟﺮﺑﯿﻊthe year, during the autumn and spring. ﺎ ًﺗﺎرﯾﺨﯿ ھﺬه ﻧﺎﺟﺤــــﺔ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ زراﻋـــــــــــﯿﺔ اﻷراﺿﻲ اﻟﻤﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔHistorically, (9)this was a successful agricultural area; on the higher ground, the اﻟﻠــــﻮز زرﻋﻮا اﻟﻤﺰارﻋﯿﻦ ﺑﯿﻨﻤﺎ اﻟﻜﺮوم ودﯾﺎن اﻷﻧﮭﺎر ﻓﺎﺻﻮﻟﯿﺎ ذرة ﻗﻤـــﺢfarmers grew almonds and vines, while in the river valleys, wheat, corn, beans ﻋﺒﺎد اﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﻣﺤﺎﺻﯿﻞ ﺗﻘﻠﯿﺪﯾـــــﺔ اﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺧﺎص ﻣﺸﮭـﻮرة ﺑـand sunflowers were the traditional crops. The area was particularly well-known زﯾﺖ زﯾﺘﻮن ﻋﺎﻟـــﻲ-اﻟﺠـــــﻮدة ﻟﻠﺘﺼﺪﯾﺮ ﺧﺼﻮﺻً ﯾﺰرع ﺎfor (10)its high-quality olive oil which was grown mainly for export. ﻋﺪد اﻟﺴﻜﺎن اﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ أﻋﻠﻰ ذروﺗﮫ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ The population of the area was at (11)its highest about 150 years ago, when a ﻗﺮﯾﺔ ﻧﻤﻮذﺟﯿﺔ ﻓﯿﮭﺎ ﻧﺴﻤﺔ ﺑﯿﻨﻤﺎ اﻟﻘﺮى ﻓﯿﮭﺎtypical village might have 500 inhabitants, whereas now some villages have as
16Student/Workbook Unit 8 داﺋﻤﯿﻦ ﺳﻜﺎنfew as 100 permanent inhabitants. أﻗﻞ أﺻﺒﺤﺖ اﻟﺰراﻋﺔ ﻷن رﺑﺤﯿﺔ أﻗﻞ اﻟﺒﻄﺎﻟﺔ زادتBut as farming became less and less profitable, and unemployment grew, the اﻟﺴﻜﺎن ﺑـــﺪأ اﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎل اﻟﻤﺪن ﻹﯾﺠﺎد ھﺬه اﻟﻨﺰﻋﺔ ﺑـــــﺪأتpopulation began to move to the cities to find work. This trend started in 1860 اﺳﺘﻤﺮت ﺣﺘﻰ ھﺬا اﻟﯿﻮمand has continued to this day. اﻟﻨﺎس ﻛﺒﺎر اﻟﺴﻦ ﺧﺼﻮﺻً ﺗﺘﺄﻟﻒ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻘﺮى ﺎ ﺗﻌﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔNow some villages consist mainly of elderly people. The area is suffering from ﺗﺄﺛﯿﺮات ﻧﺰوح/ﺗﻨﺎﻗﺺ ﺳﻜﺎن ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻣﺘﺪﻧﯿﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺧﺪﻣﺎت ﻣﮭﺠﻮرة ﻣﺰارعthe effects of depopulation, such as poor public services and deserted farms. أﺟﺰاء أوروﺑﺎ ﺳﻨﻮات ﺣﺪﯾﺜﺔ إﻻ أﻧﮫ اﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎل اﻟﺮﯾــــــﻒIn some parts of Europe in recent years, however,the move from the country to اﻷﻏﻨﯿﺎء ﻷن ﻋﻜﺴﺖ/أﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻜﺲ اﻟﻤﺪﯾﻨﺔ ﯾﻨﺘﻘﻠﻮن اﻷرﯾﺎف ﻟﻠﮭﺮب ﻣﻦthe city has been reversed as wealthy people move to the countryside to escape اﻻزدﺣﺎم اﻟﺘﻠﻮث ﺑﻌﺾ اﻷﻏﻨﯿﺎء ﺣﯿﺎة اﻟﻤﺪﯾﻨﺔ ﺿﻐﻂ/ﺗﻮﺗﺮ ﯾﻨﺘﻘﻠﻮنfrom the overcrowding, pollution and stress of city life. (12)Some are moving ﺑﺸﻜﻞ داﺋﻢ ﻛﺜﯿﺮ ﻣﻦ اﻷﻏﻨﯿﺎء ﻋﻄﻠﺔ ﯾﺸﺘﺮون ﺑﯿﻮت ﻧﮭﺎﯾﺔ اﻷﺳﺒﻮعpermanently, but (13)many are buying holiday or weekend homes (14)which are أﻏﻠﺐ أوﻗﺎت ﺧﺎﻟﯿﺔ اﻟﺴﻨﺔempty for much of the year. اﻟﻀﻤﺎﺋﺮ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻘﻄﻌﺔ .ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ: ﺗﻢ وﺿﻊ أرﻗﺎم ﻗﺒﻞ اﻟﻀﻤﺎﺋﺮ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻘﻄﻌﺔ 1. their= people 8. which= an annual rainfall level of 482mm 2. they= people 9. this= Garrigues 3. there= in country areas (where 10. its= the area (Garrigues) people left villages and farms empty) 11. its= population 4. they= people 12. some= wealthy people 5. them= homes 13. many= wealthy people 6. which= phenomenon 14. which= homes 7. it= the Garrigues area of SpainA. Answer the following questions based on the text:1. According to the first paragraph, why do people move from their homes in country areas?2. Why dont people want to buy homes in the country?3. What do you think “rural depopulation” means?4. What can the large movement from the countryside cause, according to the first paragraph? Mention two effects.
