Full One-Day Training Version, including outdoor garden space and activities Total Time: 5 hours
The marker with no label is the Garden for the Environment, a community garden where we host our summer leadership program.
Error: should read, “Program Salaries: 53%”
Interest in school gardens is not a new or radical idea, but rather one deeply seeded in our country’s history. Food and garden based education in schools was first recorded over 100 years ago in 1891 “out of wanton neglect of planners” This is a rough sketch (clearly not to scale) of the general interest in and resources for school gardens in the US You can see that over time the popularity of school garden programs has ebbed and flowed And this is based on perceived societal needs and the potential for gardens to meet those needs. For example, popularity reach its peak during WW II because the food grown school gardens was seen as a critical contributor to national security. In fact, some what like our current department of homeland security, back then they had a United States School Garden Army. The US Government created these propaganda posters to “recruit” students to grow food at school as part of the war effort. Most of the food grown in the US was being sent overseas to feed soldiers, so we faced a real food security issue at home. GO TO NEXT SLIDE FOR IMAGES
there are even estimates that several million school children actively engaged in the food production at their schools Over 40% of the produce consumed in the US was grown in school gardens This was the time in US history when people ate the most fruits and vegetables, ever.
Also of import during this time was the first school lunch served in 1946, again stemming from national security issues - WWI recruiters found that the US populace was too malnourished to provide enough healthy soldiers. The result was school lunch. With the onset of industrial agriculture and a more secure food supply, however, interest in school gardens waned until the second wave of popularity occurred in the 70’s, with the birth of the environmental movement. School gardens were then seen as an obvious way to connect kids with nature and develop an environmentally conscious population. In fact if you asked someone 15 or even 10 years ago whether we were headed for another upswing or down swing in interest for school gardens, they would have most likely said that school gardens were just a fringe thing and that the movement was largely over. BUT YOUR presence here is one of hundreds of indication that we are in fact in an upswing SO . . . . TODAY, WHAT DO YOU THINK ARE THE MAJOR ISSUES THAT WOULD DRIVE A THIRD WAVE OF POPULARITY IN SCHOOL GARDENS? WE’VE MADE A LIST OF SOCIAL ISSUES THAT WE BELIEVE SCHOOL GARDENS CAN ADDRESS . . . (Other draft language for talk with school lunch-focus . . .) School lunch enjoyed a similar spike in participation as at that time 80% of high school students were actually eating their national school lunch meal program regardless of income But in the 80’s, funding for environmental education & school food services largely dried up, and so did interest in school gardens and school meals. Approximately 1/3 of the national school lunch program and participation of high school students dropped to its current trend of about 10 % participation rate. CONTRAST that with 10% of high schoolers today are eating national school lunch…----paid, free & reduced categories Extending funding source, increasing gardens and kids, and (where do we get the other money - pop, candy, vending machines…_
At Urban Sprouts, we believe that school gardens can have an impact on all these major issues we face today. Now, let’s look at the ways that school gardens can impact our communities in a big way.
First, we are changing the physical environment at schools by greening them, adding gardens, and involving parents more actively in improving schools. Can you give examples of specific ways the garden program serves the purpose in the slide? --greening school grounds --keeping or bringing families back to public schools --enhancing student learning, even for struggling students --improving food environment at school --other examples?
And school gardens can impact youth on an individual level, improving students' academic achievement, ecoliteracy, health and wellness: --academic engagement and success, even for struggling students --improved student nutrition and health behaviors --ecoliteracy --YD assets like self-esteem, self-efficacy, connection to peers and adults, mental health --others?
Reports also indicate the potential for F2S to influence community level variables related to public health, social capital, environmental quality, and economic development. --Improved nutrition and health --Preserve local & regional agricultural land --urban greening --public demand for availability of healthier foods --public environmental awareness & behavior change --community cooperation and civic engagement --others? F2S is also a great way to support our local and regional farmers and food processors
While enhancing economic development and community food security --Support local and regional food growers & processors --Increase of Green jobs --Community access to healthy local food The potential is profound
And increasingly we are seeing programs that seek to achieve gains in each of these individual and community level areas simultaneously. And as we think about what is possible, lets just keep asking ourselves, are we thinking big enough? And to that point, I would say we need to have the right ingredients for success. Not just ANY school garden will have these huge, rippling impacts. WHAT we do in the school garden matters. That’s why Urban Sprouts uses a program model, as a “recipe” for success.
