Earthquakes are one of the most frightening and destructive phenomena of nature, strike suddenly, violently, and without warning . If an earthquake occurs in a populated area, it may cause many deaths and injuries and extensive property damage
Earthquake is a sudden slipping or movement of a portion of the earth’s crust accompanied and followed by a series of vibrations. What is an Earthquake? http://disaster-risk-management.blogspot.com
Tectonic Plates and Faults
Before After 1935 – Earthquake struck Quetta (Pakistan) 40,000 - 60,000 killed & thousands injured 30 seconds
Bhuj was the worst affected, 90% of the buildings had been damaged, and power supplies and the telephone system were down. Gujarat (India) Earthquake 2001 Over 20,000 persons reported dead and about 1.7 Lakhs injured 3,39,000 buildings/houses collapsed and partially damaged http://disaster-risk-management.blogspot.com
Millions of people have been affected.
Communities of 12 Countries have been effected.
TSUNAMI HIT COASTAL BELT OF SOUTH-EAST ASIA SUNDAY 26 TH DEC. 2004
Thousands of people have been dead.
Thousands of survivors have been left homeless.
Area Affected: 30000 sq km Population Affected: 3.5 million Human Loss: 87000 plus Injured: 77000 plus Houses: 70% destroyed 30% damaged Families affected: 500,000 STRONG EARTHQUAKE STRUCK KASHMIR & NORTHERN PAKISTAN
CHINA EARTHQUAKE May 12, 2008 More than 60,000 killed and thousands injured http://disaster-risk-management.blogspot.com
Before the Tremor Secure heavy furnishings and keep heavy objects on lower shelves http://disaster-risk-management.blogspot.com
Before the Tremor Secure your water heater with wall and floor
Do not hang heavy items such as decorative items, fancy lights, pictures and mirrors above beds or seating areas. Before the Tremor http://disaster-risk-management.blogspot.com
Store weed killers, pesticides, and flammable products securely in closed cabinets with latches and on bottom shelves. Before the Tremor
Check roofs and wall foundation for stability http://disaster-risk-management.blogspot.com Before the Tremor
Repair defective electrical wiring and leaky gas connections Before the Tremor
Develop an emergency survival Kit Food items (rice, noodles, canned food, milk power, beverages, water) Solid fuel and matches – A First Aid Kit – A portable battery-operated transistor radio. http://disaster-risk-management.blogspot.com Before the Tremor
Keep list of Emergency phone numbers, Police Help, Fire Service, Ambulance Service , Rescue , Electric Dept. & Gas Dept. Before the Tremor
Decide where family members will reunite if separated http://disaster-risk-management.blogspot.com Before the Tremor
Ground shaking in earthquake is lasting for not more than 15-30 seconds During these few seconds, stay calm, do not run or panic. When a Tremor Occurs
If indoor, stay indoor, where you are. Most injuries occur as people are entering or leaving buildings. Minimize your movements to a few steps to reach a nearby safe place Know the danger & safe spot in home http://disaster-risk-management.blogspot.com When a Tremor Occurs
Take shelter under a sturdy table, desk or bed and protect your head and face as that will provide you with provide you with air space and protection against falling objects. When a Tremor Occurs
Stay away from windows, doors, walls, display shelves and anything that could fall and hurt you, like lightings, furniture or fixtures. http://disaster-risk-management.blogspot.com When a Tremor Occurs
Do not use elevators, use stairways in multi-story buildings When a Tremor Occurs
If you are outdoors, stay away from buildings, trees and overhead electrical cables.
Remain in the open until the tremor stops.
http://disaster-risk-management.blogspot.com When a Tremor Occurs
If you are driving, stop as quickly as safety permits. Stay in your vehicle. Avoid stopping near or under trees, buildings, bridges, over passes or overhead electrical cables. Proceed cautiously after the event – watching for road and bridge damage When a Tremor Occurs
Check yourself and others for injuries… administer first aid quickly and carefully http://disaster-risk-management.blogspot.com When a Tremor Occurs
After the Tremor Stops Do not use candles, matches or other naked flames during and after the tremor, as there might be a gas leak.
