Peter Masucci Adjunct Professor of Marketing University of New Hampshire Whittemore School of Business and Economics Effec...
“ Great speakers aren’t born, they are trained.” Presenting is a Skill… Developed through training and experience
Agenda  <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Planning your presentation </li></ul><ul><li>The presentation sequence </li...
Peter Masucci – Teaching Experience <ul><li>UNH ,  Whittemore School of Business & Economics,  Durham, NH </li></ul><ul><u...
Peter Masucci – Professional Experience <ul><li>Professional experience: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2001 VX Management Group, F...
Introduction
Why Give A Presentation? <ul><li>Three Main Purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Inform </li></ul><ul><li>Persuade </li></ul><ul><li...
Definitions  <ul><li>Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>“ Something set forth to an audience for the attention of the mind “ <...
#1 Fear <ul><li>Feared more than death! </li></ul><ul><li>THE FACTS: Shaky hands, blushing cheeks, memory loss, nausea, an...
Causes of the Anxiety <ul><li>Fear of the unknown OR loss of control </li></ul><ul><li>Fight or flight mode </li></ul><ul>...
Effective Presentations <ul><li>Control anxiety – Don’t fight it </li></ul><ul><li>Audience centered </li></ul><ul><li>Acc...
Planning Your Presentation
Planning Your Presentation <ul><li>Determine purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you want to accomplish? </li></ul></ul>...
More Planning <ul><li>Plan Space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of attendees and seats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seating ar...
Still More Planning  <ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine main points (1-5) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evi...
Organizing Your Presentation <ul><li>Organizational patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Topical </li></ul><ul><li>Chronological  </...
Presentation Outline <ul><li>Keyword reminders </li></ul><ul><li>Conversational flow </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility  </li><...
Storyboarding
The Presentation Sequence
#1: Build Rapport <ul><li>…  relation marked by harmony or affinity   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Audience members need to trust...
#2: Opening Your Presentation  <ul><li>Introduce yourself </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why should they listen </li></ul></ul><ul>...
#2…Completing the Opening  <ul><li>Clearly defining topic </li></ul><ul><li>If informative… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear pa...
#3:  Presenting Main Points <ul><li>Make point-transition,…make point-transition,…make point-transition, etc… </li></ul><u...
#4:  Concluding Your Presentation  <ul><li>Goal </li></ul><ul><li>Inform audience that you’re about to close </li></ul><ul...
Creating Effective Visual Aids
Designing Good Slides <ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If it doesn’t add value, don’t say/use it </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Content <ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complement speaker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talk ≠ technical report </li><...
Visual Aid s <ul><li>To make, explain or identify a point </li></ul><ul><li>To emphasize,   clarify or r e inforce a point...
Visual Aids <ul><li>Enhance understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Add variety </li></ul><ul><li>Support claims </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>PowerPoint slides </li></ul><ul><li>Overhead transparencies </li></ul><ul><li>Graphs/charts </li></ul><ul><li>Pict...
Visual Aids Should… <ul><li>Outline, explain, support main points </li></ul><ul><li>Serve audience’s needs, not speaker’s ...
Be Visible <ul><li>Use Sans Serif fonts (fonts without feet) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Arial, Tahoma, Trebuchet, Verdana,...
Red/Blue Conflict Red letters on blue background creates “flicker effect” Blue letters on red background just as bad
Low Contrast White on yellow Yellow on white Black on blue Blue on black
“ Fly-In” vs “Wipe” <ul><li>Less distracting </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces eye movement </li></ul><ul><li>Increases readabilit...
<ul><li>Upper left </li></ul><ul><li>Upper right </li></ul><ul><li>Lower left </li></ul><ul><li>Lower right  </li></ul>Eye...
Effective Presentation Techniques
What  M akes an  E ffective  S peaker ? <ul><li>Control of information </li></ul><ul><li>The voice used </li></ul><ul><li>...
Vocal Techniques <ul><li>Loudness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will you be using a microphone? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pitch </li>...
