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165805 vitamins
165805 vitamins
165805 vitamins
165805 vitamins
165805 vitamins
165805 vitamins
165805 vitamins
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165805 vitamins

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  • 1. VITAMINS Jade Dianne G. Ong Jerpon P. Viagedor Vitamins - are a group of organic nutrients required in small quantities for a variety of biochemical functions, for proper metabolism, to protect health, and for normal growth and activity of the body. assist in the formation of hormones, blood cells, nervous-system chemicals, and genetic material. act as catalysts, combining with proteins to create metabolically active enzymes that in turn produce hundreds of important chemical reactions throughout the body. Types of Vitamins 1. Fat-soluble vitamins Properties: Necessary for the function or structural integrity of specific body tissues and membranes. Can be retained in the body. Apolar hydrophobic compounds that can only be absorbed efficiently when there is normal fat absorption. *Absorbed together with fat from the intestine into the circulation. Any disease or disorder that affects the absorption of fat, such as coeliac disease, could lead to a deficiency of these vitamins. Once absorbed into the circulation these vitamins are carried to the liver where they are stored. *Examples: Vitamins A, D, K (stored in liver) Vitamin E (distributed throughout bodyâE soluble vitamins Properties: Act as catalysts and enzyme cofactors in metabolic processes and energy transfer. Are not stored in the body (excreted fairly rapidly) and must be replaced each day. These vitamins are easily destroyed or washed out during food storage and preparation (overcooking) *Examples: Vit. B and C (stored in the body for only a brief period of time and are then excreted by the kidneys) Vit. B12 (stored in the liver) Vitamin Physiologic Importance Deficiency Excess RDA Food sources FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINS A (Retinol, β-carotene) Component of light- sensitive pigments in eye [opsin converted to rhodopsin (visual purple)-aids vision in dim light), epithelial tissue maintenance regulation of gene expression and cell diffentiation Night blindness Xerophthalmia Associated with Bitot's spots, keratomalacia (eyes), follicular hyperkeratosis (skin) Carotenemia- presence of large quantities of vitamin A in the blood resulting in skin pigmentation resembling jaundice Bleeding; hepatosplenomegaly (rare). products, eggs, liver 5,000 IU Green vegetables, dairy
  • 2. D (Calciferol) *1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol (D3 ) -Most active form of Vitamin D *the only vitamin manufactured by the body. initiates calcium absorption in intestine and causes bone mineralization - Promotes hardening of bones and teeth Rickets (children)- poor bone mineralization Osteomalacia (adults)- bone dimineralization Hypercalcemia leading to metastatic calcification and renal damage (rare). 400 IU for adults Dairy products, eggs, Fish liver oils. Synthesized by sunlight action on skin. E (Tocopherols, tocotrienols) Alpha-tocopherol-most active and usable form Antioxidant (Protects vitamins A and C, fatty acids and red blood cell membranes from destruction due to oxidation) * People taking statin (lowers cholesterol) drugs are also not advised to take supplemental vitamin E because it may interfere with how the medication works. Possibly anemia Serious neurologic dysfunction (extremely rare) Increase hemolysis of red blood cells Muscular dystrophy None 15 IU (men) 12 IU (women) Margarine, seeds, green leafy vegetables K (Phylloquinone, menaquinones) Blood clotting Required for synthesis of Prothrombin (II) and clotting factors VII, IX and X. * IX, X, VII, II ây “ Vitamin K dependent factors Hemorrhagic disease Hypoprothrombinemia resulting in bleeding tendency Hemolytic anemia (rare). No RDA. 300-500 mcg is considered adequate Green leafy vegetables, liver; Naturally produced by bacteria in the intestine. * People taking antibiotics may lack vitamin K temporarily because intestinal bacteria are sometimes killed as a result of long-term use of antibiotics WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS B1 (Thiamine) catalyst in carbohydrate metabolism (enabling pyruvic acid to be absorbed and carbohydrates to release their energy), nerve and heart function * Coenzyme in decarboxylase systems; required for synthesis of acetylcholine. *Transketolase activity assay is used to detect deficiency of thiamine in the blood Beriberi (wet and dry)- weakened heart, edema, nerve and muscle degeneration Wernicke's encephalopathy; Korsakoff's psychosis. * wet beriberi - generalized edema, acute cardiac symptoms and prompt response to thiamine administration. *dry beriberi - edema not present, neurological disorders are present. The condition is similar to peripheral neuritis. *infantile beriberi - seen in infants under 6 months of age receiving inadequate thiamine in milk. In acute form, the infant develops dyspnea and cyanosis and dies of cardiac failure.