17Student/Workbook Unit 85. According to the second paragraph, what happened to the Garrigues area of Spain?6. Write down two characteristics of Garrigues.7. How much does it usually rain every year in Garrigues?8. The writer says “Garrigues was a successful agricultural area.” Is the writer justified? Explain your answer.9. According to paragraph 2, what was the most important product of Garrigues?10. According to the third paragraph, the population of Garrigues were forced to move to the cities. Give two reasons for that.11. Quote (or write down) the sentence in paragraph three that shows rural depopulation has not stopped in Garrrigues yet.12. According to the third paragraph, what are the effects of depopulation on Garrigues area?13. According to the last paragraph, why are rich people moving to the countryside? Give three reasons.14. What does the underlined word “them” in the first paragraph refer to?15. Find a word in the third paragraph that means the same as “empty because people have left”.B. Critical ThinkingWhere would you like to live: in a city or a village? Explain and justify yourchoice.Vocabulary اﻟﻤﻔﺮدات1 Match the words on the left with things that make those sounds. :اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮب: ﻃﺎﺑﻖ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎت ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺸﻤﺎل ﻣﻊ اﻷﺷﯿﺎء اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺼﺪر ھﺬه اﻷﺻﻮات Note All these words can be used as nouns or verbs. .ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ: ﺟﻤﯿﻊ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎت اﻟﺘﺎﻟﯿﺔ ﯾﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻟﮭﺎ أﺳﻤﺎء أو أﻓﻌﺎل :اﻟﺠﻮاب ﻛﻤﺎ ﯾﻠﻲa. 5 b. 3 c. 7 d.1 e. 2 f.8 g. 4 h. 6a. bang ( 1 ﯾﻄﺮق/ ﻃﺮﻗﺔ )ﻣﺜﻞ اﻟﺒﺎبtraffic / plane engineb. click ﯾﻄﻘﻄﻖ/ﻃﻘﻄﻘﺔ 2 a person who is in pain or very frightenedc. drip ﺻﻮت اﻟﻘﻄﺮات اﻟﻤﺘﺴﺎﻗﻄﺔ 3 a light switch / a car seat belt being fastenedd. roar (دوي/ھﺪﯾﺮ)ﻣﺜﻞ اﻟﻤﺤﺮك 4 an old-fashioned clocke. scream ﯾﺼﺮخ/ﺻﺮﺧﺔ 5 a door closing very noisily / a hammer hitting something hardf. splash ﺻﻮت رﺷﺮﺷﺔ اﻟﻤﺎء 6 the wind in the trees / a birdg. tick ( 7 ﺗﻜﺘﻜﺔ)ﺻﻮت اﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔa tap that hasnt been turned offh. whistle 8 ﯾﺼﻔﺮ/ﺻﻔﯿﺮsomething falling into water
18Student/Workbook Unit 81 Complete these sentences with the correct form of the noise words fromthis list. There are more words than you need. bang ﯾﻄﺮق/ﻃﺮﻗﺔ click ﯾﻄﻘﻄﻖ/ ﻃﻘﻄﻘﺔ drip ﺻﻮت ﻧﻘﻂ اﻟﻤﺎء اﻟﺴﺎﻗﻄﺔ roar (ﯾﮭﺪر/ ﯾﺪوي )ﺻﻮت اﻟﻤﺤﺮﻛﺎت scream (ﯾﺼﺮخ )ﻣﻦ اﻟﺨﻮف splash( ﯾﻄﺮﻃﺶ )ﺻﻮت ﻃﺮﻃﺸﺔ اﻟﻤﺎءtick (ﺗﻜﺘﻜﺔ )ﺻﻮت اﻟﺴﺎﻋﺎت اﻟﻘﺪﯾﻤﺔ whistle ﯾﺼﻔﺮa. Many people left their houses near the airport because of the……..or the planes.b. I heard the tap…………….so I went to the bathroom and turned it off.c. He jumped into water with a big……………… .d. The woman………….when she saw a strange man enter the house.e. I like to hear the ………….of our old-fashioned clock.Idioms with and and ﻋﺒﺎرات اﺻﻄﻼﺣﯿﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﻛﻠﻤﺔ2 Complete these sentences with idioms from this list. :اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮب: أﻛﻤﻞ اﻟﺠﻤﻞ اﻟﺘﺎﻟﯿﺔ واﺳﺘﻌﻤﻞ اﻟﻌﺒﺎرات اﻻﺻﻄﻼﺣﯿﺔ اﻟﺘﺎﻟﯿﺔ pick and choose ﯾﺨﺘﺎر ﺑﻌﻨﺎﯾﺔnearest and dearest اﻟﻌﺎﺋﻠﺔ odds and ends ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻷﺷﯿﺎء اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔfar and wide ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻜﺎن hustle and bustle ﺿﻮﺿﺎء وازدﺣﺎم1. Ive traveled far and ……………. ,but I haven’t found anywhere I like as much as my country.2. Most of the time I love the hustle and ……………………. of city life.3. The new library is wonderful; there are many books to pick and…………………..from.4. I made a big party and invited the nearest and………………… .5. I will tidy the room of my children there are many odds and ………on the ground.2 Rewrite these sentences, replacing the underlined phrases with one ofthose from the box. far and wide ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻜﺎن hustle and bustle ﺿﻮﺿﺎء وﺻﺨﺐ nearest and dearest اﻟﻌﺎﺋﻠﺔ واﻷﺻﺪﻗﺎء اﻟﻤﻘﺮﺑﯿﻦ odds and ends أﺷﯿﺎء ﻣﻔﺘﺮﻗﺔ/أو ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔpick and choose ﯾﺨﺘﺎر ﺑﻌﻨﺎﯾﺔ rough and ready ﺧﺎم وﻟﻜﻨﮫ ﻣﻔﯿﺪ ﻟﻠﻮﺿﻊ اﻵنa. Graduates with first class degrees can often select exactly the jobs they want.b. The country is too quiet for me, I would miss the noise and excitement of the city.c. I tidied my office the other day and found all kinds of different things on my desk. d. People came from all over the place to see the exhibition. e. Were having a big celebration next week, so were inviting all our family and close friends.
19Student/Workbook Unit 8 :اﺣﻔﻆ اﺷﺘﻘﺎق اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎت اﻟﮭﺎﻣﺔ اﻟﺘﺎﻟﯿﺔVerb ﻓﻌﻞ Noun اﺳﻢ Adjective ﺻﻔﺔ Adverb ﻇﺮف nature اﻟﻄﺒﯿﻌﺔ natural ﻃﺒﯿﻌﻲ naturally ﺎ ً ﻃﺒﯿﻌﯿthreaten ﯾﮭﺪد threat ﺗﮭﺪﯾﺪ threatening ﻣﮭﺪد threateningly ﺑﺘﮭﺪﯾﺪvary ﯾﺨﺘﻠﻒ/ ﯾﻨﻮع variety ﺗﺸﻜﯿﻠﺔ/ﺗﻨﻮع various ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ/ﻣﺘﻨﻮع variously ﺑﺘﻨﻮع peace اﻟﺴﻼم peaceful ﻣﺴﺎﻟﻢ/ھﺎدئ peacefully ﺑﺴﻼمremind ﯾﻨﺒﮫ/ﯾﺬﻛﺮ reminder اﻟ ُﺬ ِﺮ ﻤﻛexcite ﯾﺜﯿﺮ/ﯾﺤﻤﺲ excitement اﺑﺘﮭﺎج/ﺳﺮور excited ﻣﺒﺘﮭﺞ/ﻣﺴﺮور excitedlyﺑﺤﻤﺎس/ﺑﺴﺮورChoose the correct form of the word in brackets to complete the following sentences:1. Don’t try to impress people .Just act ……………………….. ( nature , naturally , natural)3. We should protect…………. From pollution and destruction. ( nature , naturally , natural)3. The forest is under ……….. from building developments ( threaten , threat , threatening)4. I don’t………..you; I just remind you of what you should do. ( threaten , threat , threatening)5. There is so much …………… in my new job . I do something different everyday. ( vary , variety , various)6. There are………….kinds of animals living in the forest. ( vary , variety , various)7. The match was full of ………………………….until the very last minute. ( excite , excitement , excited)8. The family was ............when the man told them they were going to visit Syria. ( excite , excitement , excited)9. He longed to escape from the city to the ……..and quietness of the countryside. ( peace , peaceful , peacefully )10. At the end, the child slept…………..in his room. ( peace , peaceful , peacefully )
