ACTIVITY: Indira Gandhi she adhered to the quasi-socialist policies of industrial development that had been begun by her father. Gandhi established closer relations with the Soviet Union, depending on that nation for support in India’s long- standing conflict with Pakistan. She was also the only Indian Prime Minister to have declared a state of emergency in order to rule by decree and the only Indian Prime Minister to have been imprisoned after holding that office. She was assassinated by her Sikh bodyguards in retaliation for ordering Operation Blue Star.
Benazir Bhutto United Nations Prize inthe Field of HumanRights for the democraticachievements she madefor Pakistan as its firstlady Prime Minister
Aung San Su KyiSuu Kyi is the third child and onlydaughter of Aung San, considered to bethe father of modern-day Burma. One of her most famous speeches was "Freedom From Fear", which began: "It is not power that corrupts, but fear. Fear of losing power corrupts those who wield it and fear of the scourge of power corrupts those who are subject to it." She also believes fear spurs many world leaders to lose sight of their purpose. "Government leaders are amazing", she once said. "So often it seems they are the last to know what the people want.
INSTRUCTIONAL LEADERSHIP There has been much discussion regarding the relative effectiveness of different leadership styles in bringing about improved student performance. Instructional leadership is one of the most useful tools in creating a forward-looking, student- centered school environment.
Instructional leadership encompasses hierarchies and top-down leadership, where the leader is supposed to know the best form of instruction and closely monitors teacher and student work.
MARY POPLIN (1992)EMPHASIZE THAT: The main problem is that the great administrators aren’t always great classroom leader and vice versa. Another difficulty is that this form of leadership concentrates on the growth of the students but rarely look on the growth of the teaches.
Since she believes that education now calls on the administrators to be “the servants of collective vision” as well as “editors, cheerleaders, problem solver, and resource finder” instructional leadership, she declares has outlived its usefulness.
The role of an instructional leader differs from that of traditional school administrator in a number of meaningful ways. Whereas a conventional principal spends the majority of his/her time dealing with strictly administrative duties, a principal who is an instructional leader is charged with redefining his/her role to become the primary learner in a community striving for excellence in education.
As such, it becomes the principal’s responsibility to work with teachers to define educational objectives and set school-wide or district wide goals, provide the necessary resources for learning, and create new learning opportunities for students and staff.
TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP is sometimes called bartering. It is based on an exchange of services (from a teacher, for instance) for various kinds of rewards, (such as a salary) that the leader controls sat least in part.
TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP Often viewed as being complementary with transformational leadership. Thomas Sergiovanni (1990) considers transformational leadership a first stage and central to getting day to day routines carried out.
Mitchell and Tucker add that transactional leadership works only when leader and followers understand each other and are in agreement on which task is important. Leithwood(1994) conceptualizes transformational leadership among eight dimensions.
EIGHT DIMENSIONS OF TRANSACTIONALLEADERSHIPa. Building school visionb. Establishing school goalsc. Providing intellectual stimulationd. Offering individualized supporte. Modeling best practices and important organizational valuef. Demonstrating high performance expectationsg. Creating productive school cultureh. Developing structure to foster participation in school decisions.
LEITHWOOD (1998) SUGGESTIONS BASEDON HIS RESEARCH He report on 7 quantitative studies and conduces that “transformational leadership practices, considered as a composite construct, had significant direct and indirect effects on the progress with school-restructuring initiatives and teacher perceived student outcomes”.
SOME IDEAS TRANSFORMATIONALLEADERSHIP SUGGESTED BY THE AUTHOR Visit each other classroom everyday and encourage other teacher to visit other classroom. Involve the whole staff in deliberating on school goals, beliefs and visions at the beginning of the school year.
Help teacher work smarter by actively seeking different interpretations an checking out assumptions, place individual problems in a larger perspective of the whole school, avoid commitment to preconceived solutions, clarify and summarize key points during meeting and keep the group on task but not impose your own perspective.
Use action research teams or school improvement teas as way of sharing power. Give everyone a responsibilities and involve staff on governance functions. For those who re not participating, make them the incharge of the committee.
Find the good things that are happening and publicly recognize the work of staffs and he students who have contributed to school improvement. Write private notes to teachers expressing appreciation to their effort.
Survey the staff often about their wants and needs. Be receptive to teachers attitude and philosophies. Use active listening and show people that you truly cares about them.
When hiring new staff, let them know you want them actively involved in school decision making, hiring teachers with commitment to collaboration. Give them the option to transfer if they can’t wholly commit themselves to the school purposes.
Have high expectation for teachers and students but don’t you expect 100 percent if you’re aren’t also willing to give the same. Tell teachers you want them the best teachers they possibly can be.
Use bureaucratic mechanism to support teachers, such as finding money for a project or providing time for collaborative planning during the workday. Protect teachers from the problems of limited time, excessive paper works and demands from other agencies.
APPLYING THIS TO STUDENT LEARNING ANDDEVELOPMENT: Transformational education leads to transformative education. If transformational leadership anchors on peoples transformation, transformative education focuses on students learning transformation.
It aims to transform student to be a lifelong learners who are functionally literate capable of undoing misconceptions.
EDUCATIONAL LEADER CAN EMPLOYTRANSFORMATIVE EDUCATION THRU: Lower the affective filter that circles around the learning environment. Utilize differentiation. Design respectful task that will be suited for various kind of learner. Apply the greatest rule of responsibility paradigm.
Transactional Leadership Transformational Leadershipapproaches followers with an eye “recognizes and exploits anto exchanging one thing for existing need or demand of aanother … Burns potential follower… (and) looks for potential motives in followers, seeks to satisfy higher needs, and engages the full person of the follower” … Burnspursues a cost benefit, economic The leader who recognizes theexchange to met subordinates transactional needs in potentialcurrent material and psychic needs followers “but tends to go further,in return for “contracted” services seeking to arouse and satisfyrendered by the subordinate …. higher needs, to engage the fullBass person of the follower … to a higher level of need according to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs” … Bass
Transactional Leadership Transformational Leadership* Leaders are aware of the link Leaders arouse emotions in theirbetween the effort and reward followers which motivates them to* Leadership is responsive and its act beyond the framework of whatbasic orientation is dealing with may be described as exchangepresent issues relations* Leaders rely on standard forms of * Leadership is proactive andinducement, reward, punishment forms new expectations inand sanction to control followers followers *
Transactional Leadership Transformational LeadershipLeaders motivate followers by Leaders are distinguished by theirsetting goals and promising capacity to inspire and providerewards for desired performance individualized consideration,* Leadership depends on the intellectual stimulation andleader’s power to reinforce idealized influence to theirsubordinates for their successful followerscompletion of the bargain. * Leaders create learning opportunities for their followers and stimulate followers to solve problems * Leaders possess good visioning, rhetorical and management skills, to develop strong emotional bonds with followers * Leaders motivate followers to work for goals that go beyond self- interest.
SUMMARY OF THE TRANSFORMATIONALLEADERSHIP Clear sense of purpose, expressed simply Value driven (e.g. have core values and congruent behavior) Strong role model High expectations Persistent Self-knowing Perpetual desire for learning Love work Life-long learners Identify themselves as change agents
SUMMARY OF THE TRANSFORMATIONALLEADERSHIP Enthusiastic Able to attract and inspire others Strategic Effective communicator Emotionally mature Courageous Risk-taking Risk-sharing Visionary Unwilling to believe in failure Sense of public need Considerate of the personal needs of employee Listens to all viewpoints to develop spirit of cooperation Mentoring Able to deal with complexity, uncertainty and ambiguity