Why do we use a program model? We don’t do just any old thing in the garden . . . We want to make sure students are getting the range of experiences needed to result in big impacts. First, let’s understand the underlying theory that forms the first building blocks of the model, Social Cognitive Theory.
Give each group a set of materials, including: index cards, markers, felt circles (one of each color). Have each group choose a storyteller and 2-4 listeners. Clearly explain the role for the Storyteller and for the Listeners. The instructions are also listed in your handout. Go ahead to the next slide to share examples of what the Listeners might write down on their index cards. Return to this slide so that instructions are on the screen during the activity. Give the Storyteller 3 minutes to speak while the listeners write on index cards.
Think back to the story you shared in the first activity, about a time in your life as a young person when you felt successful, like you were doing great things. Explain that some of you are going to share your stories aloud, and others are going to write down certain phrases or words that come to mind as they listen to your story. Then, we will categorize those phrases the way I have done here. For example, in my story . . . Now, let me break it down into instructions. USE THIS SLIDE TO GIVE EXAMPLES OF WHAT THE LISTENERS MIGHT WRITE DOWN ON THEIR INDEX CARDS - ONLY ONE PHRASE OR IDEA PER CARD.
Next, follow these instructions with your group (give them 3 minutes).
Now, we have categorized the phrases into three groups, a way to analyze them. For the next step - In our programs, our ultimate goal is teaching new behaviors. Let’s choose one behavior in the green circle. Who can tell me one phrase from one of the other circles that helped to CAUSE one of the behaviors in the green circle? For example - “confidence” and “Caring and friendly people” enabled this young person to climb a big mountain.
Time the group and give them one minute to add arrows to their own circles. Facilitators walk around and provide coaching to small groups during this activity time.
The final result. Did you discover this in your group? All of the circles continually affect and influence each other.
When we create a program, we often assume this model, a simple, linear causal relationship: environment causes behavior. For example, we expect that if we create a tutoring program, that will cause students to do better in school.
However, the relationship goes beyond a simple, linear causal relationship, like environment causes changes in behavior. See how all three factors influence and reinforce each other. This is a theory that 1) makes sense in real life, and 2) is supported by empirical research. Starting with SCT in developing a framework for garden-based education - reasonable starting point. Jennifer Morris successfully used SCT to develop and test the garden-enhanced nutrition education many of you are familiar with: Nutrition to Grow On. In its essence, the SCT simply states that E, P and B factors continuously interact. Great to use with children, because they’re largely not in control of their environment.
As you see here, SCT forms the basis of our program model. First I will take you through the main points of the model so you can get to know them a bit better. Then, I’ll show you how we used a literature review of many garden-related programs to combine three different theories in order to create this model you see here.
The literature includes more than 20 youth developmental or resiliency assets, such as self-efficacy and teamwork.
Urban Sprouts’ work began when a researcher, one of our co-founders, Dr. Michelle Ratcliffe created our Program Model. When she began, the research on school gardens was fragmented and hard to find. First, back in 2003, she did a literature review of all the program evaluations and studies that she could find on any topics at all related to school gardens - she drew from fields including environmental education, health education, experiential education, plant-based studies, horticultural therapy, and many more. She organized all the information she found into the chart above. She categorized everything that the programs did and all the results that they observed.
Dr. Ratcliffe looked to Social Cognitive Theory as a well-tested theory that might help explain these program outcomes or lend evidence that the programs work.
Dr. Ratcliffe found that the program elements and outcomes she saw in the literature mostly matched up with the concepts of Social Cognitive Theory. EXCEPT that some of the elements and outcomes were NOT fully explained by the SCT. Those are underlined in this slide. Dr. Ratcliffe looked for another research-tested theory that would help to explain these additional outcomes or benefits of the programs.