20Student/Workbook Unit 8 (WB) Capital Cities اﻟﻌﻮاﺻﻢ اﻟﻌﺎﺻــــــــــــﻤﺔ دوﻟﺔ ﻓﯿﮭﺎ ﻣﺪﯾﻨﺔ أﻋﻈﻢ أﻛﺒﺮ The capital city of a country is very often (1)its greatest city, with the largest ﻋﺪد ﺳﻜﺎن اﻹدارﯾﺔ/اﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﯿﺔ أھﻤﯿﺔ اﻷﻛﺜﺮ اﻟﻤﺒﺎﻧﻲ ﺗﻘﯿﻢ ﻓﯿﮭﺎ اﻟﻌﻮاﺻــــــــﻢpopulation and the most important administrative buildings. Capital cities house ﺣﻜﻮﻣﯿﺔ ﻣﻜﺎﺗﺐ ﺎ ًأﯾﻀــــــــــ ﺳﻔﺎرات أﺧﺮى دول اﻟﻌﻮاﺻﻢgovernment offices, as well as embassies from other countries. (2)They are also ﺗﺤﺘﻮي ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺮاﻛﺰ ﻣﺎﻟﯿﺔ وﻃﻨﯿﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻤﯿﺔ/دوﻟﯿﺔ ﺑﻨﻮك ﻣﺎﻟﯿﺔ أﺧﺮى financial centres, containing national and international banks and other financial ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎتinstitutions. أﺧﺮى ﻻ ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ اﻟﻌﻮاﺻـــــــﻢ ھﺬا اﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﻣﻘـــﺮAmman is no different from other capital cities in this respect - (3)it is the seat of اﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣــــﺔ اﻗﺘﺼﺎدي ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺛﻘﺎﻓﻲgovernment and the economic and cultural centre of Jordan. ﻓﯿﮭﺎ ﻋﺪد ﺳﻜﺎن أﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﺪﯾﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ أي ﻣﻮﻃﻦ ﺣﻮاﻟﻲAmman has the biggest population of any city in Jordan and is home to about a ﺛﻠﺚ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏــــﻢ أن اﻟﻤﺒﺎﻧــــﻲthird of the people -2.3 million people! Although many of the buildings are very أﻧﯿﻘﺔ ﻋﺼﺮﯾﺔ ﻟﮭﺎ ﺣﻘﯿﻘﺔ اﻟﻤﺪﯾﻨﺔ ﺗﺎرﯾﺦ ﯾﻌــــــــﻮد إﻟﻰsmart and futuristic, the city actually has a history going back over 8,000 years. ﻓﻘﻂ ﺗﺄﺳﺴـــــــﺖ ﻛﻌﺎﺻـــــــــﻤﺔ ﻓﯿﮭﺎ ﻣﺒﺎﻧـــــﻲ ﻗﺪﯾﻤﺔ(4) It was only established as the capital in 1921, but has many ancient buildings. ﻋﺎﺻـــــــــﻤﺔ ﺗﺸﺒﮫ/ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ Brasilia, the capital city of Brazil, is both similar to and different from Amman.ﻣﺜﻞ ﺎ ًﻣﺮﻛﺰً إدارﯾﺎ/ﺣﻜﻮﻣﯿ ا ﺗﺤﺘﻮي ﺳﯿﺎﺳﯿﺔ رﺋﯿﺴﯿﺔLike Amman, (5)it is an administrative centre and contains the key politicalﻣﺒﺎﻧــــــﻲ ﻣﺆﺳﺴـــــﺎت ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻌﻜﺲ ﻣﻦ إﻻ أﻧﮫ اﻟﺮﺋﯿﺴﻲbuildings and institutions. However, unlike Amman Brasilia is not the major ﺛﻘﺎﻓﯿﺎ ﻣﺮﻛﺰا اﻗﺘﺼﺎدﯾﺎ ﻣﻮﻃﻦcultural or economic centre of Brazil, and with 2.5 million people, (6)it is home to ﺻﻐﯿﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺟﺰء ﺿﺨﻢ ﺳﻜﺎنonly a tiny fraction of the huge Brazilian population. ﺑﻨﯿﺖ أواﺧﺮ ﻣﺪﯾﻨﺔ ﺟﺪﯾﺪة ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﺎﺻــﻤﺔ Built in the late 1950s, (7)it is a new city and has only been the capital of Brazil ﺣﻠﺖ ﻣﻜﺎن واﻟﺘﻲ ﺑﻘﯿﺖ رﺋﯿﺴﻲsince 1960. (8)It took over from Rio de Janeiro, (9)which remains a major اﻗﺘﺼﺎدﯾﺎ ﺎ ًﺛﻘﺎﻓﯿ ا ًأﯾﻀـــــــً ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺎ ﻓﯿﮭﺎ ﻋﺪد ﺳﻜﺎنeconomic and cultural centre, as well as having a population of many millions ﻣﺪﯾﻨﺔ ﻋﺼﺮﯾﺔ ا ًاﻟﻤﺨﻄﻄﯿﻦ ﺣﺪﯾﺜﺔ ﺟﺪmore. Brasilia is a very modern city and because (10)it is so new, planners were
21Student/Workbook Unit 8ﺗﻤﻜﻨﻮا ﺣﺎزم ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ ﺗﺼﻤﯿﻤﮭﺎ ﻣﻘﺴﻤﺔ إﻟﻰ ﻗﻄﺎﻋﺎت ﻣﺤﺪدة able to strictly regulate (11)its layout. (12)It is divided into sectors, with specific ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﯿﺔ أﻋﻤﺎل ﺗﺠﺎرﯾﺔ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﯿﺔ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺳﻜﻨﯿﺔzones for business, industry, government and residential areas. اﻟﻀﻤﺎﺋﺮ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻘﻄﻌﺔ .ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ: ﺗﻢ وﺿﻊ أرﻗﺎم ﻗﺒﻞ اﻟﻀﻤﺎﺋﺮ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻘﻄﻌﺔ 1. its= country 7. it= Brasilia 2. they= capital cities 8. it= Brasilia 3. it= Amman 9. which= Rio de Janeiro 4. it= Amman 10. it= Brasilia 5. it= Brasilia 11. its= Brasilia 6. it= Brasilia 12. it= BrasiliaA. Answer the following questions based on the text.1. In the first paragraph the writer defines the typical capital city. Write down two of the characteristics of a typical capital city.2. According to the second paragraph, there are many factors that make Amman a typical capital city. Mention two of these factors.3. Why does Amman have many ancient buildings?4. According to the third paragraph, in what ways does Brasilia differ from Amman as the capital city? Write down two differences.5. Quote (or write down) the sentence in paragraph 3 that shows a very small number of Brazilians live in Brasilia.6. According to the last paragraph, what was the previous (former) capital city of Brazil?7. The writer believes Brasilia is a well-organised new city. Is the writer justified? Explain your answer.8. In which zone can people build their houses in Brasilia?9. Find a word in the third paragraph that means the same as “a small amount of something”.10. What does the underlined word “they” in the first paragraph, refer to?B. Critical ThinkingWould you like to live in your capital city, Amman? Why/Why not? Justify andexplain your answer.
