Obesity Conference 6 09
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Urban Sprouts & Ecotrust Presentation for Childhood Obesity conference, June 10, 2009

Urban Sprouts & Ecotrust Presentation for Childhood Obesity conference, June 10, 2009

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  • This presentation was prepared by myself Abby Jaramillo, I am the Executive Director of Urban Sprouts – (About US….) and Michelle Markesteyn Ratcliffe, who is the Farm-to-School Manager at Ecoturst. Ecotrust is Regional Lead Agency for the National Farm to School Network

Obesity Conference 6 09 Obesity Conference 6 09 Presentation Transcript

  • A Model for Garden-based Nutrition Education: School Garden and Farm to School Program Evaluation in San Francisco, CA & Portland, OR Abby Jaramillo, Urban Sprouts Michelle M. Ratcliffe, Ph.D., Ecotrust
    • SERVES YOUTH:
    • School garden programs at 6 middle and high schools in San Francisco.
    • 725 students each year in grades 6 - 12.
    • 60% are low-income students and over 95% are students of color.
    • SERVES FAMILIES:
    • School parents participate as ‘Farmers-in-Residence’ growing their own food in plots within the school garden.
    • SHARES RESEARCH & TOOLS:
    • Share our research results and program model through trainings and our website.
    • Ecotrust’s mission is to inspire fresh thinking that creates economic opportunity, social equity and environmental well-being.
    • Edible Portland - quarterly magazine
    • Food HUB - connecting buyers and sellers of regional food
    • Building Local Food Networks Toolkit
    • Farm to School
      • Local assistance to Portland Public Schools programs
      • State-level policy efforts to promote school gardens and farm to school
      • State-wide leadership and networking
      • Western Region Lead Agency of National Farm to School Network
      • Program Evaluation, media, and information sharing
  • National Farm to School Network www.farmtoschool.org
  • What are Farm to School and Garden-based Education? . . . A comprehensive approach to food and health that takes place in the . . . Community In the Garden In the Neighborhood At Home Classroom Indoors & Outdoors Cafeteria Healthy School Meals Links to Local Farms
  • Why do we need a Conceptual Framework (Program Model)?
    • Not reinventing the wheel – existing theory and the body of knowledge from multiple fields inform our work.
    • A recipe for success – what ingredients we must add in order to get the outcomes we desire.
    • Evidence of outcomes – Inputs and outcomes are tested by research and evaluation to show impact in the real world.
    • A Measurement tool – The model guides all our practices, shows how well we’re doing, and tells us where to make improvements at every step.
  • How we built the framework
    • Broad literature review
    • Review of existing theories
    • Draft framework
    • Qualitative data collection
    • Apply the framework on the ground
  • Curricular learning environment Physical learning environment Social learning environment Knowledge acquisition Development of life skills Academic & cognitive skills Social & moral development Attitudes & preferences Public health Environmental quality Economic development Social capital Academic achievement Health behaviors School meal participation Food production Eco-actions Summary: All Program Elements and Outcomes Cited in the Literature
  • Physical learning environment Garden signs reinforce learning at Life Lab Garden, Santa Cruz, CA
    • A diversified landscape
    • Safe places before and after school
    • Opportunities to eat and cook with vegetables
    • Opportunities to perform eco-actions
    • Opportunities to nurture living things
    • Places for refuge
    • Places to connect with nature
    • Visual reinforcement of learning
    • Visual and sensory aesthetics
  • Curricular Learning Environment Urban Sprouts students observe the properties of different soil samples.
    • Hands-on learning experiences
    • Interdisciplinary curriculum
    • Placed-based curriculum
    • Project-based curriculum
  • Social learning environment A parent mentors a student at a family Garden Work Day, Burbank MS, San Francisco
    • Cultural exchange
    • Democratic participation
    • Fostering relationships
    • Intergenerational mentoring
    • Meaningful participation in community
    • Meaningful participation in school
    • Modeling healthy behaviors and eco-action
    • Visual and sensory aesthetics
  • Knowledge acquisition Urban Sprouts students teach their peers to read Nutrition Facts on food labels.
  • Development of life skills Urban Sprouts students cook food from the garden with guest Chef Rania from NextCourse.
  • Academic & cognitive skills Students observe insect predators on plants: ladybugs and aphids.
  • Social & moral development Youth developmental or Resiliency assets Students learn teamwork in the garden and self-efficacy as they practice leadership.
