2.1

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2.1

  1. 1. FIRST LANGUAGE ACQUISITION Dr. Hashim Noor
  2. 2. Dr. Hashim Noor
  3. 3. ...GENERAL POINTS Language is something specific to human. Human beings are provided with tools to acquire language from infancy stage. Dr. Hashim Noor
  4. 4. GENERAL QUESTIONS How can children make use of these tools in order to comprehend and produce the language? What is that enables a child not only to learn words, but to put them together in meaningful sentences? Dr. Hashim Noor
  5. 5. GENERAL QUESTIONS What motivates and pushes children to go on developing complex grammatical language even though their early communication is successful for most purposes? Dr. Hashim Noor
  6. 6. SCHOOLS OF FIRST LANGUAGE ACQUSITIONBhaviouristsInnatistsCognitistsInteractionists Dr. Hashim Noor
  7. 7. BEHAVIOURISTS Language is behaviour acquired according to the following steps: – 1) Imitation & Repetition – 2) Reinforcement:  a. Positive  b. Negative – 3) Habit formation Dr. Hashim Noor
  8. 8. BehaviorismLanguage Acquisition is simply a behavior (Skinner(1957  Imitation and Repetition  Reinforcement  Habit Formation
  9. 9. Imitation & Repetition Children imitate the sounds and patterns which they hear around them. They repeat what they hear when they receive positive reinforcement for doing so. Dr. Hashim Noor
  10. 10. Reinforcement The reinforcement could be POSITIVE: that’s the child may receive support or aid from the people around him (e.g. rewards or approval or just successful communication), Dr. Hashim Noor
  11. 11. ReinforcementThe reinforcement could beNEGATIVE: that’s the child could becorrected by the people around him(e.g. by saying to child “no youshould not say this word or sentencethis way, you should say it that way”). Dr. Hashim Noor
  12. 12. Habit formationEncouraged by the environment, thechild continues to imitate andpractice (repeat) these sounds andpatterns until he/she forms ‘habits’of correct language use, i.e. coincidewith the result models or forms ofthe adults- correct use of language. Dr. Hashim Noor
  13. 13. BEHAVIOURISTS Note.. Within this theory, a child’s MISTAKES or ERRORS are simply considered as a result of imperfect learning. Dr. Hashim Noor
  14. 14. BEHAVIOURISTS Criticism This theory faced 2 critical points regarding:1. What children produce2. What children do not produce Dr. Hashim Noor
  15. 15. Criticism What children produce Children sometimes say goed and taked instead of went and took or they say mouses and sheeps instead of mice and sheep. Dr. Hashim Noor
  16. 16. Criticism What children do not produce For example, in the following dialogue where a child proved unable to use a pattern, even though the parent presented the correct adult model several times: Dr. Hashim Noor
  17. 17. Criticism What children do not produceCHILD: Nobody don’t like me.MOTHER: No, say ‘Nobody likes me.’ (Eight repetitions of this dialogue)CHILD: Oh, Nobody don’t likes me. Dr. Hashim Noor
  18. 18. 15 / 15 Dr. Hashim Noor

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