22Student/Workbook 8 Unit.Now match these words and phrases from the article with their meaningsa. embassy ﺳﻔﺎرة 1 an organisation with an important role in the countryﯾﻨﻈﻢ/أو ﯾﻀﺒﻂ b. regulate 2 a particular part of an areac. sector ﻗﻄﺎع 3 a small amount of somethingd. specific ﻣﺤﺪد 4 clearly definede. fraction ﺟﺰء 5 supervise or controlf. institution ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ 6 the offices of the representative of a foreign country:Grammar اﻟﻘﻮاﻋﺪاﻗﺮأ اﻟﺸﺮح اﻹﺿﺎﻓﻲ ﻋﻦ أدوات اﻟﺘﻔﻀﯿﻞ واﻟﻤﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﺑﯿﻦ ﺷﯿﺌﯿﯿﻦ أو أﻛﺜﺮ، وﺗﺎﺑﻊ ﺣﻞ ﺗﻤ ﺎرﯾﻦ اﻟﻜﺘ ﺎب اﻟﻤﺪرﺳﻲ ﻓﻲ اﻷﺳﻔﻞ. ﺷﺮح إﺿﺎﻓﻲ ﻷدوات وﻋﺒﺎرات اﻟﻤﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﯾﻮﺟﺪ ﻧﻮﻋﺎن ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻘﺎرﻧﺎت ﻓﻲ اﻟﻠﻐﺔ، وھﻤﺎ: 1.ﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ اﻟﺘﻔﻀﯿﻞ )ﺑﯿﻦ ﺷﯿﺌﯿﯿﻦ أو أﻛﺜﺮ( وﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺠﻠﯿﺰﯾﺔ )(comparison 2. ﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ إﻇﮭﺎر اﻟﻔﺮق ﺑﯿﻦ ﺷﯿﺌﯿﯿﻦ أو أﻛﺜﺮ، وﺗﺴﻤﻰ ).(contrasting اﻗﺮأ اﻟﻔﺮق ﺑﯿﻦ اﻟﻨﻮﻋﯿﻦ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻘﺎرﻧﺎت: 1. ﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ اﻟﺘﻔﻀﯿﻞ )ﺑﯿﻦ ﺷﯿﺌﯿﻦ أو أﻛﺜﺮ( comparison ﺗﻘﺴﻢ ﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ اﻟﺘﻔﻀﯿﻞ إﻟﻰ ﻗﺴﻤﯿﻦ: comparative أ. ﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﺑﯿﻦ ﺷﯿﺌﯿﻦ/ أو ﺷﺨﺼﯿﻦ : ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎرﻧ ﺔ ﺑ ﯿﻦ ﺷ ﯿﺌﯿﻦ أو ﺷﺨ ﺼﯿﻦ ﻧ ﻀﯿﻒ ) (-erﻋﻠ ﻰ اﻟ ﺼﻔﺔ إذا ﻛﺎﻧ ﺖ اﻟﻜﻠﻤ ﺔ ﻗ ﺼﯿﺮة )ﺗﺘﻜ ﻮن ﻣ ﻦ ﻣﻘﻄ ﻊ واﺣ ﺪ ﻓﻘ ﻂ(. أﻣ ﺎ إذا ﻛﺎﻧ ﺖ اﻟﻜﻠﻤ ﺔ ﻃﻮﯾﻠ ﺔ )ﺗﺘﻜ ﻮن ﻣ ﻦ أﻛﺜ ﺮ ﻣ ﻦ ﻣﻘﻄ ﻊ واﺣ ﺪ( ﻧ ﺴﺘﺨﺪم ﻗﺒﻠﮭ ﺎ ).(more ادرس اﻟﺠﺪول اﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ اﻟﺬي ﯾﻮﺿﺢ ﻗﺎﻋﺪة اﻟﻤﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﺑﯿﻦ ﺷﯿﺌﯿﻦ )(Comparative ﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﻛﻠﻤﺎت ﻗﺼﯿﺮة ﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﻛﻠﻤﺎت ﻃﻮﯾﻠﺔ tall taller beautiful more beautiful cheap cheaper important more important rich richer interested more interested ادرس اﻷﻣﺜﻠﺔ اﻟﺘﺎﻟﯿﺔ : .1. Saleh is rich ﺻﺎﻟﺢ ﻏﻨﻲ )اﻟﺼﻔﺔ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﻗﺼﯿﺮة ( . . 2. Saleh is richer than Ahmad ﺻﺎﻟﺢ أﻏﻨﻰ ﻣﻦ أﺣﻤﺪ. . 3. Fatimah is intelligent ﻓﺎﻃﻤﺔ ذﻛﯿﺔ )اﻟﺼﻔﺔ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﻃﻮﯾﻠﺔ( . . 4. Fatimah is more intelligent than Fatin ﻓﺎﻃﻤﺔ أﻛﺜﺮ ذﻛﺎء ﻣﻦ ﻓﺎﺗﻦ . ﻻﺣﻆ ﻋﻨﺪ اﻟﻤﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﺑﯿﻦ ﺷﯿﺌﯿﻦ أو ﺷﺨﺼﯿﻦ ﻋﺎدة ﻧﺴﺘﺨﺪم ﻛﻠﻤﺔ “ ”thanوﺗﻌﻨﻲ )ﻣﻦ( . ﻏﺎﻟﺒً اﻟﺼﻔﺔ اﻟﻘﺼﯿﺮة اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﻜﻮن ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﻄﻊ واﺣﺪ ﻻ ﺗﺰﯾﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺘﺔ ﺣﺮوف، ﺑﯿﻨﻤﺎ اﻟﺼﻔﺔ اﻟﻄﻮﯾﻠﺔﺎ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﻜﻮن ﻣﻦ أﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﻄﻊ واﺣﺪ ﻏﺎﻟﺒً ﺗﺰﯾﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺒﻌﺔ ﺣﺮوف. ﺎ أﻣﺎ اﻟﻨﻮع اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﻓﮭﻮ ﻣﺎ ﯾﻠﻲ: superlative ب. ﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﺑﯿﻦ أﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺷﯿﺌﯿﻦ/ أو ﺷﺨﺼﯿﻦ: ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﺑﯿﻦ أﻛﺜ ﺮ ﻣ ﻦ ﺷ ﯿﺌﯿﻦ أو ﺷﺨ ﺼﯿﻦ ﻧ ﻀﯿﻒ ” “-estﻋﻠ ﻰ اﻟ ﺼﻔﺔ إذا ﻛﺎﻧ ﺖ اﻟﻜﻠﻤ ﺔ ﻗ ﺼﯿﺮة. أﻣﺎ إذا ﻛﺎﻧﺖ اﻟﺼﻔﺔ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﻃﻮﯾﻠﺔ ﻧﺴﺘﺨﺪم ﻗﺒﻠﮭﺎ ". "the most ادرس اﻟﺠ ﺪول اﻟﺘ ﺎﻟﻲ اﻟ ﺬي ﯾﻮﺿ ﺢ ﻗﺎﻋ ﺪة اﻟﻤﻘﺎرﻧ ﺔ ﺑ ﯿﻦ أﻛﺜ ﺮ ﻣ ﻦ ﺷ ﯿﺌﯿﻦ أو ﺷﺨ ﺼﯿﻦ )(Superlative
32Student/Workbook 8 Unit ﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﻛﻠﻤﺎت ﻗﺼﯿﺮة ﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﻛﻠﻤﺎت ﻃﻮﯾﻠﺔ tall the tallest beautiful the most beautiful cheap the cheapest important the most important rich the richest interested the most interested ادرس اﻷﻣﺜﻠﺔ اﻟﺘﺎﻟﯿﺔ :.1. Khalid is clever ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ذﻛﻲ )اﻟﺼﻔﺔ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﻗﺼﯿﺮة(. 2. Khalid is the cleverest in our family ﺧﺎﻟﺪ اﻷﻛﺜﺮ ذﻛﺎء ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﺋﻠﺘﻨﺎ.. 3. Samia is beautiful ﺳﺎﻣﯿﺔ ﺟﻤﯿﻠﺔ. )ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﻃﻮﯾﻠﺔ(ﺳﺎﻣﯿﺔ اﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﺟﻤﺎ ً ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﺪرﺳﺔ. .4. Samia is the most beautiful in the school ﻻ ﻻﺣﻆ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻧﻘﺎرن ﺑﯿﻦ أﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺷﯿﺌﯿﻦ أو ﺷﺨﺼﯿﻦ ﻻ ﻧﺴﺘﺨﺪم ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ” .