Dr. Ratcliffe found that the Resiliency Model, also known as Youth Development Theory, helped to explain these missing outcomes. The literature suggested that school gardens do more than impact individuals, like students and their families. School garden programs can have bigger impacts that ripple outwards to impact schools, neighborhoods, cities and even regions. The Resiliency Model shows the connection between students’ internal personal strengths, their individual behaviors, and the impact they have on the external community. For example, when students do community service like building a garden, they meaningfully participate in their community, which strengthens their personal traits, improves their environment, and impacts long-term behavior change.
Finally, Dr. Ratcliffe layered all three pieces together - the elements she found in her literature review, the Social Cognitive Theory, and the Resiliency Model. The result . . .
The Urban Sprouts Model for Garden-based Education.
Here is a more detailed version of the Model that looks more like a checklist -- a recipe for school gardens -- all the pieces you need to have in place in your program in order to achieve the final results that you want. At Urban Sprouts we use this checklist to design new programs and to make sure, each year, that we are providing the best program possible.
SEED SOWING ACTIVITY INSTRUCTIONS FOR FACILITATOR: OPTION 1 - Harvest seed pods in the garden. Lead group in searching for the part of the plant where seeds can be found, and in finding seeds that are completely dry and ready to use. OPTION 2 - Give out seed pods and branches in class. Don’t explain what they are, just pass them out and ask participants to explore the items and try to figure out what they are and what their function is. Lead group to discovering that they are seeds. Encourage participants to explore the seeds and seed pods with their senses, trying to identify plant parts and what plant or crop the seeds are from. Activity will need about 30 minutes total.
Here is what our staff log looks like. The staff rates the lessons and activities they tried to implement on a scale of 1-3. 1 being successful, 2 successful with some challenges and 3 is unsuccessful.
Urban Sprouts collects data from three groups in order to asses our program’s success and challenges. At the beginning and end of every year we have interviews, online surveys and focus groups with the students. We have ongoing check-ins with teachers and other school staff throughout the year. And finally we keep a log of how well we are able to implement our lesson plans.
This is a sample of the online survey our students take. It asks whether the student has recently consumed the pictured food, whether they like it and whether they eat it at home or in school. These results are compared with a control class that is not exposed to the garden.
Our evaluation result from our summer program show significant increases in student knowledge as well as positive attitudes and behavior towards nutrition.
Attitudes towards better nutrition showed that students were being exposed to new foods which lead to more vegetable consumption.
Other students’ responses: “ It has changed because I now try more things like vegetables that I wouldn't even bother trying to eat before. ” “ Yes. I found myself eating more suitable portions and delicious, but nutritious snackage. Often before, I would grab whatever was quick, oftentimes a slice of bread. Yuck. And I do plan to eat better. ” “ I definitely became more aware of what I was consuming during the course of this program and tried to pay attention to whether I was just eating ‘ easy ’ snacks (like chips). I started spending more time to prepare healthier snacks (like salad) and started counting to see if I was actually eating at least 5 fruits or vegetables a day. ”
NOTE: Please come and put your stickies up!
Growing healthier schools and communities through garden-based education March 13, 2010, Berkeley, CA UC Botanical Garden School Garden Summit 2010 Abby Jaramillo, Executive Director Lisa Chen, Advisory Board Member & Former Garden Educator Adriani Leon, Garden Educator Sharing the Garden-based Education Model
Who We Are OUR MISSION By cultivating school gardens in San Francisco’s under-served neighborhoods, Urban Sprouts partners with youth and their families to build eco-literacy, equity, wellness, and community.
90% failed to reach fitness standards in all 6 categories (2006)
Aptos MS (Ingleside) MLK MS (Portola) June Jordan HS (Excelsior) SF Community (Excelsior) International Studies Acad. (Potrero Hill) Ida B Wells Continuation HS (Alamo Sq) Of the students at our Partner School Sites…
Recall a time in your life when you felt successful, like you were doing great things. If you can, choose a nature-based experience from youth.
Some questions to consider:
What were the things you were doing?
How did you feel?
Who was there with you?
What were all the things in your surroundings?
What did you achieve?
As the Storyteller speaks, write down one word or phrase per index card, words that come to mind as he or she speaks.