  • 3. Aphonia (loss of voice or speech) may be present and the infant may appear to be crying without emitting much sound. Diarrhea, wasting, vomiting and edema may be present. *Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is the most common CNS-related neurological problem in alcoholics and drug abusers. Characteristic findings include weakness of eye movement, ataxia (shaky movement) of gait and mental disturbance (dementia). The Wernicke syndrome responds dramatically to thiamine administration. Thiamine has also been successfully used to treat depression. Transient flushing, dizziness. 0.5 mg/1000 calories consumed. 1.6 mg for adults Organ meats, pork, whole grains, legumes, cereals, yeast, egg yolk B2 (Riboflavin, vitamin G) essential part of enzyme systems concerned with oxidation and reduction in living cells. *Intracellular metabolism Constituent of flavoproteins *substance essential for the breakdown and utilization of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins in the body, and in the production of energy. *Riboflavin plays a vital role in the health of the skin and is needed for production of certain hormones by the adrenal glands Eye irritation (eyes sensitive to light), corneal vascularization, inflammation and breakdown of skin cells, cheilosis (lips), glossitis(tongue), angular stomatitis (lining of mouth) None. 0.55 mg/1000 calories consumed. 1.6 mg for adults Milk products, liver, eggs, grains, legumes, dark green vegetables, cereals, fruit, yeast B3 (Niacin, nicotinamide, Nicotinic Acid) Oxidation-reduction reactions in cellular respiration Functional part of NAD and NADP. *Energy production from foods; aids digestion, promotes normal appetite; promotes healthy skin, nerves. Pellagra (skin and gastrointestinal disorders, nerve inflammation, mental disorders)- 1st symptom sunburnlike eruption that breaks out where the skin is exposed to sunlight * occur as a result of genetic diseases due to defects in tryptophan metabolism (Hartnup dse., carcinoid syndrome) Flushing due to vasodilation occurs with intravenous injection (rare). Abnormal liver function; cramps; nausea 6.6 mg/1000 calories consumed. 1.8 mg (male) 13 mg (female) Liver, lean meats, poultry, fish, whole and enriched grain products, legumes B5 (Pantothenic Acid) *pantethine is considered to be the more active form * calcium pantothenate is the more usual form of vitamin B5 Energy metabolism needed to form coenzyme-A (CoA), and is critical in the metabolism and synthesis of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. For pyruvate oxidation and biological acetylations Fatigue, loss of coordination None known 0.5-10.0 mg for both adults and children is adequate Milk products, liver, kidney, eggs, whole grains, legumes; also made by intestinal bacteria.