“ than ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ : اﻟﺼﻔﺎت اﻟﺘﺎﻟﯿﺔ ﺷﺎذة ﻋﻦ اﻟﻘﻮاﻋﺪ اﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ، ﻟﺬا ﯾﺠﺐ ﺣﻔﻈﮭﺎ ﺻﻤً: ﺎ Adjective اﻟﺼﻔﺔ Comparative Superlative ﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﺑﯿﻦ ﺷﯿﺌﯿﻦ/ أو ﺷﺨﺼﯿﻦ ﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﺑﯿﻦ أﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺷﯿﺌﯿﻦ/أو ﺷﺨﺼﯿﻦ good ﺟﯿﺪ better أﻓﻀﻞ the best اﻷﻓﻀﻞ bad ﺳﯿﺊ worse أﺳﻮء the worst اﻷﺳﻮأ many ﻛﺜﯿﺮ more أﻛﺜﺮ the most اﻷﻛﺜﺮ much ﻛﺜﯿﺮ more أﻛﺜﺮ the most اﻷﻛﺜﺮ little ﻗﻠﯿﻞ less أﻗﻞ the least اﻷﻗﻞ far ﺑﻌﯿﺪ )ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ( farther أﺑﻌﺪ the farthest اﻷﺑﻌﺪ far ﻛﺜﯿﺮ )ﻛﻤﯿﺔ( further أﻛﺜﺮ the furthest اﻷﻛﺜﺮ اﻟﻔﺮق ﺑﯿﻦ )أﻗﻞ (lessو )أﻗﻞ (fewer - ﻧﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ) (lessﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻧﻘﺎرن ﺑﯿﻦ اﻟﺼﻔﺎت أو اﻷﺳﻤﺎء ﻏﯿﺮ اﻟﻤﻌﺪودة. أﻣﺜﻠﺔ:.• English is less difficult than Chinese اﻟﻠﻐﺔ اﻻﻧﺠﻠﯿﺰﯾﺔ أﻗﻞ ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺼﯿﻨﯿﺔ. )ﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﺻﻔﺔ اﻟﺼﻌﻮﺑﺔ(.• I have less money than Ahmad does أﻣﻠﻚ ﻧﻘﻮدً أﻗﻞ ﻣﻤﺎ ﯾﻤﻠﻚ أﺣﻤﺪ. )ﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ اﺳﻢ ﻏﯿﺮ ﻣﻌﺪود/اﻟﻨﻘﻮد( ا - ﺑﯿﻨﻤﺎ ﻧﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ) (fewerﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻧﻘﺎرن أﺳﻤﺎء ﺟﻤﻊ ﻣﻌﺪودة. أﻣﺜﻠﺔ:.• Akram has fewer friends than Sami ﻟﺪى أﻛﺮم أﺻﺪﻗﺎء أﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺎﻣﻲ. )ﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ اﻷﺻﺪﻗﺎء- اﺳﻢ ﺟﻤﻊ ﻣﻌﺪود(.• Nawal visited fewer countries than her husband زارت ﻧﻮال دو ً أﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ زوﺟﮭﺎ. )ﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ اﻟﺪول- اﺳﻢ ﺟﻤﻊ ﻣﻌﺪود( ﻻ 2. ﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ إﻇﮭﺎر اﻟﻔﺮق ﺑﯿﻦ ﺷﯿﺌﯿﯿﻦ أو أﻛﺜﺮ )(contrasting ﻧﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎت واﻟﻌﺒﺎرات اﻟﺘﺎﻟﯿﺔ ﻟﻨﻮﺿﺢ اﻟﻔﺮق ﺑﯿﻦ ﺷﯿﺌﯿﻦ أو وﺿﻌﯿﻦ: ﺑﯿﻨﻤﺎ/ ﻓﻲ ﺣﯿﻦ :- whereas وﺗﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﺑﯿﻦ ﺷﯿﺌﯿﻦ أو ﺷﺨﺼﯿﻦ أو وﺿﻌﯿﻦ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﯿﻦ. وﻟﻜﻦ :- but وﺗﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﺑﯿﻦ ﺷﯿﺌﯿﻦ أو ﺷﺨﺼﯿﻦ أو وﺿﻌﯿﻦ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﯿﻦ، وﺗﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ أﯾﻀً ﻟﺘﻘﺪﯾﻢ ﻧﺘﯿﺠﺔ ﻏﯿﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ. ادرس ﺎ اﻷﻣﺜﻠﺔ:.• Muna lives in a big city, whereas her sister lives in a village ﺗﻌﯿﺶ ﻣﻨﻰ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺪﯾﻨﺔ ﻛﺒﯿﺮة، ﺑﯿﻨﻤﺎ ﺗﻌﯿﺶ أﺧﺘﮭﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺮﯾﺔ. ﻻﺣﻆ: اﻧﻨﺎ ﻧﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ) (whereasﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﻣﻌﻨﻰ )وﻟﻜﻦ (butﻟﻨﻈﮭﺮ اﻟﻔﺮق ﺑﯿﻦ وﺿﻌﯿﻦ. ﻓﯿﺠﻮز أن
42Student/Workbook 8 Unit ﻧﻘﻮل أﯾﻀ ً: ﺎ.• Muna lives in a big city, but her sister lives in a village ﺗﻌﯿﺶ ﻣﻨﻰ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺪﯾﻨﺔ ﻛﺒﯿﺮة، وﻟﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﯿﺶ أﺧﺘﮭﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺮﯾﺔ. وﻟﻜﻦ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻧﺮﯾﺪ أن ﻧﺒﯿﻦ أن ﺳﺒﺒ ً أدى إﻟﻰ ﻧﺘﯿﺠﺔ ﻏﯿﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ، ﻧﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻘﻂ )وﻟﻜﻦ .(butادرس ﺎ اﻟﻤﺜﺎل:)ﺟﻤﻠﺔ ﺻﺤﯿﺤﺔ( .• Ahmad studied very hard, but he didn’t succeed)ﺟﻤﻠﺔ ﺧﻄﺄ( .• Ahmad studied very hard, whereas he didn’t succeed اﺣﻤﺪ درس ﺑﺠﺪﯾﺔ، وﻟﻜﻨﮫ ﻟﻢ ﯾﻨﺠﺢ ﻓﻲ اﻻﻣﺘﺤﺎن )اﻟﻨﺘﯿﺠﺔ ﻏﯿﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ(. إذن: ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ) (whereasﻟﮭﺎ ﻧﻔﺲ اﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎل ) (butﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ إﻇﮭﺎر اﻟﻔﺮق ﺑﯿﻦ وﺿﻌﯿﻦ، وﻻ ﯾﺠﻮز اﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻟﮭﺎ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻧﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻧﺘﯿﺠﺔ ﻏﯿﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ. ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﯿﺔ أﺧﺮى :- On the other handﺎوﺗﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻹﻇﮭﺎر اﻟﻔﺮق ﺑﯿﻦ رأﯾﯿﻦ أو ﻓﻜﺮﺗﯿﻦ، أو ﻋﺮض وﺟﮭﺘﯿﻦ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺘﯿﻦ، وھﻲ ﺗﻘﺮﯾﺒ ً ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ).(but• Playing computer games can be a lot of fun. On the other hand, they can.waste much of your time ﻟﻌﺐ أﻟﻌﺎب اﻟﻜﻤﺒﯿﻮﺗﺮ ﯾﻤﻜﻦ أن ﯾﻜﻮن ﻣﻤﺘﻌً ﺟﺪً. ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﯿﺔ أﺧﺮى، ﯾﻤﻜﻦ أن ﺗﻀﯿﻊ اﻟﻜﺜﯿﺮ ﻣﻦ وﻗﺘﻚ. ﺎ ا ﻋﺎدة ﺗﻘﻊ ) (On the other handﻓﻲ وﺳﻂ اﻟﺠﻤﻠﺔ، وﺗﺒﺪأ ﺑﺤﺮف ﻛﺒﯿﺮ، وﺗﻘﻊ ﺑﻌﺪھﺎ ﻓﺎﺻﻠﺔ ),(. ﺑﺪ ً ﻣﻦ :- instead of ﻻ.• Instead of buying a new car, I will buy a flat ﺑﺪ ً ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮاء ﺳﯿﺎرة ﺟﺪﯾﺪة، ﺳﺄﺷﺘﺮي ﺷﻘﺔ. ﻻ ﻻﺣﻆ: ﯾﻘﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ) (instead ofإﻣﺎ )ﻓﻌﻞ+ (ingأو اﺳﻢ وﺻﻔﺎت. ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ - In comparison with وﺗﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﺑﯿﻦ ﺷﯿﺌﯿﻦ أو ﺷﺨﺼﯿﻦ أو وﺿﻌﯿﻦ. ﺗﻘﺮﯾﺒً ﻟﮭﺎ ﻧﻔﺲ ﻣﻌﻨﻰ " whereasﺑﯿﻨﻤﺎ" أو "وﻟﻜﻦ ."but ﺎ وﯾﻘﻊ ﻋﺎدة ﺑﻌﺪھﺎ اﺳﻢ وﺻﻔﺎﺗﮫ..• In comparison with Jordan, Iraq is a big country ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ اﻷردن، اﻟﻌﺮاق دوﻟﺔ ﻛﺒﯿﺮة..• In comparison with old people, young people need to sleep more hours ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻛﺒﺎر اﻟﺴﻦ، ﯾﺤﺘﺎج اﻟﺸﺒﺎب إﻟﻰ ﺳﺎﻋﺎت ﻧﻮم أﻛﺜﺮ. ﻻﺣﻆ: ﺗﺴﺘﻄﯿﻊ اﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎل ) (whereasأو ) (butﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﯿﻦ اﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﯿﻦ، ﻣﺜﺎل:.• Jordan is a small country, whereas Iraq is big اﻷردن دوﻟﺔ ﺻﻐﯿﺮة، ﺑﯿﻨﻤﺎ اﻟﻌﺮاق ﻛﺒﯿﺮة..• Jordan is a small country, but Iraq is big اﻷردن دوﻟﺔ ﺻﻐﯿﺮة، وﻟﻜﻦ اﻟﻌﺮاق ﻛﺒﯿﺮة. - prefer………to ﯾﻔﻀﻞ.......ﻋﻠﻰ ........ وﺗﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻹﻇﮭﺎر ﺗﻔﻀﯿﻞ ﺷﻲء ﻋﻠﻰ آﺧﺮ.• I prefer drinking tea to milk أﻓﻀﻞ ﺷﺮب اﻟﺸﺎي ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺤﻠﯿﺐ..• Some rich people prefer living in the countryside to living in the city ﺑﻌﺾ اﻷﻏﻨﯿﺎء ﯾﻔﻀﻠﻮن اﻟﻌﯿﺶ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺮﯾﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻌﯿﺶ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﺪﯾﻨﺔ.- While ﺑﯿﻨﻤﺎ وﻟﮭﺎ ﺗﻘﺮﯾﺒً ﻧﻔﺲ اﺳﺘﻌﻤﻞ )ﺑﯿﻨﻤﺎ .(whereasأي ﺗﺴﺘﻄﯿﻊ اﺳﺘﺒﺪاﻟﮭﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻔﺲ اﻟﺠﻤﻠﺔ. ادرس اﻷﻣﺜﻠﺔ: ﺎ.• Morad is very intelligent, while his brother is very stupid.• Morad is very intelligent, whereas his brother is very stupid ﻣﺮاد ذﻛﻲ ﺟﺪً ﺑﯿﻨﻤﺎ أﺧﻮه ﻏﺒﻲ ﺟﺪً. )ﻻ ﻓﺮق ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺑﯿﻦ (while/whereas ا ا ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺮﻏﻢ أن - although وﺗﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻟﺘﻘﺪﯾﻢ ﺣﻘﯿﻘﺔ ﻣﺎ، وﻓﻲ اﻟﺠﻤﻠﺔ اﻷﺧﺮى ﻧﺘﯿﺠﺔ ﻏﯿﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ..• Although Amman is an old city, it has a lot of modern buildings
25Student/Workbook Unit 8 .ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺮﻏﻢ أن ﻋﻤﺎن ﻣﺪﯾﻨﺔ ﻗﺪﯾﻤﺔ، إﻻ اﻧﮫ ﯾﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﯿﮭﺎ ﻛﺜﯿﺮ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺒﻨﺎﯾﺎت اﻟﺤﺪﯾﺜﺔ • Although Manal slept for 10 hours last night, she felt tired. .ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺮﻏﻢ أن ﻣﻨﺎل ﻧﺎﻣﺖ 01 ﺳﺎﻋﺎت اﻟﻠﯿﻠﺔ اﻟﻤﺎﺿﯿﺔ، إﻻ اﻧﮭﺎ ﺷﻌﺮت ﺑﺄﻧﮭﺎ ﻣﺘﻌﺒﺔ ( ﻧﺘﯿﺠﺔ ﻏﯿﺮ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻌﮫ. ﻗﺎرنbut) ( ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﯿﻦ ﻓﻲ اﻷﻋﻠﻰ، وﻟﻜﻦ ﯾﻘﻊ ﺑﻌﺪbut ﻻﺣﻆ: ﯾﻤﻜﻦ أن ﻧﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ )وﻟﻜﻦ :اﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﯿﻦ ﻓﻲ اﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻊ اﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﯿﯿﻦ اﻟﺘﺎﻟﯿﯿﻦ • Amman is an old city, but it has a lot of modern buildings. • Manal slept for 10 hours, but she felt tired. ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ ھﺎﻣﺔ: اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎت واﻟﻌﺒﺎرات اﻟﺘﺎﻟﯿﺔ ﻟﮭﺎ ﺗﻘﺮﯾﺒ ً ﻧﻔﺲ اﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ واﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎل: إﻇﮭﺎر اﻟﻔﺮق ﺑﯿﻦ ﺎ ﺷﺨﺼﯿﻦ/أو ﺷﯿﺌﯿﻦ/ أو وﺿﻌﯿﻦ. ﻟﺬﻟﻚ اﻧﺘﺒﮫ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻞ ﺗﻤﺎرﯾﻦ اﻟﻜﺘﺎب اﻟﻤﺪرﺳﻲ أﻧﮫ ﺑﺈﻣﻜﺎﻧﻚ أن ﺗﺤﻞ :ﺑﻌﺾ اﻟﺠﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎل أي ﻛﻠﻤﺔ أو ﻋﺒﺎرة ﻣﻦ اﻟﻌﺒﺎرات اﻟﺘﺎﻟﯿﺔ On the other hand, in comparison with, whereas, but, while :ادرس اﻷﻣﺜﻠﺔ اﻟﺘﺎﻟﯿﺔ، وﻻﺣﻆ أﻧﮭﺎ ﺗﻘﺮﯾﺒ ً ﻧﻔﺲ اﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺎ - Majed is very rich. On the other hand, his brother is very poor. .