DYSMENORRHEA(Period Cramps,Menstrual Cramps) is painful cramps felt before or during menstruation; the pain is sometimes so severe as to interfere with daily activities. Pain is adequately controlled with drugs that block prostaglandin formation. can be literally translated as "difficult monthly flow." Although its normal for most women to have mild abdominal cramps on the first day or two of their period, about 10% of women experience severe pain.
Primary Dismenorhea is menstrual pain thats not a symptom of an underlying gynecologic disorder but is related to the normal process of menstruation. is the most common type of dysmenorrhea, affecting more than 50% of women, and quite severe in about 15%. is more likely to affect girls during adolescence. Fortunately for many women, the problem eases as they mature, particularly after a pregnancy. Although it may be painful and sometimes debilitating for brief periods of time, it is not harmful.
Secondary dysmenorrhea is menstrual pain that is generally related to some kind of gynecologic disorder. Most of these disorders can be easily treated with medications or surgery. Secondary dysmenorrheal is more likely to affect women during adulthood.
Causes of Dysmenorrhea is thought to be caused by excessive levels of prostaglandins, hormones that make your uterus contract during menstruation and childbirth. Its pain probably results from contractions of your uterus that occur when the blood supply to its lining (endometrium) is reduced. Usually, the pain will happen only during menstrual cycles in which an egg is released. The pain may progressively become worse as endometrial tissue shed during a menstrual period passes through the cervix, particularly when the cervical canal is narrow. Other factors that may make the pain of primary dysmenorrhea even worse include a uterus that tilts backward (retroverted uterus) instead of forward, lack of exercise, and psychological or social stress.
Secondary dysmenorrhea may be caused by a number of conditions, including: fibroids - benign tumors that develop within the uterine wall or are attached to it adenomyosis - the tissue that lines the uterus (called the endometrium) begins to grow within its muscular walls a sexually transmitted infection (STI) endometriosis - fragments of the endometrial lining that are found on other pelvic organs pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which is primarily an infection of the fallopian tubes, but can also affect the ovaries, uterus, and cervix an ovarian cyst or tumour the use of an intrauterine device (IUD), a birth control method
Symptoms and Complicationsof Dysmenorrhea The main symptom of dysmenorrhea is pain. It occurs in your lower abdomen during menstruation and may also be felt in your hips, lower back, or thighs. Other symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, lightheadedness, or general achiness. For most women, the pain usually starts shortly before or during their menstrual period, peaks after 24 hours, and subsides after 2 to 3 days. Sometimes clots or pieces of bloody tissue from the lining of the uterus are expelled from the uterus, causing pain Dysmenorrhea pain may be spasmodic (sharp pelvic cramps at the start of menstrual flow) or congestive (deep, dull ache). The symptoms of secondary dysmenorrhea often start sooner in the menstrual cycle than those of primary dysmenorrhea, and usually last longer.
Treating and PreventingDysmenorrhea Primary dysmenorrhea is usually treated by medication such as an analgesic medication. Many women find relief with nonsteroidal anti- inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen, naproxen, and acetylsalicylic acid* (ASA). Treatment for secondary dysmenorrhea will vary with the underlying cause. Surgery can be done to remove fibroids or to widen the cervical canal if it is too narrow. If treatment isnt successful and the pain is extreme, you may consider surgery that severs the nerves to the uterus. While this can help, complications may arise due to injury to nearby organs.
non-medicinal treatments for the pain ofdysmenorrhea include: lying on your back, supporting your knees with a pillow holding a heating pad or hot water bottle on your abdomen or lower back taking a warm bath gently massaging your abdomen doing mild exercises like stretching, walking, or biking - exercise may improve blood flow and reduce pelvic pain getting plenty of rest and avoiding stressful situations as your period approaches
Dysmenorrhea: Primary and Secondary Managing Your Dysmenorrhea
Amenorrhea absence of menstruation is normal during pregnancy and for a variable time after delivery. If the mother is breast- feeding her baby, as much as six months may pass before return of menstruation; earlier return of menstruation is not abnormal and is to be expected if the mother is not producing milk. Pregnancy is the most common cause of amenorrhea during the reproductive years.
There are two types of amenorrhea: primary andsecondary. Primary amenorrhea typically denotes the lack of occurrence of the first menstrual period by 16 years of age. Women who have been menstruating regularly and whose periods then stop for at least three months are considered to have secondary amenorrhea. Secondary amenorrhea may also be caused by anxiety or other emotional strain, excessive exercise, eating disorders, or obesity. Women with body fat of less than 15% often experience amenorrhea. Hormonal imbalances may also contribute to amenorrhea. Tumors of the pituitary gland are a rare cause of amenorrhea.
