Towards a Capacity-Building and Apprenticeship Education within African Nations

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Africa is the most interesting and diverse continent on the earth. It is the home of an incredible variety of people, animals, climates, and spectacular places. It is a country known for its beautiful colorful clothing and its history of incredible works of art. The African continent has the second largest population in the world, at about one billion people. Africa is the second largest continent on earth, approximately 11.7 million square miles. One of the oldest universities in the world is in Timbuktu, Mali. By the 12th century Timbuktu was home to three universities. Over 25,000 students attended one of the Timbuktu universities in the 12th century.

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Towards a Capacity-Building and Apprenticeship Education within African Nations

  1. 1. Strengthening Inter-Cultural and International Relations in Africa through Cultural Diplomacy (African Summit, Berlin, October 23rd - 26th, 2012)Towards a Capacity-Building and Apprenticeship Education within African Nations Abdeslam Badre – Morocco MA Student at ICD – Berlin – abdeslambadre@yahoo.com icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre - 10/25/2012 Berlin, 2012-
  2. 2. OutlineI. Africa as We Know It!II. Education, Apprenticeship and Capacity Building in AfricaIII. Will Cultural Diplomacy Heal the Ills in Africa?IV. The Future Africa icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre - 10/25/2012 Berlin, 2012-
  3. 3. I. Africa as We Know It! •National, Regional, and Civil Wars •Tribal Conflicts •Political malaise •Diseases •Women and Minorities’ Abuses •Poverty •Child Labor •Corruption •Lack of Infrastructures •Social Inequalities icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre -10/25/2012 3 Berlin, 2012-
  4. 4. Is it a Heavenly Curse or a Man-Made Misery ??! icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre - 10/25/2012 Berlin, 2012-
  5. 5. Bishop Desmond Tutu“When the missionaries came to Africa they had the Bibleand we had the land. They said, Let us pray. We closed our eyes. When we opened them we had the Bible and they had the land.” icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre - 10/25/2012 Berlin, 2012-
  6. 6. Map of Colonial Empire Africa icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre - 10/25/2012 Berlin, 2012-
  7. 7. Post-Colonial Africa icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre - 10/25/2012 7 Berlin, 2012-
  8. 8. What happened during the 50 Years of African Independence?? Artificial Borders Created The Legacy Of European By Imperial Europe Colonialism The Rise of Neo-colonial Power + Cold War By Proxy - Supporting and Arming Dictatorships The Natural Struggle To Rebuild Is Proving Difficult in Africa icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre - 10/25/2012 Berlin, 2012-
  9. 9. The post-cold WarAfrica and Rise of Capitalism Unequal International Trade Corporate interests and activities in Internal Corruption conflicts Africa have also contributed to exploitation, conflic t and poverty for ordinary people while enriching African and foreign elites. Corporate Exploitation Interests icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre - 10/25/2012 Berlin, 2012-
  10. 10. icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre - 10/25/2012 Berlin, 2012-
  11. 11. III. Education, Apprenticeship and Capacity Building in AfricaAccording to the International Development Research Centre(IDRC), UNESCO and World Bank:Although literacy rates have greatly improved in Africa over the last fewdecades, approximately 40% of Africans over the age of 15, and 50% of womenabove the age of 25 remain illiterate.Illiteracy among individuals over the age of 15 stands at 41 per cent; genderdisparity in education prevails in 75 per cent of countries: For the period 2000–06, Seychelles had the highest adult literacy rate (92%); Mali and Burkina Fasohad the lowest (24%).Early childhood development is, in most countries, left to private sector actorsprimarily working in urban areas in aid of more advantaged social groups.Almost 50% of countries may not attain the goal of universal primaryeducation by 2015; nearly 38 million children are not going to school. icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre - 10/25/2012 Berlin, 2012-
  12. 12. III. Education and Capacity Building in Africa …Liberia has the lowest primary student-teacher ratioof 19; in Mozambique the ratio is 67. Cape Verde hasthe highest gross enrollment rate in secondaryeducation (80%); Niger has the lowest (11%).The gross secondary school enrollment rate exceeds20% in half of the countries, yet it remains below 8per cent in 10 countries.Higher education and other levels and forms ofeducation are experiencing problems with respect toaccess, quality and even relevance.In Uganda, a child who quits attending school is threetimes more likely to be HIV positive later on in lifethan a child who completes basic education. icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre - 10/25/2012 Berlin, 2012-
  13. 13. Brain-Drained AfricaStatistics on brain drain from Africa are scarce buttroubling. According to the International Organization forMigration (IOM),Africa has already lost one third of its human capital and iscontinuing to lose its skilled personnel at an increasingrate, with an estimated 20,000 doctors, university lecturers,engineers and other professionals leaving the continentannually since 1990.There are currently over 300,000 highly qualified Africansin the Diaspora, 30,000 of which have PhDs. At the same time, Africa spends US$4 billion per year(representing 35% of total official development aid to thecontinent) to employ some 100,000 Western expertsperforming functions generically described as technicalassistanceFor example: 90% of private firms in Gabon are managedby expatriates. icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre - 10/25/2012 Berlin, 2012-
