Halal Food Production and     Halal Authentication                Azhar Mat EasaFood Technology, School of Industrial Tech...
Halal Food Production                  Halal standard for                foods, MS1500:2004, :                 production ...
(a) Mass, huge quantity of materials, complexInter-related processes (could go wrong ifnot properly controlled)(b) Careful...
Halal process control; to ensure that“production, installation and servicing” arepeformed under Halal-controlled condition...
• training workers in specific critical arease.g. Halal, SOP, WI, GMPs, HACCP,hygiene, pest control and manufacturing• mai...
• contingency plan (e.g. system failure,computer malfunctions, suppliers capabilityproblem etc)• clear definition of speci...
Basic process control: Quality Management approachinput                Process              output        Adjustment      ...
Halal process control?Halal input          Halal Process              Halal output              Adjustment               m...
The management is in control of the Halal process when;(a) Process approved and running under controlled conditions(b) Pro...
Halal plan is akin to Quality plan
Halal planNo   Process           Check item            Sample           Parameters                           Person in    ...
Halal Assurance is akin to Quality AssuranceQuality Assurance:        All the planned andsystematic actions to be implemen...
Root causes of Halal Food Production issues (a) Consumers are much more educated (b) New media (c) Consumers believe what ...
Mineral water plant
2 KM away, behind                             The hills                      A new knowledge                      that cha...
Global> 1.8 billion Muslims globally, the total size of global halal foodand non-food (such as financial services, pharmac...
Key Halal Muslim Markets - 652           million      Algeria, Iran, Lebanon,    Qatar,Turkey, Bahrain, Iraq, Malaysia, Sa...
Rotterdam port: “Halal DistriPark”to serve 30 million Muslims inEuropeSupermarket giants Carrefour and Auchan arenow aggre...
The trade in halal food is (estimated annual halal food value) ofUS$347 billion (RM 1,317 billion) globally.Many global pl...
Dynamics driving forces of the global Halal food marketincludes:• Growth in the Muslim population, with increasing awarene...
Halal Food Productionand Halal Authentication?
Halal product certification• A prerequisite for entering the global Halal market.• A document issued by JAKIM certifying t...
Halal Authentication has gone forensic
What is “authentic”?• Of the nature demanded by consumers     Their demand         Non-authentic      Fresh meat          ...
Authenticity gives (a) confidence and           (b) Assurance.
Confidence? Assurance?
Confidence? Assurance?
Confidence? Assurance?
WAS-WAS    VersusTanpa WAS-WAS
31
PUTRAJAYA: Memakan haiwan ternakan, termasuk ikan keli yang diberimakanan sebahagian besarnya organ dalaman babi atau haiw...
Pig element as Halal indicator            Why pig?
Case example: when is a filth is not a filth?       ~ USD 2000 per kilogram.
Civet dung is prepared during the production of Kopi LuwakIndonesia’s top religious body has declared a premium coffee mad...
Non-Halal   Halal
Pork versus filth (civet coffee)Properly cleaneddroppings of civet                    vs           Best cut of pork
Current Approaches of species differentiationElectrophoresisLiquid ChromatographyDot blot hybridizationRandom amplified po...
DNA-based technique• DNA is relatively stable even after processing• HPRI (Halal Product Research Institute) developedmeth...
Real-time PCRSensitivity test of pork primer with 10-fold serial dilutionsDetection - 0.001ng of pork DNA. This is an esse...
HaFYS (Halal Verification System)   Produk hasil kajian dan penyelidikan InstitutPenyelidikan Produk Halal (IPPH), Univers...
Intention to    purchase                  Check for                  DNA (pig)   Is it Halal   Certified?                 ...
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 25 (2012) 83–87                            Short Communication Real-time PCR assa...
SDS-PAGE
Por                   Bov                       Por     std                   std                       std               ...
Unlike the PCR based method, which detects only theporcine DNA, the current method uses the specificbiomarkers to identify...
One of these is minced pork,     the other is minced chicken‫ل حلل، ل تأكل‬      清真食品,穆斯林可以吃
Rare occasion but it still happens!
Chicken             Pork      Myowater,between muscle contains Water soluble protein    It is possible to use native-PAGE ...
210 kDa     98 kDa     29 kDa                  15   30   45   60   15   30   45   60              m                  Chick...