  • 4. B6 (Pyridoxine, Pyridoxal, Pyridoxamine) Aids in amino acid metabolism, absorption; aids in red blood cell formation; helps body use fats. Coenzyme for decarboxylase and transaminase systems * synthesis and catabolism of amino acids, synthesis of neurotransmitters, porphyrins and niacin Convulsions, irritability, kidney stones Glossitis; blepharitis; dermatitis; cheilosis; peripheral neuropathy; sideroblastic anemia. *Three different types of symptoms can be observed in vitamin B-6 deficiency: âe¢ neuropathic: due to insufficient neurotransmitter synthesis. âa ¢ anemic: due to low porphyrin synthesis âf¢ pellagrous: due to low endogenous niacin synthesis. Transient paresthesias. 0.2 mg/100mg CHON 1.8 mg (male) 1.5 mg (female) Whole-grain cereals, vegetables, meats B12 (Cyanocobalamin) - Hematopoietic Vitamin Nucleic acid production *Essential for manufacturing of genetic material in cells. Involved in the production of erythrocytes *Aids in building of genetic material; aids in development of normal red blood cells; maintenance of nervous system. Megaloblastic anemia (Pernicious anemia); subacute combined degeneration of spinal cord; peripheral neuropathy. (neurological disorders) * Associated with an elevation of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes None. 3 mcg for adults Red meats, Liver, eggs, dairy products and fish Biotin (Vitamin H) Fat synthesis and amino acid metabolism Part of the enzyme systems participating in conversion of pyruvate to oxaloacetate (gluconeogenesis) Depression, fatigue, nausea, hair loss (alopecia), dermatitis, atrophy of lingual papillae, muscle pain, paresthesias, hypercholesterolemia, and electrocardiogram abnormalities None known *Raw egg white induces a biotin deficiency because it contains a protein, avidin, which specifically binds biotin very tightly and prevents its absorption from the intestine. 150-300 mcg usually meets daily needs Liver, kidney, egg yolk, milk, most fresh vegetables, legumes; also made by intestinal bacteria. C (Ascorbic Acid) L-ascorbic acid dehydroascorbic acid antiscorbutic vitamin L-xyloascorbic acid L- threo-hex-2-uronic acidy-lactone Collagen formation in teeth, bone, and connective tissue of blood vessels may help in resisting infection absorption of iron, calcium, folacin *production of brain hormones (neurotransmitters), steroid hormones, carnitine, conversion of cholesterol to bile acids and enhances iron bioavailability. Ascorbic acid is a great antioxidant (reducing agent) works with vitamin E as a free-radical scavenger *Enemy of vitamin C Antagonists that destroy this vitamin are air, heat, water as well as prolonged storage, overcooking and processing. Antacids, alcohol, antidepressants, birth control pills and steroids will also deplete this vitamin.
  • 5. Scurvy (breakdown of skin, blood vessels, and teeth) impaired wound healing. *Vitamin C deficiency- often result secondary to hyperparathyroidism Minimal- possibly urinary calculi gastrointestinal complaints including diarrhea, nausea and abdominal cramps 40-60 mg 200 - 500 mg per day (most beneficial) Citrus fruits, green leafy vegetables, tomatoes *more effective if taken with bioflavonoids, calcium and magnesium. other antioxidants synergy Folic Acid (Folacin) - Hematopoietic Vitamin Nucleic acid metabolism Megaloblastic anemia (Pernicious anemia) *block in DNA synthesis slows down the maturation of red blood cells, causing production of abnormally large "macrocytic" red blood cells with fragile membranes None. *May mask vitamin B12 deficiency (pernicious anemia).400 mcg for adults Wholewheat foods, green vegetables, legumes, organ meats, fish, citrus fruits. Other vitamins: 1. Vitamin P (bioflavonoid, citrin) ât “ helps increase strength of capillaries found in the mesocarp (tasteless, spongy, white layer beneath the rind) of lemon fruit. 2. Vitamin F (unsaturated fatty acids)âa “ is important in respiration of vital organs helps maintain resilience and lubrication of cells helps regulate blood coagulation is essential for normal glandular activity. 3. Vitamin B13 (Orotic acid) ân vitamins 4. Vitamin B15 (Pangamic acid) â“ CHON metabolism stimulates nervous and glandular system 5. Vitamin B17 (Laetrile) âH“ has been linked to cancer prevention *National Cancer Institute conducted a long-term study in the early 1980s to evaluate its effectiveness as an anticancer drug. The study found it to have no therapeutic benefit. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for Vitamins Vitamin Men Women A 0.7mg 0.6mg B1 1.0mg 0.8mg B2 1.3mg 1.1mg Nicin 19mg 15mg B6 1.4mg 1.2mg Pantothenic acid 5mg 5mg Folic acid 0.2mg 0.2mg Biotin 0.03mg 0.1mg B12 0.002mg 0.002mg C 40mg 40mg D 0.01mg 0.01mg E 10mg 8mg K 0.8mg 0.06mg The above table is the recommended dietary allowance revised 1989. Food and Nutrition Board, National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington DC, USA

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