Do not touch any damaged electrical wiring. Also, report to concerned authorities. Learn how to cut off utilities http://disaster-risk-management.blogspot.com After the Tremor Stops
Check your home for any structural defects. Repair any deep cracks in ceilings or foundations. Get expert advice if there are signs of structural defects. After the Tremor Stops
Use the telephone to report life-threatening emergencies only http://disaster-risk-management.blogspot.com After the Tremor Stops
Be prepared for aftershocks which may cause additional damage and may bring weakened structures down.
Aftershocks may occur hours, days, weeks, or even months after the quake.
After the Tremor Stops
Enhancing Your Survivability If Trapped Under Rubble/Debris http://disaster-risk-management.blogspot.com
Avoid unnecessary movement so that you don’t kick up dust.
Maintain moral and fighting sprits high.
Periodically move your fingers and toes to ensure blood circulation.
Trapped under debris
Cover your Mouth and Nose with anything you have on hand. Try to breath through the available Cotton material. http://disaster-risk-management.blogspot.com Trapped under debris
Do not shout; shout only as a last resort. Shout can cause a person to inhale dangerous amounts of dust. Trapped under debris
Tap on a pipe or wall so that rescuers can hear where you are.
If available use a flashlight to signal your location.
http://disaster-risk-management.blogspot.com Trapped under debris
Classes of Earthquake
There are three classes of earthquake that are known & recognized as, tectonic, volcanic and artificially produced
Tectonic: Tectonic quake are by far the most common, devastating and most difficult to predict. They are caused by stresses set up by movements of a dozen or so huge plates that form the earth’s crusts. Most earthquakes occur at the boundaries of these plates. Where two plates slides over and collides against each other; some earthquakes do occur in the middle of plates.
Volcanic: Volcanic quakes are seldom very large or destructive; they often precede or accompany volcanic eruption.
Artificial: Artificially produced earthquake are EQ induced by activities such as the filling of new reservoir or the pumping of fluid deep into the earth through wells. This type of EQ can be noticeable but are hardly destructive.
Earthquakes are one of the most destructive of natural hazards. They may occur at any time of year, day or night, with sudden impact and little warning. Destroy buildings and or damage structure of the building, bridges, communications
Loss of human lives
Extensive property damages
Disruption/Disturbance to normal human life activities
Destabilize the government, economy and social structure of a country
Affects of Earthquake
Surface rupture-Fault movements can break the ground surface, damaging buildings and other structures.
Destruction of Earthquake http://disaster-risk-management.blogspot.com
Damaged bridges, pipelines, power lines, and roads.
Earthquakes often damage roads, hindering rescue and recovery efforts and causing accidents.
Water and sewer pipeline breaks result in water loss and can cause “sinkholes” that undermine roads and buildings.
Damage to natural gas and electrical distribution systems can cause fires, as well as major service outages.
Earthquakes can trigger landslides that damage roads, buildings, pipelines, and other infrastructure.
Earthquake damage can cause releases of hazardous materials from refineries and other chemical storage and distribution systems, research and industrial laboratories, manufacturing plants, and railroad tank cars.
Earthquake Impact: Dam failures
Earthquake shaking can cause dams to fail causing flooding and reduced water supplies.
In addition, many dams provide hydroelectric power, which could be critically needed following a quake.
Earthquake Effects: Ground Shaking
Secondary Affects of Earthquake http://disaster-risk-management.blogspot.com
Great earthquakes occurring anywhere in the Pacific Ocean
may displace the ocean floor, generating tsunamis
that could affect the coastal areas.
Earthquake Secondary Effects: Tsunamis
Earthquake Secondary Effects: Land Faulting http://disaster-risk-management.blogspot.com
Gas lines break,
Electrical shorts ignite fires,
Damaged water tanks and broken pipes limit water for firefighting, and
Clogged roads and collapsed bridges prevent firefighter access.
These factors can lead to fires spreading, causing extensive additional damage and burning entire neighborhoods.
Earthquakes in urban areas are often followed by destructive fires because - Earthquake Secondary Effects: FIRES
Earthquake shaking can cause soils to behave like a liquid and lose their ability to support structures. Liquefaction often causes buried gas and water lines to break. The highest hazard is in low-lying areas where there are loose, sandy soils or poorly compacted artificial fill.