As you listen and write, keep these questions in mind:
What was the person able to achieve or do? What were the person’s talents and strengths that showed up? What was going on in the person’s surroundings? People, places, feeling of the environment? Behaviors Talents & Strengths Environment
Choose an index card in the GREEN circle, and identify a card in the BROWN or ORANGE circle that CAUSED the phrase on the first card to happen.
Draw an arrow on an index card, and set it to point from the BROWN or ORANGE circle to the the GREEN circle, showing CAUSE and EFFECT. This indicates that, for example, the Environment affected the person’s Talents & Strengths.
Is that the only cause-effect relationship? Add as many arrows as you can connecting one circle to another.
Students harvest, cook, and eat collards, kale and other greens from the garden at MLK MS, San Francisco.
All Program Elements and Outcomes Cited in the Literature Curricular learning environment Physical learning environment Social learning environment Knowledge acquisition Development of life skills Academic & cognitive skills Social & moral development Attitudes & preferences Public health Environmental quality Economic development Social capital Academic achievement Health behaviors School meal participation Food production Eco-actions
Social Cognitive Theory Personal Behavioral Environmental Bandura, 1986
Developing the GBE Model Curricular learning environment Physical learning environment Social learning environment Knowledge acquisition Development of life skills Academic & cognitive skills Social & moral development Attitudes & preferences Public health Environmental quality Economic development Social capital Academic achievement Health behaviors School meal participation Food production Eco-actions
Personal Traits Social competence Autonomy Problem solving Sense of purpose Behaviors Academic achievement Health Success in life Benard, 2004
Combining 3 Layers of the GBE Model Curricular learning environment Physical learning environment Social learning environment Knowledge acquisition Development of life skills Academic & cognitive skills Social & moral development Attitudes & preferences Public health Environmental quality Economic development Social capital Academic achievement Health behaviors School meal participation Food production Eco-actions
Model for Garden-based Education in K-12 settings
Empty seed pods and branches together into a bowl. Crunch them up with your fingers until all the seeds are out of the pods.
If outdoors , Use “wind” to separate the seeds from the “chaff” (the non-seed bits). Tilt the bowl away from you and blow gently so that your breath runs down the side of the bowl closest to you. Blow gently so that the chaff flies out of the bowl but the heavier seeds stay in the bottom of the bowl.
If indoors, use your fingers to get chaff off of the seeds.
Place your seeds in a dry jar, envelope or baggie and label it with the seeds’ name and date.
Prepare your plastic bottle. Cut off the top and poke holes with a nail around the middle and bottom to provide air.
Prepare your bedding. Tear the paper or newspaper into 1-inch strips and moisten with the spray bottle, but do not soak. No puddles!
Fill your worm bottle with layers. Put layer of moist bedding in the bottle. On top of that, add a layer of food scraps chopped into small pieces. Continue the layers until you reach the top. Keep the layers loose.
Prepare your worms. Count out about 10-15 red worms.
Observe your worms. How do the worms look? How does their skin feel? What are they doing? Add them to your bottle.
Create darkness (if your bottle is clear). Wrap construction paper or a few layers of newspaper around the bottle and tape the ends to form a tube that can be slipped on and off to look at the worms inside. Make sure the top of the bottle is covered to keep light and flies out.
One-quarter of a Red Onion: Remove the outer peel, then dice the onion finely. Bring the chopped onion to the salad dressing group so they can use it.
2 Pears: Carefully peel the pear using a peeler or knife. Slice the pears in half. Then, slice the pears in quarters and cut out the core of the pear. Then slice the pears into thin slices, about ¼” of an inch thick.
2 Apples: Using the peeler, remove the peel of the apple. Cut the apples in half, then in quarters. Cut out the core of the apple. Then slice the apples into small pieces.
1 Carrot: Cut the carrot into thin, round slices. (Like paper-thin!)
Assemble the work of all 3 groups in the salad bowl. Serve to the class and Enjoy!
— an environment that gives youth less guidance and more responsibility as the learning experience progresses.
— a method in which students interact with their environment and draw on this experience plus their existing knowledge to make discoveries and learn new things about the world.