  • Attitudes & preferences
    • Ecoliteracy
      • Empathy
      • Systems thinking
      • Ecological knowledge
      • Environmental responsibility & ethics
    • Health & Nutrition
      • Preferences towards fruits and vegetables
      • Attitudes towards healthy foods
    • Attitudes towards school, science, and learning
  • Academic achievement A student teaches peers, parents, siblings, and a teacher how to identify and save seeds .
    • Academic performance
    • Student & teacher enthusiasm
    • Students’ ownership of learning process
    • Student attendance
  • Health behaviors Students harvest, cook, and eat collards, kale and other greens from the garden at MLK MS, San Francisco.
    • Fruit & Vegetable Consumption
    • Fruit & Vegetable Preferences
    • Physical Activity
    • School meal participation
    • Students’ new eating behaviors are reinforced by practicing them in the school cafeteria
    • Cafeteria options are fresher and more appealing, increasing school meal participation
    Locally grown and produced school lunch served in Portland Public Schools.
    • Local Food production
    • Locally grown and processed foods available to students at school
    • School cafeteria provides a market for local producers and processors
    F2S influences agricultural practices, like Matt Jones here a 5 th generation farmer in Gervais, Oregon who changed his planting schedule and crops to better serve the school district.
  • Environmentally Responsible Behaviors (Eco-actions) Students teach peers about worm bins, composting, and recycling at home.
  • Community-level Outcomes
    • Public health
    • Environmental quality
    • Economic development
    • Social capital
    Parents and youth build the school garden at Burbank Middle School.
  • Curricular learning environment Physical learning environment Social learning environment Knowledge acquisition Development of life skills Academic & cognitive skills Social & moral development Attitudes & preferences Public health Environmental quality Economic development Social capital Academic achievement Health behaviors School meal participation Food production Eco-actions Summary: All Program Elements and Outcomes Cited in the Literature
  • How we built the framework
    • Broad literature review
    • Review of existing theories
    • Draft framework
    • Qualitative data collection
    • Apply the framework on the ground
  • Social Cognitive Theory Personal Behavioral Environmental Bandura, 1986
  • * Public health* *Environmental quality* *Economic development* *Social capital* Knowledge acquisition Development of life skills *Academic & cognitive skills * Social & moral development Attitudes & preferences * Academic achievement * Health behaviors School meal participation Food production Eco-actions Curricular learning environment Physical learning environment Social learning environment
  • Resiliency Model
    • External Developmental Supports
    • Opportunities to meaningfully participate
    • Caring relationships with youth & adults
    • High youth centered expectations
    Personal Traits Social competence Autonomy Problem solving Sense of purpose Behaviors Academic achievement Health Success in life Benard, 2004
  • Public health Environmental quality Economic development Social capital Knowledge acquisition Development of life skills Academic & cognitive skills Social & moral development Attitudes & preferences Academic achievement Health behaviors School meal participation Food production Eco-actions Curricular learning environment Physical learning environment Social learning environment
  • How we built the framework
    • Broad literature review
    • Review of existing theories
    • Draft framework
    • Qualitative data collection
    • Apply the framework on the ground
  •  
  • How we built the framework
    • Broad literature review
    • Review of existing theories
    • Draft framework
    • Qualitative data collection
    • Apply the framework on the ground
  • Using the Model for Program Evaluation: Data Collection Techniques
    • Personal interviews with teachers, staff, administrators school garden leaders
    • Focus group interviews with youth participants
    • Online student surveys conducted at the beginning and end of the school year, including a control group (students at a similar school with no school garden)
    • Staff self-assessment and observations
  • Sample Question from Online Student Survey
  • How we built the framework
    • Broad literature review
    • Review of existing theories
    • Draft framework
    • Qualitative data collection
    • Apply the framework on the ground
  • A Tool (checklist) for Educators
  • Staff Self-Appraisal Rubrics Key : = Successful = Challenging = Not Done Staff members color-code curriculum schedule and Performance Rubric to indicate level of success of implementation.
  • Evaluation Results: 2006-2008
    • The School Learning Environment
    • In 2007, 121 thematic statements were identified from student focus groups, and in 2008, 222 statements were identified.