The Voice <ul><li>C : Clear  –  the use of simple,   easily understood words and phrases </li></ul><ul><li>L : Loud (enoug...
Use t he Rights Words <ul><li>What you say ,  and  how you say it , is the key to a successful presentation: </li></ul><ul...
Use of  B ody Language <ul><li>Make eye contact </li></ul><ul><li>Use your hands , but don’t go crazy </li></ul><ul><li>If...
Body Language <ul><li>Make eye contact ,…but move focus around the audience </li></ul><ul><li>Use your hands ,…but don’t g...
Scripts and  Notes  <ul><li>Learn and use a script for formal presentations to large groups </li></ul><ul><li>Small note  ...
Speaker Reads Slides <ul><li>A speaker may put his entire presentation on his slides. He turns his back to the audience an...
Common Problems <ul><li>Verbal fillers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Um”, “uh”, “like”, “you guys” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An...
Pauses <ul><li>Useful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Awaiting thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Switching gaze </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Control of  Information <ul><li>Know your subject well </li></ul><ul><li>Know what you are talking about </li></ul><ul><li...
Closing Summary <ul><li>Audience is always a ttentive at the begining </li></ul><ul><li>Somewhat l ess attentive  in  the ...
Questions and Answers <ul><li>Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Welcoming gestures </li></ul><ul><li>Focusing gaze </li></ul...
5 Presentation Tips <ul><li>Smile </li></ul><ul><li>Breathe </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Notes </li></ul><ul>...
Summary Guide audience gently Design slides carefully Use pauses effectively Answer questions inclusively
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Effectivepresentations

  1. 1. Peter Masucci Adjunct Professor of Marketing University of New Hampshire Whittemore School of Business and Economics Effective Presentations January 26, 2007
  2. 2. “ Great speakers aren’t born, they are trained.” Presenting is a Skill… Developed through training and experience
  3. 3. Agenda <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Planning your presentation </li></ul><ul><li>The presentation sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Creating effective visual aids </li></ul><ul><li>Effective presentation techniques </li></ul>
  4. 4. Peter Masucci – Teaching Experience <ul><li>UNH , Whittemore School of Business & Economics, Durham, NH </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Undergraduate courses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ADMN 651 – Principles of Marketing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MGT 732 – Explorations in Entrepreneurial Management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MGT 755 – International Management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MKTG 752 – Marketing Research </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MKTG 757 – Advertising and Integrated Marketing Communications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MKTG 762 – Marketing Workshop </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MKTG 763 – Market Opportunities Analysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MKTG 798 – Advertising Workshop </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graduate courses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ADMN 852 – Marketing Research, MBA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ADMN 898 – Advertising and Integrated Marketing Communications, MBA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ADMN 898 – New Product Development, MBA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ADMN 960 – Marketing Management, MBA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MOT 898 – Market Research for Emerging Technologies, MS MOT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MOT 941 – Product Development and Marketing, MS MOT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Simmons College , Boston, MA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graduate School, Master’s in Communications Management Program (MCM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MCM 442 – Emerging Communications Technologies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MCM 451 – Advertising and Integrated Marketing Communications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MCM 453 – Strategic Marketing Planning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MCM 458 – Online Marketing </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Peter Masucci – Professional Experience <ul><li>Professional experience: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2001 VX Management Group, Founding Partner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Management and marketing consulting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1998 Open Market/FutureTense, VP Business Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet content management and transaction processing software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1998 Saradam Telemedicine Systems, Founder and CEO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remote medical services delivered via videoconferencing over the Internet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1996 PictureTel, VP Marketing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Videoconferencing equipment and services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1994 Sequoia Systems, VP Marketing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High-performance, fault-tolerant business computer systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1986 Alliant Computer Systems, VP International Operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High-performance, scientific