Scavenger Hunt Item I found in the garden: Find the following items . . . it’s a race! Find a sign that shows youth (or gardeners) what to do or explains a purpose Find a re-purposed item Find an outdoor classroom or learning space Find an example of how to connect this garden to the school or neighborhood around it Find an example of an ecological relationship (examples: predator-prey, pollination, decomposers) Find something you can touch and smell Find something that is decomposing Find 3 different types of soil Find an example of an area of the garden that should be supervised by adults Find something you can taste or eat! Find an example of how garden safety is carried out
3. Curriculum 3. Physical 3. Social 1. Behaviors
Fill in with your ideas
2. Talents & Strengths 1. Start with Behaviors : 2. Next, Talents & Strengths: 3. Last, the 3 parts of the Learning Environment:
Fill in with your ideas
Use Graffiti Walls for ideas
Use what we’ve done today for ideas
Program Design Plan Class: _________________ Time frame:____________
Fill in with your ideas
Fill in with your ideas
Fill in with your ideas
3. Curriculum 3. Physical 3. Social 1. Behaviors
Ownership & responsibility for the garden
Enjoy school & have fun
Like new fruits & veggies
Teamwork & cooperation
2. Talents & Strengths
Youth try new fruits & vegetables
Youth ask for more fruits & vegetables at home
Youth help with family food choices at the store
1. Start with Behaviors : 2. Next, Talents & Strengths: 3. Last, the 3 parts of the Learning Environment:
Reading Food Labels
Nutrition to Grow On, ch 1.
Whole vs Processed Foods Taste Test
Big vs Small Farms Game
All students plant, weed and water
All students harvest, prepare and eat
Plant diverse food crops
Compost bin system
Name Games & Energizers
Group Agreements & Consequences
Garden activities in small groups
Independent learning stations
Closing Prop Circle
Program Design Plan Class: 6th grade science Time frame: Fall Semester 2009
Sample Staff Year-Long Work Plan Complete Examples Available At: http://urbansprouts.wikispaces.com/training 9/29 & 10/6 9/15 & 9/22 Date 1 Stone Soup! 1 X Harvest Potatoes, Carrots, Celery. 1 Cup o' Noodles Activity Urban Sprouts curriculum Food Labels, 5/20 Rule 2 Make "humus" 1 Chard, Beets, Lettuce Bed Prep, Planting, Watering 2 The Nitty Gritty (soil texture); Tool Safety Fishbowl Life Lab, Growing Classroom Soil Health Food Activity Rating Food/ Cooking Activities Garden Activity Rating Crops to Plant Garden Activities Curriculum Rating Curriculum Activity Curriculum Source Topic Key: 1 = implemented successfully 2 = implemented with challenges 3 = not implemented
Staff Performance Appraisal Rubric: Criteria Staff Team Support Community Involvement Social Learning Environment Curricular Learning Environment Physical Learning Environment Five Dimensions:
Staff Performance Appraisal Rubric: Scoring Actions SCORE 1: Weed 2: Seedling 3: Sprout 4: Shrub 5: Tree Description Any or all of basic elements or requirements completely lacking. Challenges dominate. Opportunities are lacking or of poor quality, provided below the basic or minimum level required. Overwhelmed by challenges. Opportunities are provided at the basic or minimum level required. Some difficulty responding to challenges. Opportunities are provided somewhat above the minimum level required. Brings in some outside ideas or knowledge, takes initiative. Responds well to challenges. Opportunities are provided at the maximum level and are of extremely high quality. Brings in outside ideas, creativity, and innovation. Surpasses challenges. Examples Students experience few sessions in the garden and few elements of growing cycle. Garden is untended or lacks any crops. No Garden Work Days. Class is highly chaotic. Staff person does not communicate with classroom teacher. Students do not experience 15 sessions in the garden or miss one or more elements of growing cycle. Garden is untended or lacks diverse crops. No Garden Work Days. Class is highly chaotic and students don’t complete any work tasks. Students experience all elements of growing cycle only once. Garden is adequately maintained but no new elements added. One Garden Work Day. Some difficulties with classroom management that affect student engagement, but most students participate in garden tasks. Students experience all elements 3 times. Activities provided in multiple and diverse forms to increase youth engagement and reinforce outcomes. Some out-of-class leadership groups. At least Two Garden Work Days. Improves garden infrastructure or systems. Classroom management shows good balance between order/discipline and students’ energy and enthusiasm. Students experience all elements 4 times or more. Students are highly engaged in out-of-class leadership groups. New elements are added to garden infrastructure. Student and/or parent leadership and ownership of garden tasks and processes. Students initiate garden projects and school-wide campaigns.