The Maillard reaction in meatMethod short-cut
Summary of invention    (Add ribose)Myowater                    (Brown pigments)
SDS-PAGE                                                       Heated, with ribose:          Heated, without ribose       ...
Summary of resultsChicken                Pork
chicken          pork
Statistical Process Control (SPC) chart for fresh minced chickenversus pork meat
• Statistical confidence level  • Lab variation; same sample different results?  • Level of detection:  How far do we go? ...
Produk HaFYS akan dapat mengesan dengan tepat jika terdapat anggaran unsur  DNA babi dalam sebarang produk dengan catatan ...
Babi is our good Quality Assurance HACCP factor,    bukan musuh tetapi a  challenging Allah createdanimal for us to resear...
ar ch                      re se               s of        year hreeT                                   Christien Meindert...
It is possible for pig to be carried-overin certain substances!The absence of pig DNA is not aguarantee of Halal. But the ...
We have many issues with Authenticity in food,why focus solely on Halal?If a food is declared Halal, but not authentic ino...
Authenticity: Case example.(can it be authentically halal, but not authentic  In nature intended and does not function)?  ...
The unique proanthocyanidins (PACs) content               of the berries                        Helps to maintain urinary ...
• PACs are not exclusive to cranberries, and can be found in a    range of foods, including green tea, grapes, apples, and...
In 2004 France became the first country to approve a health claim for the North American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon)...
Malaysia Food Act and regulations 198313B. (1) No person shall prepare or sell any adulterated food.(2)For the purposes of...
• Authenticity of food, including Halal  authenticity could already be covered in food  act under section 13B.For Halal fo...
Right-brainers!
Right Brain    Left Brain        •Face recognition    •Languages               •visual•Logical, sequences      •Imaginatio...
Is Halal certification a Left-brain Halal          (technically Halal)?
What is right-Brain Halal?
Confidence and Assurance?
How many will eat here?
This is the holistic approach          L                       R    • Halal cert            • Halal Perception  • Authenti...
Perception Management: the “Halal soul”• Science competency – truly know yourproduct, inside out from design anddevelopmen...
Perception Management: the “Halal soul”  Stray dog in Halal premise                               Beer lorry carrying     ...
Which one looks better?
The holistic approach is important              because;   The true Halal is in the mind of          consumers, notIn the ...
The holistic approach          L                       R    • Halal cert             • Halal Perception  • Authenticity – ...
Safety and quality are so inter-related.   Halal goes beyond safety and quality.The are so much danger in integrating thes...
The root cause of Halal issue today?         : relative importance.Halal-Safety-                Safety-                   ...
Another root cause of Halal issue today     :lacking in empathy and compassion?A symbol of      Market share              ...
Future growth in authenticity;• A lot of sciences to check on product authenticity,In addition to Halal (case by case)• ke...
•       Overall, Scientists will show many        other potential tools to authenticate        Halal status,But we must no...
Halal authentication in the mind is more Important than Halal certificate on paperHALAL               Azhar@usm.my
Halal Food Production and authentication
Halal Food Production and authentication
Halal Food Production and authentication
Halal Food Production and authentication
Halal Food Production and authentication
Halal Food Production and authentication
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Halal Food Production and authentication

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Keynote address during International Halal conference organized by UiTM 4-5 September 2012, PWTC, Kuala Lumpur

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Halal Food Production and authentication

  1. 1. Halal Food Production and Halal Authentication Azhar Mat EasaFood Technology, School of Industrial Technology, 11800, USM, Penang
  2. 2. Halal Food Production Halal standard for foods, MS1500:2004, : production of halal foods, preparation, handling and storage.