supercomputer systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1973 Digital Equipment, various marketing management positions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PCs, minicomputer systems, embedded real-time computers, semiconductors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1970 Rockwell International Space Division, Project Engineer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Apollo moon missions and Skylab space station programs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1967 NASA – Electronics Research Center, Research Assistant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trajectory analysis planning for deep space probes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Education : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boston University, BS in Aerospace Engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clark University, MBA with concentration in marketing </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Introduction
  7. 7. Why Give A Presentation? <ul><li>Three Main Purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Inform </li></ul><ul><li>Persuade </li></ul><ul><li>Educate </li></ul>
  8. 8. Definitions <ul><li>Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>“ Something set forth to an audience for the attention of the mind “ </li></ul><ul><li>Effective </li></ul><ul><li>“… producing a desired result” </li></ul>
  9. 9. #1 Fear <ul><li>Feared more than death! </li></ul><ul><li>THE FACTS: Shaky hands, blushing cheeks, memory loss, nausea, and knocking knees </li></ul><ul><li>NORMAL! </li></ul>
  10. 10. Causes of the Anxiety <ul><li>Fear of the unknown OR loss of control </li></ul><ul><li>Fight or flight mode </li></ul><ul><li>No backup plan </li></ul><ul><li>No enthusiasm for subject </li></ul><ul><li>Focus of attention </li></ul>
  11. 11. Effective Presentations <ul><li>Control anxiety – Don’t fight it </li></ul><ul><li>Audience centered </li></ul><ul><li>Accomplishes objective </li></ul><ul><li>Fun for audience </li></ul><ul><li>Fun for you </li></ul><ul><li>Conducted within time frame </li></ul>
  12. 12. Planning Your Presentation
  13. 13. Planning Your Presentation <ul><li>Determine purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you want to accomplish? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Know your audience !!! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Success depends on your ability to reach your audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demographics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why are they attending? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do THEY expect? </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. More Planning <ul><li>Plan Space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of attendees and seats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seating arrangement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lighting, and lighting controls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audio/Visual equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distracters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What Day and Time? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Morning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Afternoon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work day versus weekend </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any day! </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Still More Planning <ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine main points (1-5) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare outline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare a Storyboard </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rehearse…Rehearse…Rehearse!! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the actual room if possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work to a script and time your presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice Q & A </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check equipment – load your slides in advance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make contingency plans </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Organizing Your Presentation <ul><li>Organizational patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Topical </li></ul><ul><li>Chronological </li></ul><ul><li>Problem/Solution </li></ul><ul><li>Cause/Effect </li></ul>
  17. 17. Presentation Outline <ul><li>Keyword reminders </li></ul><ul><li>Conversational flow </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>More responsive to audience </li></ul>
  18. 18. Storyboarding
  19. 19. The Presentation Sequence
  20. 20. #1: Build Rapport <ul><li>… relation marked by harmony or affinity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Audience members need to trust you and feel that you care about them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Start before you begin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mingle; learn names </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunity to reinforce or correct audience assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good first impression </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People listen to people they like </li></ul>
  21. 21. #2: Opening Your Presentation <ul><li>Introduce yourself </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why should they listen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Get attention, build more rapport, introduce topic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short story </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Startling statistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make audience think </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invite participation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Get audience response </li></ul>