NUTRITION KNOWLEDGE: Student post-test survey, 3 years combined:
72% reported an increase in knowledge of nutrition
60% reported their knowledge of nutrition as high or somewhat high (reached 92% in 2009)
Nutrition knowledge before summer program Nutrition knowledge after summer program
Evaluation Results: Summer & School Programs, 2007-2009
ATTITUDES TOWARDS HEALTHY FOOD:
97% reported trying new foods during the program
57% said they ended up liking foods they thought they wouldn’t like
Students’ preferences & willingness to try new foods
Evaluation Results: Summer & School Programs, 2007-2009
HEALTHY EATING BEHAVIORS:
74% of students said that their eating habits improved during the program (2008, 2009)
One youth’s response to the question, “Have your eating habits changed? “ Yes, yes, yes! I don't eat so much candy, chips and soda. I try to eat more fruits. I told my mom about a lot of things I learned here and now she goes to the grocery store and buys more fruits and veggies.”
Successes Where have we seen the most successes in our work?
Garden curriculum tailored to schools: reinforces the learning environment
Partnerships with community members and institutions
School- and community-level outcomes
Reported healthier behaviors and attitudes
Academic and leadership development
Positive youth outcomes
In-class instruction: 742 middle/high school students
Additional after-school, summer, and family programs
Program reach and expansion
Challenges What has been the most challenging part of our work?
Inadequate food access
Other factors: socioeconomic status, home conditions
Wider food and social environment
Helping schools take responsibility for school gardens
Making school gardens a standard part of education
How will we attract new funding & sustain our success?
Strengthen our parent program with a food access focus
Board-directed strategic planning for new funding sources
Focus on visibility and take advantage of current publicity
New training program to expand our reach
A Map of Your Network Urgency: #1 What is the most urgent help you need with your garden program? Who in your community has the ability to meet that need? What is one thing about your garden program that would inspire this person to say ‘Yes’ to your ask? Hook Who We Need
Brief and compelling statement: WHAT your program does and the NEED for it to exist
Interaction - get your target/audience to talk and engage
Specific example or anecdote
Tailor to your target/audience’s main interest
End with the Ask - ask for what you need and then be quiet and listen
Pitch in with Clean Up! Collect any paper left in the room for recycling Wash dishes from lunch Place food scraps in compost-bin Clean up Seed Station Collect any paper left in the room for recycling Wash dishes from lunch Place food scraps in compost-bin Clean up Seed Station Collect any paper left in the room for recycling Wash dishes from lunch Take down charts and roll them up Clean up Kitchen Station Collect any paper left in the room for recycling Wash dishes from lunch Take down charts and roll them up Clean up Kitchen Station Collect any paper left in the room for recycling Place food scraps in compost-bin Take down charts and roll them up Clean up Worm Bin Station Collect any paper left in the room for recycling Place food scraps in compost-bin Clean up Worm Bin Station Clean up Worm Bin Station
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: a social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.
Benard, B. (2004). Resiliency: What we have learned. San Francisco, CA: WestED.
Desmond, D., Grieshop, J., & Subramaniam, A. (2002) Revisiting garden based learning in basic education: Philosophical roots, historical foundations, best practices and products, impacts, outcomes, and future directions. Davis, CA: University of California, Davis.
Lytle, L., & Achterberg, C. (1995). Changing the diet of America's children: What works and why . J Nutr Educ , 27, 250-260.
Ratcliffe, M. M. (2007) Garden-based education in school settings: The effects on children’s vegetable consumption, vegetable preferences and ecoliteracy. Ph.D. Dissertation, Tufts University.
Ratcliffe, M. M., Merrigan, K.A., Rogers, B.L., & Goldberg, J.P. (2009) The Effects of School Garden Experiences on Middle School-Aged Students’ Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors Associated With Vegetable Consumptio. Health Promotion Practice . Society for Public Health Education. 2009 Oct 21.