  3. 3. (a) Mass, huge quantity of materials, complexInter-related processes (could go wrong ifnot properly controlled)(b) Carefully planned activities involving strategies,SOPs, WIs, Specifications, and especiallyProcess Control, thus-Not supposed to go wrong, unless the processis not under controlled conditions
  4. 4. Halal process control; to ensure that“production, installation and servicing” arepeformed under Halal-controlled conditions;• production is planned (scheduled), andcommunicated• documented procedures for critical steps e.g.those affecting Halal compliance(absence of which could affect quality or Halal)• maintain environment, buildings, plantequipment etc to comply with requirements
  5. 5. • training workers in specific critical arease.g. Halal, SOP, WI, GMPs, HACCP,hygiene, pest control and manufacturing• maintain compliance with all referencestandards and procedures (especiallyHalal)• monitor and control processes andprocess parameters• for food; ensure HACCP plan and Halalplan has been created and being followed(including prerequisites programs)
  6. 6. • contingency plan (e.g. system failure,computer malfunctions, suppliers capabilityproblem etc)• clear definition of special processes (ifany)• maintenance of equipment• maintain records (Halal-related) todemonstrate compliance to definedrequirements (especially evidence tosupport Halal compliance)
  7. 7. Basic process control: Quality Management approachinput Process output Adjustment monitoring Feedback loop
  8. 8. Halal process control?Halal input Halal Process Halal output Adjustment monitoring Feedback loop
  9. 9. The management is in control of the Halal process when;(a) Process approved and running under controlled conditions(b) Process Halal resources (Materials, Men (workers), machines and methods) or 4M) are all verified (Halal) and optimized. Meet Input meet Process is Halal Customer Halal Process output verified Halal requirement requirement Fed-back for Processes and output Analysis and Are continually monitored improvement Fed-up for record information and improvement
  10. 10. Halal plan is akin to Quality plan
  11. 11. Halal planNo Process Check item Sample Parameters Person in Records/reference remarks size/frequency charge1 Receiving of Physical Every lot Not wet or damaged Store Vendor delivery Halal materials appearance delivered supervisor order (a) raw Description of item Every lot Right item and quantity Store Vendor delivery The lorry must be materials, e.g against vendor delivered supervisor order and Halal-dedicated too. coffee powder delivery order and Purchase order purchase order Manufacturing date Every lot (a) for items with shelf life < 24 Store Certificate of Special: delivered months: received date shall supervisor analysis and QC department shall not exceed 2 months from vendor delivery have the concession to manufacturing date order receive the materials (b) for items with shelf life > 24 stated in the raw months: received dates shall materials shelf life not exceed 4 months from requirement exclusion manufacturing date list without adherence to this requirement Storage location Every lot Designated Halal right location Store Stock card delivered supervisor Storage condition Every storage Air condition room temperature Maintenance Routine area: 3 times (28 °C & below; dedicated for supervisor maintenance per day Halal) record Once per day Freezer temperature (-20 to -13 Maintenance Routine (for frozen °C; dedicated for Halal) supervisor maintenance items) record Halal cert & Every lot Halal & According to certificate QC officer Halal cert, Non-Halal materials Specifications on delivered of analysis Certificate of or materials with certificate of analysis, doubtful status must analysis (where supplier’s be rejected, followed applicable) specification, raw by swift actions to material’s COA prevent recurrence and inspection guidelines (b) any other processes that affect Halal & quality
  12. 12. Halal Assurance is akin to Quality AssuranceQuality Assurance: All the planned andsystematic actions to be implemented, anddemonstrated as needed, necessary to provideadequate confidence that an entity will satisfygiven requirements for quality.Halal Assurance: All the planned andsystematic actions to be implemented, anddemonstrated as needed, necessary to provideconfidence that an entity will satisfy givenrequirements for Halal.
  13. 13. Root causes of Halal Food Production issues (a) Consumers are much more educated (b) New media (c) Consumers believe what they want to believeCase example: meat and meat products(the more we know, the more we ask questions,the more we seek assurance)e.g. Beef burger processing, we see what wewant to see.
  14. 14. Mineral water plant
  15. 15. 2 KM away, behind The hills A new knowledge that changes Your perception. New media?Mineral water plant
  16. 16. Global> 1.8 billion Muslims globally, the total size of global halal foodand non-food (such as financial services, pharmaceuticals andcosmetics) industries is estimated at more than RM 8 trillion.But the estimated halal food market ranges from USD 150 to USD 500 billion a year Global Halal Food production?