    • Curricular learning environment (68 statements; 144 statements)
    • The garden was: “Better than being in class; get more out of class; fun, play; educational; learning new things; review of what we were learning; real experiences; different perspectives; Easier to learn outside than to just hear it or read about it; Learned more outside because it refreshes the brain; Something to look forward to; Helped us get through the day.”
    • Physical learning environment (46 statements; 74 statements)
    • “ Helped us feel relaxed and calm,” “When you help out in the garden you forget about your worries,” The garden “taught us how to cook and eat, different recipes, healthy foods, and how to get healthier .”
    • “ I think the reason our teacher made us go outside and garden was that she wanted to teach us that one person can make a difference and we can all go green,” “They showed us how to save the earth, save worms, take care of plants, help the world, and keep the world clean and safe .”
    • Social learning environment (3 statements; 4 statements)
    • Fostered relationships and opportunities to “work together,” “get to know each other,” and “to share.”
  • Evaluation Results: 2006-2008
    • Personal Factors: Resiliency Assets
    • “ In the garden, I learned to grow up and be a successful person .”
    • Knowledge : (40 statements in 2007; 39 in 2008)
    • Increased knowledge of food literacy, organics, sugar, soda, advertising, food labels, bugs, animals, insects, decomposers in the garden, life science topics, plants and botany, soil and compost.
    • Life skills : (64 statements in 2007; 205 in 2008)
    • Learned skills needed to perform healthy lifestyle behaviors such as gardening, cooking, recycling, composting, water conservation.
    • Social and Moral Development: (49 statements in 2007; 105 in 2008)
    • Students mentioned these Youth Development indicators—Commitment; Connection to community; Dedication; Determination; Listening, including being quiet and following directions; Participation, being prepared; Patience; Practice; Respect for and nurturing living things; Responsibility; Self control; Self-esteem, including confidence in gardening, and being comfortable with who you are in the garden; Working together, including team work, cooperation, and being nice to others.
    • “ You can use this in life,” “I learned gardening takes commitment, and love, and you need to water your plants every week, and you need some lotion for your hands too,” “I learned to work with other people instead of being all selfish.”
  • Evaluation Results: 2006-2008
    • Personal Factors: Attitudes & Preferences
    • Positive Attitudes towards Fruits and Vegetables: (61 statements in 2007; 233 in 2008)
    • “ I like fruits and vegetables more.” Students also knew more about what is healthy food, portion size, and organic foods. “Now I like the fruits and vegetables that they made us eat,” “Organic food actually tastes better and it’s more natural,” and “Now I just talk more about food.”
    • Positive Attitudes towards the Environment: (63 statements in 2007; 352 in 2008)
    • Students mentioned pollution, littering, global warming, chemical pesticides, bugs, worms, and being outside: “I learned that we should take more care of the environment,” “I’m worried about chemicals and stuff in the water, there’s only one earth… and it’s sad because we live here and I don’t want to be living on Mars,” “If we don't change the way we live the polar bears will all die and drown.”
    • Many students said they were afraid of bugs, insects, dirt, or dust in the air, but said that now “I like being outdoors more,” and, the garden helped me to get over being “afraid of bugs and water.”
    • Attitudes towards School: (10 in 2008)
    • Students indicated that they were “doing better in school,” particularly in science, after participating in the garden program. Students attribute their enhanced performance to the garden program being “more interesting,” and because they “got to experience stuff instead of just reading and going to class.” Would rather go to garden class “instead of wanting to skip school.”
  • Evaluation Results: 2006-2008
    • Personal Factors: Attitudes towards Fruits & Vegetables
  • Evaluation Results: 2006-2008
    • Personal Factors: Attitudes towards the Environment
  • Evaluation Results: 2006-2008
    • Student Behaviors: Eating Habits
    • Willingness to Try new Foods: (24 statements in 2007; 94 in 2008)
    • “ I tried new foods this year,” “My favorite part [of the garden program] was cooking because we got to try healthy foods.” Many students mentioned names of new fruits and vegetables they tried.
    • Consumption of Fruits & Vegetables: (25 statements in 2007; 143 in 2008)
    • Students stated that they eat more fruits and vegetables now after participating in the school garden:
    • “ I do better in school now because my body is not being energized with Cheetos, it’s being energized with lettuce.”
    • “ I told my dad about what we have been doing in the garden and he stopped making us drink soda. We don’t drink soda anymore. We have been drinking water.”