Causes amenorrhea There are several possible reasons for primary amenorrhea, including disorders of the ovaries, genetic defects, or an infection contracted while still in the womb or shortly after birth another extremely rare cause of amenorrhea and abnormal growth of hair. can result because of an abnormality in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, anatomical abnormalities of the genital tract, or functional causes..
Symptoms amenorrhea Primary or secondary amenorrhea (respectively) is considered to be present when a girl has: not developed menstrual periods by age 16; or a woman who has previously had a menstrual cycle stops having menstrual periods for three cycles in a row, or for a time period of six months or more and is not pregnant. , hormonal imbalance or male hormone excess can include irregular menstrual periods, unwanted hair growth, deepening of the voice, acne.
Treatment List for Amenorrhea Treat the underlying cause Avoid excessive exercise in case of eating disorders Dopamine agonists Gonadotrophin therapy Hormone replacement therapy Surgery for hypothalamic and pituitary tumours Refer to dietician See an endocrinologist
Menorrhagia excessive loss of blood during menstruation
Causes Menorrhagia Hormonal imbalance Changes in birth Trauma to the uterine control pills Uterine fibroids Cancer Endometrial polyps Menopause Ovarian cysts Pelvic inflammatory disease Dysfunction of the ovaries Thyroid problems Adenomyosis Endometriosis Intrauterine device Lupus Miscarriage Liver disease Ectopic pregnancy Kidney disease
Symptoms of Menorrhagia Menstrual flow that soaks through one or more sanitary pads or tampons every hour for several consecutive hours The need to use double sanitary protection to control your menstrual flow The need to change sanitary protection during the night Menstrual period that lasts longer than seven days Menstrual flow that includes large blood clots Heavy menstrual flow that interferes with your regular lifestyle Constant pain in the lower abdomen during menstrual period Irregular menstrual periods Fatigue Shortness of breath
Can Menorrhagia be Treated? Yes. Treatment options will depend on the cause of menorrhagia, the severity of menorrhagia and the overall health of the patient. Some common treatments include iron supplements, oral contraceptives, ibuprofen, and progesterone. If medication therapy is not successful, surgery may be needed.
Pre-menstrual syndrome (also called PMT or premenstrual tension) is a collection of physical and emotional symptoms related to a womans menstrual cycle.
Causes The exact causes of PMS are not fully understood., measurements of sex hormone levels are within normal levels. In twin studies, the concordance of PMS is twice as high in monozygotic twins as in dizygotic twins, suggesting the possibility of some genetic component. Current thinking suspects that central-nervous-system neurotransmitter interactions with sex hormones are affected.It is thought to be linked to activity of serotonin (a neurotransmitter) in the brain In one study of 71 women with PMS ,elevated levels of serum pseudocholinesterase were found. This enzyme is considered a possible marker for trait-anxiety.
Symptoms irritability, tension, and dysphoria (unhappiness). Common emotional and non-specific symptoms include stress, anxiety, difficulty in falling asleep (insomnia), headache, fatigue, mood swings, increased emotional sensitivity, and changes in libido. bloating, abdominal cramps, constipation, swelling or tenderness in the breasts, cyclic acne, and joint or muscle pain.
Treatments Thyroid test. Because thyroid disease is common in women of childbearing age, and some of the symptoms of PMS -- such as weight gain -- are similar to symptoms of thyroid disease, your doctor may do a test to evaluate how well your thyroid is functioning. This can help to rule out a thyroid problem as a cause of your symptoms. PMS symptoms diary. Your doctor may ask you to keep a diary of your PMS symptoms for two or three consecutive months, when they occur, and how long they last. By doing this, you can see if your symptoms correspond to certain times in your monthly cycle. While your symptoms may vary from month to month, a trend likely will appear after tracking your symptoms for a few months.
Vaginitis Vaginitis refers to any type of inflammation or infection of the vagina. Some forms of vaginitis are due to sexually- transmitted diseases (STDs).
3 kinds of vaginitisA. Yeast infectionsB. Bacterial vaginosisC. Trichomoniasis
A. Candida or "yeast" infections -Yeast infections of the vagina are probably the most familiar form of vaginitis. They occur when too much of the fungus Candida grows in the vagina. Yeast infections produce a thick, white discharge from the vagina that can look like cottage cheese. The discharge can be watery and often has no smell. Yeast infections usually cause the vagina and vulva (the area outside the vagina) to become itchy and red.
