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Towards a Reflective Classroom peer.doc: ESL/EFL Teachers' Professional Training
 

Towards a Reflective Classroom peer.doc: ESL/EFL Teachers' Professional Training

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While teachers’ peer observation is receiving widespread interest, and is being implemented in numerous institutions in different fields of education around the world (more than 40% of US colleges ...

While teachers’ peer observation is receiving widespread interest, and is being implemented in numerous institutions in different fields of education around the world (more than 40% of US colleges and universities now use classroom peer observation), it is still looked upon with much wariness within most Arab countries ELT context, which is presently leading to consensual reluctance to incorporating it within the MENA regions’ ELT community and public schools alike. In the light of this, touchstones of this paper are twofold: on the one hand, it is an attempt to dissociate the traditional notion of observation from the modern one, based on reflective aims rather than evaluative ends. On the other hand, it endeavors to promote a systematic incorporation of peer observation within the professional and pedagogical continuous training of Moroccan public schools. Will peer observation’s implementation be an easy task? Of course not; otherwise, we would not be talking about “ELT global challenges.” To reach this end, the paper comprises five main parts

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    Towards a Reflective Classroom peer.doc: ESL/EFL Teachers' Professional Training Towards a Reflective Classroom peer.doc: ESL/EFL Teachers' Professional Training Document Transcript

    • January, 2010 Abdeslam  Badre     Towards  a  Reflective  Classroom  Peer-­Observation   Abdeslam  Badre  ii. Introduction While teachers’ peer observation is receiving widespread interest, and is beingimplemented in numerous institutions in different fields of education around the world(more than 40% of US colleges and universities now use classroom peer observation), it isstill looked upon with much wariness within most Arab countries ELT context, which ispresently leading to consensual reluctance to incorporating it within the MENA regions’ELT community and public schools alike. There appears to be some controversialuncertainty, if not allodoxaphobia, over the rationale and the outcomes of such aninvaluable pedagogical tool. Part of this reluctance springs from a perpetual confusion inthe mind of some educationalists (by this I mean both teachers and practitioners) betweenpeer observation and regular observation at one level, and summative versus formativeobservation at another level. The other part of this negative attitude is traced back in timeduring pre-service and while-service observations teachers had with their senior teachersor advisors. In either cases and particularly with in-service teachers, observation isassociated with evaluation and not with professional development per see. It is oftenviewed as a potentially threatening experience in which teachers are often reluctant to takepart once they complete their initial training (Freeman, 1982). In light of this, touchstones of this paper are twofold: on the one hand, it is anattempt to dissociate the traditional notion of observation from the modern one, based onreflective aims rather than evaluative ends. On the other hand, it endeavors to promote asystematic incorporation of peer observation within the professional and pedagogicalcontinuous training of Moroccan public schools. Will peer observation’s implementationbe an easy task? Of course not; otherwise, we would not be talking about “ELT globalchallenges.” To reach this end, the paper comprises five main parts: 1) types and purposesof observation; 2) traditional view versus reflective view on observation; 3) phases ofObservation; 4) strengths and downsides of peer observation; and 5) observationinstruments. Before tackling the first subsidiary part, I would like to establish a briefdefinition of the concept “reflective/reflection” from an applied linguistic perspective.i. Concept definition: “Reflection” D.A. Schon (1983) defines “reflection” as an “active persistent and carefulconsideration of any belief or presupposition of knowledge.” J. Dewey (1987) tookSchon’s definition to a higher level, and talked about “reflection-in-action, ” which hedefines as a “reflective conversation with the material of a given situation/context.” In hisExperiential   Learning   Theory,   David   A.   Kolb   proposes   four   principal   stages   one   of  which   is   “Reflective   Observation   (RO)   for   effective   learning.   Shared   among   these     1  