  22. 22. #2…Completing the Opening <ul><li>Clearly defining topic </li></ul><ul><li>If informative… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear parameters for content within time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If persuasive… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What’s the problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who cares </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What’s the solution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Overview </li></ul>
  23. 23. #3: Presenting Main Points <ul><li>Make point-transition,…make point-transition,…make point-transition, etc… </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback & questions from audience </li></ul><ul><li>Attention to, and focus on, audience… are they listening? </li></ul>
  24. 24. #4: Concluding Your Presentation <ul><li>Goal </li></ul><ul><li>Inform audience that you’re about to close </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize main points </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Tell ’em What You Told ‘em.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Something to remember, or call-to-action </li></ul><ul><li>Answer questions </li></ul>
  25. 25. Creating Effective Visual Aids
  26. 26. Designing Good Slides <ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If it doesn’t add value, don’t say/use it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unveiling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is drama useful or necessary? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Know your room and lighting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dark room – use light font on dark background </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bright room – use dark font on light background </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Subliminal messages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider your audience and use carefully </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Content <ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complement speaker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talk ≠ technical report </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Density </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7-10 lines/page </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4-8 words/line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test: Project a sample in the room, or in a room of approximately the same size as will be used in the real presentation </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Visual Aid s <ul><li>To make, explain or identify a point </li></ul><ul><li>To emphasize, clarify or r e inforce a point </li></ul><ul><li>To remind, summarize or review a point </li></ul><ul><li>We remember – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10% of what we read </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20% of what we hear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30% of what we see </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50% of what we see and hear </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Visual Aids <ul><li>Enhance understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Add variety </li></ul><ul><li>Support claims </li></ul><ul><li>Lasting impact </li></ul><ul><li>Used poorly, however, they can be a distraction and lead to an ineffective presentation </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>PowerPoint slides </li></ul><ul><li>Overhead transparencies </li></ul><ul><li>Graphs/charts </li></ul><ul><li>Pictures </li></ul><ul><li>Web links ( http://www.unh.edu/uacc/unhpathways.html ) </li></ul><ul><li>Films/video </li></ul><ul><li>Flip charts </li></ul><ul><li>Sketches </li></ul><ul><li>Chalk or white board </li></ul>Visual Aids
  31. 31. Visual Aids Should… <ul><li>Outline, explain, support main points </li></ul><ul><li>Serve audience’s needs, not speaker’s </li></ul><ul><li>Be simple and clear </li></ul><ul><li>Supplement and support… NOT DOMINATE!... the presentation </li></ul>
  32. 32. Be Visible <ul><li>Use Sans Serif fonts (fonts without feet) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Arial, Tahoma, Trebuchet, Verdana, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Titles should be 32-44 pt. font size, BOLD </li></ul><ul><li>Text should be as large as possible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First level 24-32 pt font size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second level 20-28 pt font size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use color wisely </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contrasting colors </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Red/Blue Conflict Red letters on blue background creates “flicker effect” Blue letters on red background just as bad
  34. 34. Low Contrast White on yellow Yellow on white Black on blue Blue on black
  35. 35. “ Fly-In” vs “Wipe” <ul><li>Less distracting </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces eye movement </li></ul><ul><li>Increases readability </li></ul><ul><li>Could you read this? </li></ul><ul><li>How about this one? </li></ul><ul><li>Maybe the third time is the charm! </li></ul>Be CONSISTENT throughout presentation!
  36. 36. <ul><li>Upper left </li></ul><ul><li>Upper right </li></ul><ul><li>Lower left </li></ul><ul><li>Lower right </li></ul>Eye Movement The “Z” Rule
  37. 37. Effective Presentation Techniques