  17. 17. Key Halal Muslim Markets - 652 million Algeria, Iran, Lebanon, Qatar,Turkey, Bahrain, Iraq, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Egypt, Jordan, Morocco,Syria, Yemen, Indonesia, Kuwait, Oman,Tunisia http://www.daganghalal.com/HalalInfo/WorldOfHalal.asp x
  18. 18. Rotterdam port: “Halal DistriPark”to serve 30 million Muslims inEuropeSupermarket giants Carrefour and Auchan arenow aggressively pursuing the Halal foodretailing http://www.daganghalal.com/HalalInfo/WorldOfHalal.aspx
  19. 19. The trade in halal food is (estimated annual halal food value) ofUS$347 billion (RM 1,317 billion) globally.Many global players are looking at halal concept as a new toolfor marketing, e.g..•Australian Halal meat sales rose by 70% between 1997 and2002.•Annual Australian Halal exports in 2003 were valued at A$ 3.7billion for meat and A$ 1 billion for dairy produce.•The Australian Government has committed A$ 100 millionover 5 years to promote their Halal food export•New Zealand Lamb exports account for 40 % of the worldmarket and 95 % of all New Zealand lamb exports are nowHalal while non-Halal production is being phased out. http://www.daganghalal.com/HalalInfo/WorldOfHalal.aspx
  20. 20. Dynamics driving forces of the global Halal food marketincludes:• Growth in the Muslim population, with increasing awarenessof religious obligations• Rising incomes in primary markets for Halal food;• Increasing demand for safe, high quality food in primarymarkets;• Increasing demand for greater variety in primary markets;• Incidents of food marketed as Halal but failing to meet Halalrequirements has spurred demand for genuine Halal products– the authenticity issue http://www.daganghalal.com/HalalInfo/WorldOfHalal.aspx
  21. 21. Halal Food Productionand Halal Authentication?
  22. 22. Halal product certification• A prerequisite for entering the global Halal market.• A document issued by JAKIM certifying that theproduct/sites meet Islamic dietary guidelines, as defined by theHalal standard.(a) Registration of a site certificate: e.g. plant,production facility, food establishment, slaughterhouse,abattoir, or any establishment handling food has beeninspected and approved to produce, distribute, or markethalal food.(b) Halal certificate for a specific product withspecific duration: signifies that the product meet the halalstandard.
  23. 23. Halal Authentication has gone forensic
  24. 24. What is “authentic”?• Of the nature demanded by consumers Their demand Non-authentic Fresh meat Thawed meat Halal Non-Halal/doubtful
  25. 25. Authenticity gives (a) confidence and (b) Assurance.
  26. 26. Confidence? Assurance?
  27. 27. Confidence? Assurance?
  28. 28. Confidence? Assurance?
  29. 29. WAS-WAS VersusTanpa WAS-WAS
  30. 30. 31
  31. 31. PUTRAJAYA: Memakan haiwan ternakan, termasuk ikan keli yang diberimakanan sebahagian besarnya organ dalaman babi atau haiwan lainsecara berterusan adalah haram bagi umat Islam dan fatwa mengenaipengharaman itu sudah diwartakan.Penolong Pengarah Cawangan Pemantauan dan Penguatkuasaan Bahagian HabHalal, Jabatan Kemajuan Islam Malaysia (Jakim), Mohd Amri Abdullah, berkatafatwa pengharaman itu wajar menjadi panduan kepada umat Islam bagimengelak membeli hasil ternakan haram dimakan…(Berita harian Online,18 January 2011)(Analysis of Pig DNA can be performed)
  32. 32. Pig element as Halal indicator Why pig?
  33. 33. Case example: when is a filth is not a filth? ~ USD 2000 per kilogram.
  34. 34. Civet dung is prepared during the production of Kopi LuwakIndonesia’s top religious body has declared a premium coffee made from civet cat droppings fit for Muslims to drink. The proclamation has brought relief to farmers who can now continue exporting Kopi Luwak, the world’s most expensive coffee. But their excretions provide the mainstay of income for many Indonesian farmers and peasants.The civets eat coffee berries which they defecate in clumps for harvesters to collect. The fecal material is dried in the sun and packaged for consumers.
