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  • 1. Rosemarie Dugi, PhD MSU Billings rdugi@msubillings.edu
  • 2.  President Bush ◦ January 8, 2002  Increase student achievement  Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP)  Highly Qualified Teacher (HQT)
  • 3.  Ensure that highly qualified teachers are in every classroom  Use researched-based practices as the foundation of instruction.  Develop tests to assess students so that data-driven decision become an integral part of the educational system.  Hold schools accountable for the performance of all students.
  • 4.  Every public school student will be up to state standards in Reading and Math.  Closing the achievement gap ◦ Including students of SES and cultural, racial and ethnic backgrounds. ◦ As well as students with disabilities.
  • 5.  Montana OPI  Highly Qualified defined in the federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 that any teacher teaching in a public elementary school or secondary school must meet these three characteristics: ◦ 1) possession of a bachelor's degree; ◦ 2) holds a teaching license ◦ 3) has demonstrated content knowledge in each subject taught.
  • 6.  Develop academic standards for all students in Reading, Math, and Science.  Demonstrate proficiency on state standards by the end of 2013-2014 SY.  Measure student progress.  Federal Money to assist.  States required to submit accountability plans and assessments.
  • 7.  Annual statewide assessments ◦ Must be based on the state’s academic standards, statewide assessments, and other indicators (graduations, attendance). ◦ Achievement of all public elementary and secondary students. ◦ Same for ALL students and school districts. ◦ Include REWARDS (recognition) and SANCTIONS (support and options).
  • 8.  Montana – Reading  Early Detection  General Education  Research Based Interventions/strategies  Three Tiers
  • 9.  Ongoing assessment of student performance  Use of researched-based instructional practices to provide quality instruction targeted to meet individual student needs  Data-based decision making.
  • 10.  Tier 1: Core Classroom Instruction ◦ Instruction for ALL students ◦ 80-90% of student population  Tier 2: Strategic Instruction ◦ Targeted instruction addressing specific needs of students ◦ 5-10% of student population  Tier 3: Intensive Instruction ◦ Intensive targeted instruction for the most at-risk students ◦ 1-8% of student population
  • 11. Intensive Strategic Core
  • 12. Intensive Strategic Core  Instruction for ALL students  80-90% of student population  Assessment ◦ Fall/Winter/Spring
  • 13. Intensive Strategic Core  Instruction for identified specific needs  5-10% of student population  Assessment ◦ Monthly
  • 14. Intensive Strategic Core  Instruction for the Most-at-risk  1-8% of student population  Assessment ◦ Weekly
  • 15.  Tier 4 ◦ Identification of students with a possible Learning Disability  SPED referral process  General Education  Interventions ◦ RTI  Decrease in students who would otherwise might be referred to SPED
  • 16.  Activity
  • 17.  A method of measuring student progress through direct assessment of academic skills.  CBM measures are: ◦ Valid and reliable results ◦ Quick to administer and score ◦ Directly related academic expectations  When using CBM the instructor gives the student brief timed examples or “PROBES” which are given under standardized conditions. ◦ The directions are read the same way each time a probe is given. ◦ Performance is scored for Fluency, Accuracy, and Speed.
  • 18.  AIMsWeb ◦ K-8 benchmark and progress monitoring ◦ Early Literacy AND Early Numeracy measures ◦ Reading, Math, Spelling, Writing  DIBELS ◦ K-6 benchmark and progress monitoring ◦ DIBELS measures ◦ Big Ideas ◦ Indicators
  • 19.  Simulation  Intro Video
  • 20.  DIBELS were developed based on measurement procedures for Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM).  Like CBM, DIBELS were developed to be economical and efficient indicators of a student’s progress toward achieving a general outcome.  A set of procedures and measures for assessing the acquisition of early literacy skills from K-6.  Short (one minute) fluency measures to regularly monitor the development of reading skills.
  • 21. Phonemic Awareness Phonics Vocabulary Comprehension Fluency
  • 22. The ability to hear, identify, and manipulate individual sounds in spoken words (Torgesen, 1998).  Research ◦ PA improves word reading, spelling, and comprehension. Poor readers who enter first grade with weak PA are most likely to be poor readers in the fourth grade.  Instruction ◦ Auditory Activities
  • 23.  Phonics Instruction ◦ Systematic: pre-specified sequence of letter-sound correspondences taught in logical order  Most common sounds taught first  Progresses from simple to more complex  Once a few letter sound are learned, students are taught a decoding strategy  Students apply recently learned phonics to reading connected text ◦ Explicit
  • 24. The ability to read text quickly, accurately, and with proper expression (NRP, 2000).  Research ◦ “repeated and monitored oral reading improves reading fluency and overall reading achievement” (Put Reading First, p.24).  Instruction ◦ Articulate the importance and provide modeling ◦ Reading levels ◦ Monitor fluency progress ◦ Oral reading with feedback ◦ Variety of research-based strategies  Repeated readings, timed, partner.
  • 25. The knowledge of the meanings and pronunciation of words that are used in oral and written language.  Research and Instruction ◦ Can be developed  Directly (teach important, difficult, and useful words)  Indirectly
  • 26.  Teach word learning strategies ◦ How to use dictionaries and reference aids ◦ How to use word parts to determine meaning of words. ◦ How to use context clues to determine meaning  Provide multiple exposure to words  Read aloud to students  Encourage independent wide reading
  • 27. The ability to make sense of text and to monitor for understanding.  Research ◦ “text comprehension can be improved by instruction that helps readers use specific comprehension strategies”  Instruction ◦ Monitoring comprehension ◦ Using graphic organizers ◦ Main idea ◦ Summarizing
  • 28. Phonemic Awareness ISF/PSF/LNF Phonics NWF Vocabulary WUF Comprehension ORF/RTF Fluency ORF
  • 29. Phonemic Awareness ISF PSF LNF  The ability to hear, identify, and manipulate individual sounds in spoken words  Initial Sound Fluency (ISF) ◦ Assess a child’s skill at identifying and producing the initial sound of a given word.  Phonemic Segmentation Fluency (PSF) ◦ Assesses a student’s skill at producing the individual sounds within a given word.  Letter Naming Fluency (LNF) ◦ Assesses a student’s skill in recognizing upper and lower case letters of the alphabet.
  • 30. Phonics NWF  Systematic: pre-specified sequence of letter-sound correspondences taught in logical order  Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF) ◦ Assesses a student’s knowledge of letter- sound correspondences as well their ability to blend letters together to from unfamiliar “nonsense” words.
  • 31. Fluency ORF  The ability to read text quickly, accurately, and with proper expression  Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) ◦ Assesses a student’s skill at reading connected text in grade-level materials.
  • 32. Vocabulary WUF  The knowledge of the meanings and pronunciation of words that are used in oral and written language  Word Use Fluency (WUF) ◦ Assesses a student’s ability to accurately use a provided word in the context of a sentence.
  • 33. Comprehension ORF RTF  The ability to make sense of text and to monitor for understanding.  Oral Reading Fluency (ORF)  Retell Fluency (RTF) ◦ Assesses a student’s understanding of verbally read connected text.
  • 34.  Big Ideas  Indicators  Activity