ًﻣﺎﺟﺪ ﻏﻨﻲ ﺟﺪً. ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﯿﺔ أﺧﺮى، أﺧﻮه ﻓﻘﯿﺮ ﺟﺪ ا ا - In comparison with Majed, his brother is very poor. .ًﺑﺎﻟﻤﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎﺟﺪ، أﺧﻮه ﻓﻘﯿﺮ ﺟﺪ ا - Majed is very rich, whereas his brother is very poor. .ًﻣﺎﺟﺪ ﻏﻨﻲ ﺟﺪً، ﺑﯿﻨﻤﺎ أﺧﻮه ﻓﻘﯿﺮ ﺟﺪ ا ا - Majed is very rich, but his brother is very poor. .ًﻣﺎﺟﺪ ﻏﻨﻲ ﺟﺪً، وﻟﻜﻦ أﺧﻮه ﻓﻘﯿﺮ ﺟﺪ ا ا - Majed is very rich, while his brother is very poor. .ًﻣﺎﺟﺪ ﻏﻨﻲ ﺟﺪً ﺑﯿﻨﻤﺎ أﺧﻮه ﻓﻘﯿﺮ ﺟﺪ ا اA. Choose the correct item in brackets.1. People in Jordan used to travel on animals,………… they now use modern means of transport. (whereas, on the other hand, in comparison to)2. Mobile phones are very comfortable. …………., they can cause some health problems. (Whereas, In stead of, On the other hand)3. ……….America, China is achieving higher annual growth. (Instead of, In comparison with/ On the other hand)4. Scientistists are looking for a new source of energy ………..oil. (instead of, whereas, in comparison with)5. Solar energy is very clean…………..other sources of energy. (instead of, whereas, in comparison with)6. Solar energy is very clean, ………..energy produced by oil is pollutant. (instead of, whereas, in comparison with)7. I sleep for 8 hours every night, ……….my brother sleeps only for 6 hours. (on the other hand, whereas, instead of)8. Working as a doctor is a very tough. …………, it is a well-paid job. (on the other hand, whereas, instead of)9. My father is tall ………..…my uncle is short. (in comparison with, but, on the other hand)10. My father is tall, ……….my uncle is short. (in comparison with, but, on the other hand)11. …………….my father, my uncle is short. (In comparison with, But, On the other hand)12. I have always preferred to have tea…of coffee. (whereas, while, in stead of)13. Jordan is ………….than Lebanon. (big, bigger, the biggest)
26Student/Workbook Unit 814. But Sudan is the…………Arab country. (big, bigger, biggest)15. Muna has………..friends than her sister. (less, fewer, most)16. I have………money than you. (less, fewer, most)17. Some people………….travelling by bus to car. (prefer, instead of, while)18. Huda works in a bank,………her sister works in a big Mall. (prefer, instead of, while)19. We went for a walk………it was raining. (although, but, whereas)20. It was raining…………we went for a walk. (although, but, whereas)B. Join the following sentences with the word/s in brackets.1. Manal is a student. Her sister works in a bank. (whereas)2. Manal is a student. Her sister works in a bank. (but)3. Manal is a student. Her sister works in a bank. (while)4. Old people need little food. Young people need much food. (whereas)5. Old people need little food. Young people need much food. (on the other hand)6. Old people need little food. Young people need much food. (in comparison with)7. I don’t want to watch TV. I want to read a story. (instead of)8. I don’t want to watch TV. I want to read a story. (prefer)GUIDED WRITING : (5 points) Read the information on the table below, and then write two sentencesshowing the differences between train journeys and car journeys . Use theappropriate linking words such as ; and , but , whereas …………….. Differences between train journeys and car journeys Train journeys Slow , cheaper , enjoy seeing natural views, Car journeys faster , more expensive , you can stop anywhere you wantWriting اﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔDescribing places to live وﺻﻒ أﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﻟﻠﻌﯿﺶ ﻓﯿﮭﺎ (ادرس اﻟﻨﻤﺎذج اﻟﺘﺎﻟﯿﺔ ﻟﻮﺻﻒ ﻣﻜﺎن )ﻣﻨﺰل A. This architect-designed house has two storeys and is located in a village twokilometers from the sea. It has a tiled roof which provides shady areas on boththe ground floor and first floor. The house is surrounded by a colourful gardenwhich has been well looked after. The property overlooks a luxurious swimmingpool.ھﺬا اﻟﻤﻨﺰل اﻟﻤﺼﻤﻢ- ﺑﻮاﺳﻄﺔ ﻣﮭﻨﺪس ﻣﻌﻤﺎري ﯾﺘﻜﻮن ﻣﻦ ﻃﺎﺑﻘﯿﻦ وﯾﻘﻊ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺮﯾﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻛﯿﻠﻮﻣﺘﺮﯾﻦ ﻣ ﻦ اﻟﺒﺤ ﺮ. وﻟ ﮫﺳﻘﻒ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻘﺮﻣﯿﺪ واﻟﺬي ﯾﻌﻄﻲ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﻣﻈﻠﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻄ ﺎﺑﻖ اﻷرﺿ ﻲ واﻟﻄ ﺎﺑﻖ اﻷول. واﻟﻤﻨ ﺰل ﺗﺤ ﯿﻂ ﺑ ﮫ ﺣﺪﯾﻘ ﺔ زاھﯿ ﺔ .اﻷﻟﻮان وھﻲ ﺣﺪﯾﻘﺔ ﺗﻢ اﻟﻌﻨﺎﯾﺔ ﺑﮭﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺟﯿﺪ. وھﺬا اﻟﻌﻘﺎر ﯾﻄﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﺮﻛﺔ ﺳﺒﺎﺣﺔ ﻣﺘﺮﻓﺔB. This two-storey modern house is situated on the outskirts ofmedium-sized town. It is surrounded by a large garden with lawn, trees,