B. Bacterial vaginosis is the most common vaginal infection in women of reproductive age. It is caused by an overgrowth of bacteria that are usually present in the vagina. Bacterial vaginosis will often cause a thin, milky vaginal discharge that may have a "fishy" odor. Many women with bacterial vaginosis have no symptoms and only discover they have it during a routine gynecologic exam.
C. Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted disease that is caused by a single-cell parasite. It can cause vaginal itching, burning, and soreness of the vagina and vulva, as well as burning during urination. Many women with trichomoniasis do not develop any symptoms.
symptoms of vaginitis itching, irritation, or abnormal vaginal discharge. burning, itching, discomfort, pain with urination or sexual intercourse, and vaginal discharge.
Treatments for vaginitis Yeast infections are usually treated with an anti-yeast cream or suppository placed inside the vagina. A health care provider can write a prescription for most yeast infection treatments. Although you can also buy medicine to treat yeast infections over- the-counter, it is a good idea to see a health care provider the first time you have symptoms of a yeast infection. Bacterial vaginosis is treated with an antibiotic that gets rid of the "bad" bacteria and leaves the "good" bacteria. There is no over- the-counter treatment for bacterial vaginosis, so it is important to see your health care provider for a prescription. Trichomoniasis and Chlamydia are both treated by antibiotics. Neither genital herpes nor HPV can be cured, but both can be controlled with the help of your health care provider and medications. Non-infectious vaginitis can be treated by stopping the use of the product that caused the allergic reaction or irritation. Your health care provider may also be able to provide medicated cream to help reduce the symptoms until the reaction goes away.
Sexually transmitted forms of vaginitis need to be treated by a health care provider right away. It is important to avoid sexual contact until you have been treated to prevent spreading the infection. A womans sexual partner(s) will need treatment as well. It is important to remember that each type of vaginitis has a different treatment. Therefore it is very important to see a health care provider to be sure you are using the right treatment for your condition. Also, some kinds of vaginitis have no symptoms so it is important to have regular gynecologic exams.
Prevention Doctors are not exactly sure why bacterial vaginitis develops. Because it occurs more commonly in people who are sexually active, bacterial vaginitis is considered by some to be sexually transmitted. However, bacterial vaginitis also occurs in people who either are not sexually active or have been in long-term relationships with just one person. In some women, bacterial vaginitis continues to return after treatment. Scientists dont understand why this happens. In some cases, treating the male sex partner or routine use of condoms may help to prevent this, but these interventions dont always help. Having bacterial vaginitis may make it easier for you to be infected with HIV if your sexual partner has HIV. If you already have HIV, then bacterial vaginitis may increase the chance that you will spread HIV to your sexual partner.
Ectopic pregnancy embedding of fertilised egg outside of the womb - usually in the fallopian tube A molar differs from an ectopic in that it is usually a mass of tissue derived from an egg with incomplete genetic information that grows in the uterus in a grape-like mass that can cause symptoms to those of pregnancy. The major health risk of ectopic pregnancy is rupture leading to internal bleeding
signs and symptoms abdominal pain, the absence of menstrual periods (amenorrhea), and vaginal bleeding or intermittent bleeding (spottinOther) symptoms of pregnancy (for example, nausea and breast discomfort, etc.) may also be present in ectopic pregnancy. Weakness, dizziness, and a sense of passing out upon standing can (also termed near-syncope) be signs of serious internal bleeding and low blood pressure.
nine-week pregnancylaparoscopic leftsalpingectomy afterattempted salpingostomyfor a left tubal ectopicpregnancy
Breast Cancer is a malignant tumor (a collection of cancer cells) arising from the cells of the breast. Although breast cancer predominantly occurs in women it can also affect men. This article deals with breast cancer in women. There are many types of breast cancer that differ in their capability of spreading (metastasize) to other body tissues.
Inflammatory breast cancer: This cancer makes the skin of the breast appear red and feel warm (giving it the appearance of an infection). These changes are due to the blockage of lymph vessels by cancer cells. Triple-negative breast cancers: This is a subtype of invasive cancer with cells that lack estrogen and progesterone receptors and have no excess of a specific protein (HER2) on their surface. It tends to appear more often in younger women and African-American women. Pagets disease of the nipple: This cancer starts in the ducts of the breast and spreads to the nipple and the area surrounding the nipple. It usually presents with crusting and redness around the nipple. Adenoid cystic carcinoma: These cancers have both glandular and cystic features. They tend not to spread aggressively and have a good prognosis.