  35. 35. Non-Halal Halal
  36. 36. Pork versus filth (civet coffee)Properly cleaneddroppings of civet vs Best cut of pork
  37. 37. Current Approaches of species differentiationElectrophoresisLiquid ChromatographyDot blot hybridizationRandom amplified polymorphicDNA polymerase chainreaction (PCR)RFLP analysisSpecies-specific PCR etc…
  38. 38. DNA-based technique• DNA is relatively stable even after processing• HPRI (Halal Product Research Institute) developedmethods for species identification from pork and lardsamples using PCR-RFLP and Real-time-PCR analysis
  39. 39. Real-time PCRSensitivity test of pork primer with 10-fold serial dilutionsDetection - 0.001ng of pork DNA. This is an essential discovery in terms of Halal identification of food products
  40. 40. HaFYS (Halal Verification System) Produk hasil kajian dan penyelidikan InstitutPenyelidikan Produk Halal (IPPH), Universiti Putra Malaysia
  41. 41. Intention to purchase Check for DNA (pig) Is it Halal Certified? Pig DNA Detected? Yes NoStill doubtful? l Authentic l l
  42. 42. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 25 (2012) 83–87 Short Communication Real-time PCR assays for detection and quantitation of porcine and bovine DNA in gelatin mixtures and gelatin capsulesHui Cai *, Xuelin Gu, Mary S. Scanlan, Dintletse H. Ramatlapeng, Chris R. Lively cGMP Laboratories, PPD Inc., 8551 Research Way, Suite 90, Middleton, WI 53562, USA
  43. 43. SDS-PAGE
  44. 44. Por Bov Por std std std USM researchers have invented an extraction method that enables them to recover good proteins, leaving behind the fragmented proteins in the highly viscous gelatine solution.
  45. 45. Unlike the PCR based method, which detects only theporcine DNA, the current method uses the specificbiomarkers to identify the exact source of the gelatine.The specificity of these biomarkers enabled theunambiguous identification of the gelatine source.
  46. 46. One of these is minced pork, the other is minced chicken‫ل حلل، ل تأكل‬ 清真食品,穆斯林可以吃
  47. 47. Rare occasion but it still happens!
  48. 48. Chicken Pork Myowater,between muscle contains Water soluble protein It is possible to use native-PAGE To differentiate the meats
  49. 49. 210 kDa 98 kDa 29 kDa 15 30 45 60 15 30 45 60 m Chicken PorkIt is possible to use SDS-PAGE to differentiate the meats. Water solubleProtein from chicken and pork behave differently upon heating.
  50. 50. The Maillard reaction in meatMethod short-cut
  51. 51. Summary of invention (Add ribose)Myowater (Brown pigments)
  52. 52. SDS-PAGE Heated, with ribose: Heated, without ribose Protein react with ribose210 kDa98 kDa29 kDa 15 30 45 60 15 30 45 60 15 30 45 60 15 30 45 60 m Chicken Pork Chicken Pork
  53. 53. Summary of resultsChicken Pork
  54. 54. chicken pork
  55. 55. Statistical Process Control (SPC) chart for fresh minced chickenversus pork meat
  56. 56. • Statistical confidence level • Lab variation; same sample different results? • Level of detection: How far do we go? Which level is considered Halal/Haram? Should be case by case…Walaupun JAKIM mengeluarkan cop Halal tetapi bagaimana kita nak pastikan produk mereka betul-betul halal (authentic)…
  57. 57. Produk HaFYS akan dapat mengesan dengan tepat jika terdapat anggaran unsur DNA babi dalam sebarang produk dengan catatan bacaan 0.001 peratusataupun satu auns (0.04 gram) bagi setiap satu kilogram (e.g. cross- contamination) Below 0.04 gram: (a) Present but not detected? (b) Absent?
  58. 58. Babi is our good Quality Assurance HACCP factor, bukan musuh tetapi a challenging Allah createdanimal for us to research on to explore why is it ubiquitous almost omnipresent in our system ! Good luck n you can quote me, my friend…
  59. 59. ar ch re se s of year hreeT Christien Meindertsma
  60. 60. It is possible for pig to be carried-overin certain substances!The absence of pig DNA is not aguarantee of Halal. But the presence ofpig is a good way to prove non-Halal(case by case).
  61. 61. We have many issues with Authenticity in food,why focus solely on Halal?If a food is declared Halal, but not authentic inother aspects, will it still be Halal? E.g.•Adding water to meat, or to milk etc… Halal?
  62. 62. Authenticity: Case example.(can it be authentically halal, but not authentic In nature intended and does not function)? √ √ ?