  14. 14. Brain-Drained AfricaAfrica as a whole counts only 20,000 scientists (3.6 % percent of the world total) and its sharein the world’s scientific output has fallen from 0.5% to 0.3% as it continues to suffer the braindrain of scientists, engineers and technologists. The problem has reached quite disturbing proportions in certain African countries, withEthiopia ranked first in the continent in terms of rate of loss of human capital, followed byNigeria and Ghana. Over the past 10-15 years, about 50% of Ethiopians who went abroad fortraining did not return after completing their studies.According to the estimates of the Presidential Committee on Brain Drain set up in 1988 by theBabangida administration, Nigeria, between 1986 and 1990, lost over 10,000 academics fromtertiary education institutions alone.Total estimates, including those who left public, industrial and private organizations, are over30,000. 64% of Nigerians in the United States aged 25 and older have at least a bachelor’sdegree.In 1997 only, more than 1,000 professionals left Zimbabwe. The Zimbabwe NationalAssociation of Social Workers estimates that 1,500 of the countrys 3,000 trained socialworkers left for the United Kingdom over the past 10 years.Basically, African countries are funding the education of their nationals only to see them endup contributing to the growth of developed countries with little or no return on their investment.In Kenya, for example, it costs about US$40,000 to train a doctor and US$10,000-15,000 toeducate a university student for 4 years. icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre - 10/25/2012 Berlin, 2012-
  15. 15. Causes of Brain Drain Push Factors Pull Factors Low and eroding wages and Higher wages and incomesalaries Unsatisfactory living conditions, lack of Higher standard of livingtransport, housing, etc. Better working conditions; job and career opportunities and professional Under-utilization of qualified personnel; developmentlack of satisfactory working conditions; lowprospect of professional development Substantial funds for research, advanced technology, modern facilities; availability of Lack of research and other experienced support stafffacilities, including support staff; inadequacyof research funds, lack of professional Political stabilityequipment and tools Modern educational system; prestige of ‘foreign training’ Social unrest, political conflicts andwars Meritocracy, transparency Declining quality of educational system Discrimination in appointments andpromotions icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre - 10/25/2012 Berlin, 2012-
  16. 16. Will Cultural Diplomacy Heal the Ills in Africa? If So, How? icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre -10/25/2012 16 Berlin, 2012-
  17. 17. Future Role of CD in AfricaTo Invest in the FUTURE Generation’s Education, Apprenticeship Trainings, and Capacity Building Programs icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre - 10/25/2012 Berlin, 2012-
  18. 18. The African Leadership AcademyAgent: ALA is a registered non-profit educational charitydeveloping the next generation of African leadersALA was founded in 2004 by Fred Swaniker, Chris Bradford,Peter Mombaur and AchaLeke.ALA’s Trustees and Advisors include internationally recognizedluminaries in business, leadership development, educationand social entrepreneurship. 
Since 2008, ALA has used a multifaceted admissions processto evaluate over 9,000 youth in 42 African nations to select the380 young leaders in the first four classes – making ALA oneof the most selective educational institutions in the world icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre - 10/25/2012 Berlin, 2012-
  19. 19. Agenda: The African Leadership AcademyAfrican Leadership Academy seeks to enable lasting peace andprosperity in Africa by developing and connecting the continent’s futureleaders.African Leadership Academy will develop and connect thousands oftransformative young leaders in the next 50 years. 
African LeadershipAcademy achieves this mission through:(1) A robust admissions process that identifies 100 of Africa’s mostpromising young leaders each year, regardless of background(2) A rigorous two-year pre-university program that enables intellectualgrowth and leadership development, including sustained, authenticpractice of entrepreneurial leadership, and(3) A lifelong ecosystem that connects these leaders with each other andwith transformative opportunities that will expand the scope and scale oftheir dreams and impact. icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre - 10/25/2012 Berlin, 2012-
  20. 20. ALA: Agenda …“Our leadership development formula is relatively simple: webelieve that by identifying young leaders with immensepotential, enabling them to practice leadership, and connectingthem with transformative opportunities, we can develop andempower the next Nelson Mandela, the nextWangariMaathai, and Africa’s Jonas Salk and Steve Jobs.” ElmahdiOummih - Director - North Africa icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre - 10/25/2012 Berlin, 2012-
  21. 21. Vehicle & Target Audiencehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iUj5qSvqNVo icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre - 10/25/2012 Berlin, 2012-
  22. 22. ConclusionWith a well-educated leadership generation and awell-trained human capital that master the languageof the the 21st, namely information technology, Africacan engage in:1) protecting its natural, economic, and culturalresources from the savage capitalistic greed, and theinternational chauvinistic sovereignty 2) Wisely managing its economic growth toward asustainable and stable progress3) Thus, becoming an active player in the Worldeconomy and decision making icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre - 10/25/2012 Berlin, 2012-
  23. 23. Reference: Thank you!http://www.africagrantmakers.org/PDF/BasicFactsAboutEducation.pdf1 http://www.idrc.ca/en/ev-71762-201-1-DO_TOPIC.htmlhttp://portal.unesco.org/education/en/ev.php-URL_ID=31059&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.htmlhttp://facts.history.com/2009/07/23_africa.htmlhttp://www.jica.go.jp/cdstudy/library/pdf/20071101_33_01.pdfhttp://www.geocities.ws/aaumf/BrainDrain_in_Africa.pdfhttp://www.africanleadershipacademy.org/nurturing-network/events-conferences/facilitieshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2nnZLm21wA0 icd - Institute of Cultural Diplomacy A.Badre - 10/25/2012 Berlin, 2012-

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