    • “ I like carrots because they are really hard and juicy, and now I tell my mom to buy me some after I had some in the garden.”
    • “ I have been eating more fruits and now people call me a fruit cup.”
    • “ Our bodies are in good shape because we have been eating more fruits and vegetables.”
    • “ I eat the same amount but different kinds of vegetables.”
    • “ When I go in the garden it felt like I had to take care of my body more because nature is trying to feed itself.”
    • Food Preparation at Home: (48 statements in 2007; 104 in 2008) Students said they cook at home the same amount or more than they did before participating in the garden.
  • Evaluation Results: 2006-2008
    • Student Behaviors: Eating Habits - Fruits & Vegetables
  • Evaluation Results: 2006-2008
    • Student Behaviors: Eating Habits & Physical Activity
    • Consumption of Less Unhealthy Foods : (22 statements in 2007; 63 in 2008)
    • Students “stopped eating junk food and started eating more healthy stuff,” at least “sometimes.”
    • Including: “Making the right choices”, “Sometimes instead of chips I eat apples,” “Switching cookies to fruit,” Choosing “more organic foods,” Drinking “less soda,” “only one a day now,” or “stopped drinking soda” because students “got more aware of the sugar they use and those companies,” “because of the caffeine,” and/or because “its bad for our health,” Eating less food overall because they and their friends were eating “way too much food,” Getting the “real peanut butter you have to mix up,” Trying to “eat the rainbow.”
    • Physical Activity: (13 statements in 2007; 19 in 2008)
    • “ I think I get more exercise here than at home because of working in the garden.” You “get more exercise” because in the garden “you get to move.” Some students indicated that the garden program “motivated them” to “exercise more” and “work harder.”
    • Other motivating factors (12 in 2007; 54 in 2008) included wanting to “live a healthy life” and not wanting “to get fat,” “diabetes,” or “die.” “I don’t want to supersize me.”
  • Evaluation Results: 2006-2008
    • Student Behaviors: Eating Habits - Less Unhealthy and More Healthy Foods
  • Evaluation Results: 2006-2008
    • Student Behaviors: Eco-Actions
    • Eco-Actions at School: (97 statements in 2007; 273 in 2008)
    • Students mentioned opportunities to perform eco-behaviors at school including recycling, composting, and picking up litter.
    • “ Yes, I do, and I compost at lunch, they have compost baskets where you could put your food and leftovers.”
    • Eco-Actions at Home: (22 statements in 2007; 239 in 2008)
    • Students indicated they started a garden at home, or started helping their parents garden.
    • One student started cleaning up the streets with all their neighbors “so it wouldn’t be dirty and so it would be better for the environment.”
    • “ I got a garden at my Granny house.”
    • “ I didn’t used to, and now I help my parents.”
    • “ I like gardening with my mom.”
    • “ I take short showers now.”
    • “ Recycle, compost, help global warming, and stop the landfills from getting bigger and bigger.”
  • Thank you for your participation! “ The ultimate goal of farming is not the growing of crops, but the cultivation and perfection of human beings.” — Masanobu Fukuoka
  • References
    • Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: a social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.
    • Benard, B. (2004). Resiliency: What we have learned. San Francisco, CA: WestED.
    • Desmond, D., Grieshop, J., & Subramaniam, A. (2002) Revisiting garden based learning in basic education: Philosophical roots, historical foundations, best practices and products, impacts, outcomes, and future directions. Davis, CA: University of California, Davis.
    • Hayden-Smith, R. (2006) Soldiers of the Soil: A Historical Review of the United States School Garden Army. Davis, CA: University of California, Davis, Center for Youth Development.
    • Lytle, L., & Achterberg, C. (1995). Changing the diet of America's children: What works and why . J Nutr Educ , 27, 250-260.
    • Ratcliffe, M. M. (2007) Garden-based education in school settings: The effects on children’s vegetable consumption, vegetable preferences and ecoliteracy. Ph.D. Dissertation, Tufts University.
  • Contact Information & Resources
    • California School Garden Network
    • www.csgn.org
    • California Farm to School
    • www.cafarmtoschool.org
    • Abby Jaramillo, Urban Sprouts
    • [email_address]
    • (415) 648-4596
    • www.urbansprouts.org
    • Michelle M. Ratcliffe, Ph.D, Ecotrust
    • [email_address]
    • (503) 476-6080
    • www.ecotrust.org/farmtoschool/