  38. 38. What M akes an E ffective S peaker ? <ul><li>Control of information </li></ul><ul><li>The voice used </li></ul><ul><li>The right words </li></ul><ul><li>Use of body language </li></ul><ul><li>Prompts, scripts and notes </li></ul><ul><li>The right location </li></ul><ul><li>Useful and meaningful visual aids </li></ul>
  39. 39. Vocal Techniques <ul><li>Loudness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will you be using a microphone? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pitch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vary to make points </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Watch your audience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pause for effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow time for message to “sink in” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deviate from the norm for emphasis </li></ul>
  40. 40. The Voice <ul><li>C : Clear – the use of simple, easily understood words and phrases </li></ul><ul><li>L : Loud (enough) – it is important that everyone can hear you </li></ul><ul><li>A : Assertive – a bright and confident air born of knowledge of the subject and good preparation </li></ul><ul><li>P : Pause – it is essential to allow the listeners time to digest what you have said </li></ul>
  41. 41. Use t he Rights Words <ul><li>What you say , and how you say it , is the key to a successful presentation: </li></ul><ul><li>P – state your position or point </li></ul><ul><li>R – explain your ideas </li></ul><ul><li>E – use example s </li></ul><ul><li>P – restate your position or point </li></ul>
  42. 42. Use of B ody Language <ul><li>Make eye contact </li></ul><ul><li>Use your hands , but don’t go crazy </li></ul><ul><li>If possible move around, but slowly! </li></ul><ul><li>DON’T speak with your back to the audience </li></ul>
  43. 43. Body Language <ul><li>Make eye contact ,…but move focus around the audience </li></ul><ul><li>Use your hands ,…but don’t go crazy </li></ul><ul><li>If possible move around,…but slowly! </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain good posture </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure everyone can see you </li></ul><ul><li>DON’T speak with your back to the audience </li></ul>
  44. 44. Scripts and Notes <ul><li>Learn and use a script for formal presentations to large groups </li></ul><ul><li>Small note cards , or PPT notes page, can be used, but FIRST write a script </li></ul><ul><li>Underline key words that will best remind you what you want to say </li></ul><ul><li>Use one card for each slide or topic </li></ul><ul><li>If possible, have someone else advance slides for you </li></ul>
  45. 45. Speaker Reads Slides <ul><li>A speaker may put his entire presentation on his slides. He turns his back to the audience and reads the slides aloud. Perhaps he feels this approach guarantees all the information will get to the audience. </li></ul><ul><li>This may be the most annoying way to give a presentation. Audience members feel insulted: they already know how to read! They wonder why the lecturer doesn’t simply hand out a copy of the slides. </li></ul><ul><li>The visual presentation dominates the presenter. The presenter is not adding any value to what is on the slides. </li></ul>Psst! This slide is way too busy!
  46. 46. Common Problems <ul><li>Verbal fillers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Um”, “uh”, “like”, “you guys” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any unrelated word or phrase </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Swaying, rocking, and pacing </li></ul><ul><li>Hands in pockets </li></ul><ul><li>Lip smacking </li></ul><ul><li>Fidgeting </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to be audience-centered </li></ul>
  47. 47. Pauses <ul><li>Useful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Awaiting thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Switching gaze </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading slide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforcing point </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Powerful </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult </li></ul>
  48. 48. Control of Information <ul><li>Know your subject well </li></ul><ul><li>Know what you are talking about </li></ul><ul><li>Practice </li></ul><ul><li>More practice </li></ul><ul><li>More reh e arsal s </li></ul><ul><li>- in front of the mirror </li></ul><ul><li>- in front of colleagues or friends </li></ul><ul><li>- in front of family members </li></ul><ul><li>Believ e in yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Know your opening by heart </li></ul>
  49. 49. Closing Summary <ul><li>Audience is always a ttentive at the begining </li></ul><ul><li>Somewhat l ess attentive in the middle </li></ul><ul><li>Generally more attentive at the end </li></ul><ul><li>Tell them what you are going to say </li></ul><ul><li>Then s ay it </li></ul><ul><li>At the end, s ay it again </li></ul><ul><li>Allow time for questions </li></ul>
  50. 50. Questions and Answers <ul><li>Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Welcoming gestures </li></ul><ul><li>Focusing gaze </li></ul><ul><li>Body language </li></ul><ul><li>Getting point </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcing message </li></ul><ul><li>Including audience </li></ul><ul><li>Pitfalls </li></ul><ul><li>Hostile gestures </li></ul><ul><li>Wandering gaze </li></ul><ul><li>Body language </li></ul><ul><li>Missing point </li></ul><ul><li>Seeking approval </li></ul><ul><li>Excluding audience </li></ul>
  51. 51. 5 Presentation Tips <ul><li>Smile </li></ul><ul><li>Breathe </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Notes </li></ul><ul><li>Finish on, or under time </li></ul>
  52. 52. Summary Guide audience gently Design slides carefully Use pauses effectively Answer questions inclusively
  53. 53. Questions ?
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