    • January, 2010 Abdeslam  Badre  three  definitions  is  the  notion  of  “persistent  consideration”  of  one’s  “knowledge”  of  classrooms’   practices.   The   intent   of   this   “persistent   consideration”   should   lead  observers,  accordingly,  to  the  consideration  -­‐if  not  analysis-­‐  of  the  internal  as  well  as  external  factors  that  govern  a  teaching  situation,  before  questioning  the  pedagogical  motives   or   judging   the   teacher’s   instructional   decisions.   Reflective   observation,   in  this   regard,   drives   home   the   idea   of   multiplicities   of   learning-­‐teaching   styles,   along  with  teacher’s  in-­‐action  remedial  decisions  in  the  mind  of  the  observer.  I. Types and Purposes of Observation  Regular Observation: it is the event of having pre-service or a novice in-service teacher observing one of the senior’s teachers’ classes before the former has his/her class observed by an advisor or a senior teacher who is supposed to a provide an oral or written feedback on what has been observed. A discernible feature of this type of observation is the asymmetrical power-relationship that governs both the observed teacher and observer. Observation in this context tends to be more judgmental and feedback is represented in a more official manner. Because of its evaluative nature and horizontal power-sharing structure, novice teachers tend to bread a negative impression toward this form of observation.  Peer Observation: unlike the previous type, peer observation is arranged between peer teachers, usually teaching the same instructional levels, and with relatively the same professional experience. It is not a compulsory event in the sense that a teacher may deliberately ask to observe his/her colleague’s class or have his/her colleague observe one of the classes for the sake of exchanging feedback and optimizing teaching strategies. The nature of feedback in this vein may range from a verbal “thank you for having me in your class” statement into a face-to-face verbal or/and written feedback session.  Three-way observation: this third form of observation was first introduced at an American college and then has slowly started to spread among other colleges. Its framework is similar to the regular observation with the inclusion of a student’s perspective. The rationale behind having a student taking part in teacher’s observation is originated from a learner-centered premise, which underlines the pivotal value of students’ reflections on teachers’ practices.   Besides   its   educational   as   well   as   pedagogical   benefits,   classroom   observation  serves   administrative   purposes.   For   instance,   while   formative observation assists inimproving teachers’ teaching tools and promoting cooperative teaching environment,  summative observation involves the evaluation of teaching effectiveness used for merit,and/or promotion, or other purposes of the same nature.  Gains from Observation, however,remains dependent on the way the nature of teaching is understood by observers andobserved alike.  To  be  remembered  here  is  the  idea  that  both formative and summativeobservations can be based on the same observation instruments, though both forms differin procedures and aims.     2  
    • January, 2010 Abdeslam  Badre  II. Traditional view versus Reflective view on classroom observation For quite a long period of the recent past, classroom observation typically consisted ofsubjective data based on personal and anecdotal accounts of effective teaching. Noviceteachers’ teaching skills’ acquisition depended on the mastery of specific repertoire ofobservable behaviors that included but not limited to:  How teacher starts and ends a lesson  How teacher allots times within a lesson  How teacher assigns tasks to students  How teacher organizes learning groups  How teacher monitors students’ task performance  How teacher asks questions  How teacher reinforces students’ answers In short, the observer role was limited to observe, describe, and then comment on the“how” dimension of the observed. Being as such, not only did the feedback use to bereductionist and subjective, for it used to be based on a biased data collection and analysis,but also it used to threaten novice teachers’ creativity and lack of confidence toward theirown teaching style. With the advent of systematic classroom observation method, objective andreliable measures of observation started to be implemented; thus a debate on reflection onteaching, learning, and observation have become more of necessity than a choice.Classroom observation within this conceptual framework goes beyond a focus on theidentification of the techniques and strategies experienced teachers employ. It has becomeas an opportunity for teachers to develop a critically reflective stance to their ownteaching: Observers main task has become an objective data collection through the use ofsystematic instruments that can be used to develop deeper understanding of HOW andWHY the observed teachers teach the way they do. Accordingly, paving the way for bothcooperating and observed teachers to develop reflective approaches to teaching the samelesson in various ways.III.  Phases  of  Observation  III.1. Pre-Observation Conference Guidelines The aim behind holding the pre-observation conference is for the observed teacherto assign the observer a goal for the observation and a task to accomplish. The task wouldinvolve collecting information about the lesson goals, objectives, usedstrategies/methodology, and form of assessment. Both teachers may agree uponobservation procedures or instruments to be used during this session and arrange aschedule for the observations. The following is a list of questions that the observer mightask the observed teacher:  What is the main goal of your course?  What is the main goal of the course session to be observed?   3  