  63. 63. The unique proanthocyanidins (PACs) content of the berries Helps to maintain urinary tract health. Cranberry PACs provide unique bacterial anti- adhesion effects
  64. 64. • PACs are not exclusive to cranberries, and can be found in a range of foods, including green tea, grapes, apples, and chocolate.• However, the main type of PACs in cranberry called A-type PACs are different from those in these other sources, called B-type PACs. • Only cranberry PACs may prevent bacterial adhesion. PAC analysis method or DMAC method – BL- DMAC method (Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, July 2010, Vol. 90, pp. 1473-1478). The only method proven to accurately measure PAC.
  65. 65. In 2004 France became the first country to approve a health claim for the North American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) with at least 36 milligrams of PAC to “help reduce the adhesion of certain E. coli bacteria to the urinary tract walls”, and subsequently fight urinary tract infections (UTIs).What happens if consumers suffer as products they purchased on the promise of urinary tract benefits do not offer the same efficacy?Answer:(a) They will turn their backs on what they see as underperforming or ineffective products.(b)They will no longer trust the Halal logo that goes with the product.
  66. 66. Malaysia Food Act and regulations 198313B. (1) No person shall prepare or sell any adulterated food.(2)For the purposes of and without prejudice to the generalityof subsection (1), any food shall be deemed to be adulterated if –(a)It contains (e.g. pig element) or is mixed or diluted (e.gwater) with any substance which diminishes in any mannerits nutritive or other beneficial properties (e.g. Halal) ascompared to such food in a pure, normal or specified stateand in an undeteriorated and sound condition, or which in anyother manner operates or may operate to the prejudice ordisadvantage of the purchaser or consumer …
  67. 67. • Authenticity of food, including Halal authenticity could already be covered in food act under section 13B.For Halal food containing pig element, the Halal claim could be a case of adulteration- the food is adulterated with pig.• Authenticity science:we might as well do all and prosper in all areas of authenticity rather than excelling solely in Halal authentication.
  68. 68. Right-brainers!
  69. 69. Right Brain Left Brain •Face recognition •Languages •visual•Logical, sequences •Imagination •Analysis •Music •Facts •Intuition •Mathematics •Arts, color L R
  70. 70. Is Halal certification a Left-brain Halal (technically Halal)?
  71. 71. What is right-Brain Halal?
  72. 72. Confidence and Assurance?
  73. 73. How many will eat here?
  74. 74. This is the holistic approach L R • Halal cert • Halal Perception • Authenticity – Management Pig DNA • Integrity – keep it • Safe & nutritious Intact, stronger• Business & science • Human & beyond
  75. 75. Perception Management: the “Halal soul”• Science competency – truly know yourproduct, inside out from design anddevelopment to consumer’s plate• Human factor: Strong empathy andcompassion in muslim public relation. Trulyunderstand the consequences of non-Halal
  76. 76. Perception Management: the “Halal soul” Stray dog in Halal premise Beer lorry carrying canteen provisions
  77. 77. Which one looks better?
  78. 78. The holistic approach is important because; The true Halal is in the mind of consumers, notIn the certificate awarded by JAKIM
  79. 79. The holistic approach L R • Halal cert • Halal Perception • Authenticity – Management Pig DNA • Integrity – keep it • Safe & nutritious Intact, stronger• Business & science • Human & beyond
  80. 80. Safety and quality are so inter-related. Halal goes beyond safety and quality.The are so much danger in integrating these three. It gives a signal of relative importance.
  81. 81. The root cause of Halal issue today? : relative importance.Halal-Safety- Safety- Halal- Quality vs Quality HALAL
  82. 82. Another root cause of Halal issue today :lacking in empathy and compassion?A symbol of Market share After life quality And branding HALAL
  83. 83. Future growth in authenticity;• A lot of sciences to check on product authenticity,In addition to Halal (case by case)• keep up the research, but don’t overdo the sciences(confusion among consumers)• Manufacturers: Compassion, Empathy andIntegrity, will go along way to enhance certificates.• Promote Halal programs, not certificate.
  84. 84. • Overall, Scientists will show many other potential tools to authenticate Halal status,But we must not be over-relying on sciences.• Halal management should be beyond pig-gelatine-slaughtering, but more on assuring the consumers of our practices are intact and trustworthy
  85. 85. Halal authentication in the mind is more Important than Halal certificate on paperHALAL Azhar@usm.my
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