27Student/Workbook Unit 8shrubs and hedges. It has a flat roof and there are balconies outside thefirst floor windows. It is painted white and there are no other housesnearby.ﯾﻘﻊ ھﺬا اﻟﻤﻨﺰل اﻟﺤﺪﯾﺚ اﻟﻤﻜﻮن ﻣﻦ ﻃﺎﺑﻘﯿﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺸﺎرف ﺑﻠ ﺪة/أو ﻣﺪﯾﻨ ﺔ ﻣﺘﻮﺳ ﻄﺔ –اﻟﺤﺠ ﻢ. وھ ﻮ ﻣﺤ ﺎط ﺑﺤﺪﯾﻘ ﺔ ﻛﺒﯿ ﺮةﻣﻊ ﻣﺮج أﺧﻀﺮ )أي ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺧﻀﺮاء(، وأﺷﺠﺎر وﺷ ﺠﯿﺮات وأﺳ ﯿﺠﺔ. وﻟ ﮫ ﺳ ﻘﻒ ﻣ ﺴﻄﺢ وھﻨ ﺎك ﺷ ﺮﻓﺎت/أو ﺑﻠﻜﻮﻧ ﺎت .ﺧﺎرج ﻧﻮاﻓﺬ اﻟﻄﺎﺑﻖ اﻷول. إﻧﮫ ﻣﺪھﻮن ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮن اﻷﺑﯿﺾ وﻟﯿﺲ ھﻨﺎك أي ﻣﻨﺎزل أﺧﺮى ﻣﺠﺎورةC. This two-storey modern building is located in a residential area in thesuburbs of a large city. It has a small garden with recently planted treesand shrubs. The property is surrounded by a low wall which separates itfrom a quiet street. The house has a flat roof.ﯾﻘﻊ ھ ﺬا اﻟﻤﺒﻨ ﻰ اﻟﺤ ﺪﯾﺚ اﻟﻤﻜ ﻮن ﻣ ﻦ ﻃ ﺎﺑﻘﯿﻦ ﻓ ﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘ ﺔ ﺳ ﻜﻨﯿﺔ ﻓ ﻲ ﺿ ﻮاﺣﻲ ﻣﺪﯾﻨ ﺔ ﻛﺒﯿ ﺮة. ﻟﺪﯾ ﮫ ﺣﺪﯾﻘ ﺔ ﺻ ﻐﯿﺮة ﻣ ﻊأﺷﺠﺎر وﺷﺠﯿﺮات ﻣﺰروﻋﺔ ﺣ ﺪﯾﺜﺎ. و اﻟﻌﻘ ﺎر ﯾﺤ ﯿﻂ ﺑ ﮫ ﺳ ﻮر ﻣ ﻨﺨﻔﺾ واﻟ ﺬي ﯾﻔ ﺼﻠﮭﺎ ﻋ ﻦ ﺷ ﺎرع ھ ﺎدئ. اﻟﻤﻨ ﺰل ﻟ ﮫ .ﺳﻘﻒ ﻣﺴﻄﺢ :ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ اﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻦ وﺻﻒ اﻟﻤﻨﺎزل :1. ﯾﺠﺐ اﻟﺘﺤﺪث ﻋﻦ أﯾﻦ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ھﺬه اﻟﻤﻨﺎزل، أﻣﺜﻠﺔLocation: اﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ- is located in a village 2 kilometres from the sea .ﯾﻘﻊ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺮﯾﺔ ﺗﺒﻌﺪ 2 ﻛﻢ ﻋﻦ اﻟﺒﺤﺮ- is situated on the outskirts of a medium-sized town .ﯾﻘﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺿﻮاﺣﻲ ﺑﻠﺪة ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ اﻟﺤﺠﻢ- is located in a residential area in the suburbs of a large city ﯾﻘﻊ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺳﻜﻨﯿﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺿﻮاﺣﻲ ﻣﺪﯾﻨﺔ ﻛﺒﯿﺮة :2. ﯾﺠﺐ اﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺻﻔﺎت اﻟﻤﺒﺎﻧﻲ )و اﻟﺤﺪاﺋﻖ(، أﻣﺜﻠﺔDescription: اﻟﻮﺻﻒ - architect-designed ﻣﺼﻤﻢ ﺑﻮاﺳﻄﺔ ﻣﮭﻨﺪس ﻣﻌﻤﺎري - a tiled roof ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﯿﺖ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻘﺮﻣﯿﺪ - Shady / ﻣﻈﻠﻞcolourful / زاھﻲ اﻷﻟﻮان well looked after / ﯾﻌﺘﻨﻰ ﺑﮫ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺟﯿﺪ - Luxurious / ﻣﺮﯾﺢ/ﻣﺘﺮفtwo-storey / ﻣﻦ ﻃﺎﺑﻘﯿﻦmodern /ﻋﺼﺮي - medium-sized / ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ اﻟﺤﺠﻢlarge / ﻛﺒﯿﺮflat ( ﺷﻘﺔroof / ) ﺳﻄﺢresidential / ﺳﻜﻨﻲ - small /ﺻﻐﯿﺮrecently planted ً / ﻣﺰروع ﺣﺪﯾﺜlow ( ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾwall /) ﺟﺪارquiet ھﺎدئ ﺎ :3. ﯾﺠﺐ اﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻦ أﺟﺰاء ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻨﺎزل، أﻣﺜﻠﺔ parts of the buildings: أﺟﺰاء اﻟﺒﻨﺎﯾﺎت- storeys / ﻃﻮاﺑ ﻖroof / ﺳ ﻄﺢground floor /اﻟﻄ ﺎﺑﻖ اﻷرﺿ ﻲfirst floor / اﻟﻄ ﺎﺑﻖ اﻷولgarden /ﺣﺪﯾﻘ ﺔswimming pool / ﺑﺮﻛ ﺔ ﺳ ﺒﺎﺣﺔbalconies / ﺑﻠﻜﻮﻧ ﺎت-ﺷ ﺮﻓﺎت اﻟﻤﻨ ﺰلwindows /ﻧﻮاﻓ ﺬwall /ﺟﺪارkitchen / ﻣﻄﺒﺦdinning-room / ﻏﺮﻓﺔ اﻟﻤﻌﯿﺸﺔbedroom /ﻏﺮﻓﺔ ﻧﻮمbathroom ﻏﺮﻓﺔ اﻟﺤﻤﺎم :4. ﯾﺠﺐ اﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻼﻣﺢ ﻃﺒﯿﻌﯿﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺎزل. أﻣﺜﻠﺔnatural features: ﻣﻼﻣﺢ/ﺻﻔﺎت ﻃﺒﯿﻌﯿﺔtrees / أﺷﺠﺎرlawn / ﻣﺮج أﺧﻀﺮshrubs / ﺿﻮاﺣﻲhedges ﺳﯿﺎج/ أﺳﻮارFree WritingWrite a letter to a friend describing your own house. Write about thefollowing:- the location of the building ﻣﻮﻗﻊ اﻟﺒﻨﺎﯾﺔ- the appearance of the outside of the building ﺷﻜﻞ اﻟﺒﻨﺎﯾﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺨﺎرج- parts of the building أﺟﺰاء اﻟﺒﻨﺎﯾﺔ- information about any natural features near the building ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت ﻋﻦ أي ﻣﻼﻣﺢ ﻃﺒﯿﻌﯿﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮب ﻣﻦ اﻟﺒﻨﺎﯾﺔ