    • January, 2010 Abdeslam  Badre    What is your specific objective for the course session to be observed? In other words, what do you expect the learners to be able to know and do by the end of your session?  What strategies/ methods will you use to help the learners to reach this objective?  How will you assess whether the learners reached this objective? In other words, how will they show that they know and can do what you expected of them?  Do you have any concerns that you would like the observer to address?III.2. While-observing phaseThe second stage of observation is a time wherein the visitation takes place. Using theagreed-upon tools and procedures, the teacher observing should complete the observationtask without interfering in the performance of the teacher being, or in the teaching learningprocess in progress. The main criteria that are controlled through different forms ofsystematic checklists or grids are:  Organization of the lesson: the opening, structuring, transitioning, and closure of the lesson.  Time management: allotment of time of different activities during the lesson.  Students’ performance on tasks: the strategies, procedures, and interactions patterns employed by students in completing tasks.  Time on task: the extent to which students were actively engaged during task.  Teacher’s questions & students’ responses: the types of questions the teacher asks during a lesson, the way students respond, and the way the responses are either reinforced or refuted.  Teacher’s explanation: the way the teacher explains vocabulary, grammar, and/or syntactic items during the lesson.  Teacher’s action zone: the extent to which the teacher interacts with some students more frequently than others during the lesson.  Students’ performance during pair/group-work activities: Teacher’s arrangement of students into small groups, monitoring of students’ time-on-task during group work, the dynamics of group work activities, students’ use of L1 Vs. L2 during group work, and the kind of responses they make.  Classroom interaction: the way the teacher monitors both teacher-student and student-student interactions.  Use of textbook: the extent to which the teacher resorts to the textbook during the lesson and the types of departure made from it.   4  
    • January, 2010 Abdeslam  Badre  Annex I at the end of this paper displays the above-motioned items, along with otherrelevant questions. The model is adapted from Jack C. Richards’ classroom observationform.III.3. Post Observation Conferencing Guidelines The post observation session is the time where both teachers meet again for datapresentation and Analysis; and the “how to” and “why” dimensions are questioned andjustified for the sake of understanding, reinforcing and suggesting different alternatives.No judgments or evaluative are to be made: the teacher observer’s task here is on the onehand, to highlight the strongest points, activities, strategies, and techniques used by theperforming teacher; on the other hand, s/he may inquire about the reasons and rationalesof unclear situations then go no suggesting some alternatives.Schedule this conference within a week of the observation. As to the timing of the post-observation conference, the sooner it is held the more effective its outcomes are going tobe. In other words, teachers should not hold the meeting weeks or months after theobservation took place, because in the latter’s case it would be difficult to discuss orexplain what have happened during the observation. Also, it is always recommended forthe observer to start his/her feedback with a positive comment while providing an honestfeedback.V. Strengths and downsides of peer observation Highlighted in this last section are both the strengths and downsides of peerobservation V.1. Advantages of Peer Observation  Gaining new ideas and perspectives about teaching from colleagues  Both observer and observe may improve teaching ability  Good training for teacher training and ELT management  Teachers might take feedback better if it comes from other teachers : they might take suggestions on how their class could have been improved better if it comes from a fellow teacher  Letting teachers pair themselves up can also help make sure they get comments from someone whose opinion they respect and they will be happy to get constructive criticism from  Teachers can get different feedback from different people : This is obviously a good thing, and one which can be further developed by matching teachers with people who have very different teaching styles and by having each observer especially looking for different things   5  
    • January, 2010 Abdeslam  Badre    Both the person being observed and the person observing learn This is the biggest advantage of peer observations. Teachers observing not only learn how to observe, but also see different ways of doing things in other peoples classrooms and can see both good things and bad things that will make them reflect on what goes on in their own classroom  makes the teachers understand how difficult observing and feedback can be When teachers have experienced trying to put a positive spin on criticism of someones lesson, they should hopefully understand the difficulties the DoS has next time they are being officially observed  It can boost a teachers confidence Although teachers observing other peoples lessons can tend to underestimate how much hard work the teacher is putting in, they still get a much more realistic picture of how other teachers are doing than they would get from just hearing the laughter coming through the wall. V.2. Disadvantages of Peer Observation As mentioned in the introduction, implimenting classroom peer observation as apedagogical tool is both a gain and a challenge, especially within the context of Moroccanpublic schools that are already facing a number of structural, logistic, and human capitalchallenges. Thoughout this paper arguments on the befefits of peer obervation have beenhighlighted. This, of course, does not mean that peer observation is free of anyshortcomings. There is a relative consensus among pratictioners over some weak pointsthat I have outlined below.  Possible bias relating to the observers own beliefs about teaching  Without a systematic approach--including observer training, multiple visits, and use of reliable observation instruments--peer observation may not be a valid method for summative evaluation  Teachers seeing a "worse" teacher can get lazy. The negative version of a teachers confidence being boosted by seeing the less than perfect lessons of others is that they could think "My lessons are already better than that. What was I putting all that effort into them for?"  Teachers need training on how to observe and be observed. At a basic level, teachers need to be introduced to a range of different observation tasks (looking at classroom interactions, use of time, language used by the teacher, staging etc) and different ways of writing that data down in a factual way.  It can actually take teachers more time management as well as training to observe each other,  Teachers might think they know better than the person who observed  The feedback might not be as useful as feedback from the senior teachers  The feedback might be insensitive  The fact that it is extra work might give people a bad attitude  The students might get the idea that something is wrong: especially those students might have been in EFL classes long enough that they know that if an observer appears it usually means that another student has been complaining, in which case   6  
    • January, 2010 Abdeslam  Badre   you can imagine they might start to doubt their teacher is they have observers in every couple of weeks! Solutions include having regular observations as a selling point in the school brochure (for reasons of class quality and teacher development), and telling them that the observer is there to learn from watching their expert teacher rather than to judge themConclusionTo sum it up, just like all forms of observations, and/or professional development tools, aneffective classroom peer observation requires an observation instrument designed toportray the classroom environment as accurately and reliably as possible; not to reflect theteacher observing view or evaluation of the observed teacher’s performance. This is whythe observers are not to ask questions or participate in activities during class; suchbehavior can detract from and invalidate the observations. He/she can be brieflyintroduced to the students, with an equally brief explanation of why the observer ispresent; then move on. The observer should be in the observed classroom a way ahead ofclass starting time. Additionally, both teachers should invest some times reviewing anddiscussing the results from the completed Classroom Observation Instruments. Finally, itis always important for the observer to begin the conference with a positive comment andstill provide honest, constructive feedback.   7  
    • January, 2010 Abdeslam  Badre  Classroom Observation FormObserver: Date:Observed teacher: Time:Observed Period: Level:Students Category: Room Number: 1. Organization of the lesson: the opening, structuring, transitioning, and closure of the lesson. 2. Time management: allotment of time of different activities during the lesson. 3. Students’ performance on tasks: the strategies, procedures, and interactions patterns employed by students in completing tasks. 4. Time on task: the extent to which students were actively engaged during task. 5. Teacher’s questions & students’ responses: the types of questions the teacher asks during a lesson, the way students respond, and the way the responses are either reinforced or refuted. 6. Teacher’s explanation: the way the teacher explains vocabulary, grammar, and/or syntactic items during the lesson. 7. Teacher’s action zone: the extent to which the teacher interacts with some students more frequently than others during the lesson. 8. Students’ performance during pair/group-work activities: Teacher’s arrangement of students into small groups, monitoring of students’ time-on-task during group work, the dynamics of group work activities, students’ use of L1 Vs. L2 during group work, and the kind of responses they make. 9. Classroom interaction: the way the teacher monitors both teacher-student and student-student interactions. 10. Use of textbook: the extent to which the teacher resorts to the textbook during the lesson and the types of departure made from it.   8  
    • January, 2010 Abdeslam  Badre   Key  Readings1. Latham G P, van den Berg P, Wiersma U J, (1995). Dutch Reactions to BehavioralObservation, Behavioral Expectation, and Trait Scales. Group & OrganizationManagement (USA) . Vol.: 20; Issue: 3; P.: 297-310.2. Edwards M R, (1996). Improving performance with 360-degree feedback. CareerDevelopment International (UK). Vol.: 1; Issue: 3; P. 5 Web-bliography1. Alex Case, (2008). UsingEnglish.com2. Jack C. Richards and Charles Lockhart. “Teacher Development Through PeerObservation.”   9