Causes M enstruation: Women who started breast cancer. their menstrual cycle at a younger Breastfeeding for one and a half to age (before 12) or went through two years might slightly lower the risk menopause later (after 55) have a of breast cancer. slightly increased risk. Being overweight or obese Breast tissue: Women with dense increases the risk of breast cancer. breast tissue (as documented by mammogram) have a higher risk of Use of oral contraceptives in the breast cancer. last 10 years increases the risk of breast cancer. Race: White women have a higher risk of developing breast cancer, but Using combined hormone therapy African-American women tend to after menopause increases the risk of have more aggressive tumors when breast cancer. they do develop breast cancer. Alcohol use increases the risk of Exposure to previous chest breast cancer, and this seems to be radiation or use of diethylstilbestrol proportional to the amount of alcohol increases the risk of breast cancer. used. Having no children or the first child Exercise seems to lower the risk of after age 30 increases the risk of breast cancer.
symptoms Nipple discharge or redness Breast or nipple pain Swelling of part of the breast or dimpling
Fibromyoma a benign tumour composed of fibrous and muscle tissue found in the womb
Causes No clear cause of uterine fibroids is known. Research indicates that fibroids may be influenced by estrogen and progesterone, but hormones are not the cause of fibroids. Fibroids are diagnosed in black women two to three times more often than in white women. hormone replacement therapy for menopause oral contraceptives, or birth control pills pregnancy
Signs and symptoms heavy or painful periods, abdominal discomfort or bloating, painful defecation, back ache, urinary frequency or retention, and in some cases, infertility. There may also be pain during intercourse, depending on the location of the fibroid. During pregnancy they may be the cause of miscarriage, bleeding, premature labor, or interference with the position of the fetus.
Treatment medication to control symptoms medication aimed at shrinking tumours ultrasound fibroid destruction various surgically aided methods to reduce blood supply of fibroids myomectomy or radio frequency ablation hysterectomy treatment for infection and anemia embolization
An enucleated uterine large subserosal fibroid submucosal fibroid inleiomyoma – external hysteroscopysurface on left, cutsurface on right. Treatment of an intramural fibroid by After treatment of an intramural fibroid laparoscopic surgery
Endometriosis condition where lining of womb is found in other sites, e.g.colon or pouch of Douglas
Causes The cause of endometriosis is unknown. One theory is that the endometrial tissue is deposited in unusual locations by the backing up of menstrual flow into the Fallopian tubes and the pelvic and abdominal cavity during menstruation (termed retrograde menstruation). The cause of retrograde menstruation is not clearly understood. But retrograde menstruation cannot be the sole cause of endometriosis
Symtoms lower abdominal pain, diarrhea and/or constipation, low back pain, irregular or heavy menstrual bleeding, or blood in the urine.
Treatments Endometriosis can be treated with medications and/or surgery. The goals of endometriosis treatment may include pain relief and/or enhancement of fertility.
Polycystic ovarian syndrome an increasingly common condition in women in which there are multiple, enlarged follicles of the ovary, together with high levels of testosterone (male hormone). A cause of infertility and also linked with Diabetes Type II.
Causes number of both genetic (inherited) as well as environmental factors. Women with PCOS often have a mother or sister with the condition, and researchers are examining the role that genetics or gene mutations might play in its development. The ovaries of women with PCOS frequently contain a number of small cysts, hence the name poly=many cystic ovarian syndrome. A similar number of cysts may occur in women without PCOS. Therefore, the cysts themselves do not seem to be the cause of the problem. A malfunction of the bodys blood sugar control system (insulin system) is frequent in women with PCOS, who often have insulin resistance and elevated blood insulin levels, and researchers believe that these abnormalities may be related to the development of PCOS. It is also known that the ovaries of women with PCOS produce excess amounts of male hormones known as androgens. This excessive production of male hormones may be a result of or related to the abnormalities in insulin production. Another hormonal abnormality in women with PCOS is excessive production of the hormone LH, which is involved in stimulating the ovaries to produce hormones and is released from the pituitary gland in the brain. Other possible contributing factors in the development of PCOS may include a low level of chronic inflammation in the body and fetal exposure to male hormones.
Symptoms obesity and weight gain, skin discolorations, elevated insulin levels high cholesterol levels, and insulin resistance elevated blood oily skin, pressure, and dandruff, multiple, small cysts in the ovaries. infertility,
Treatment Ultrasound omputed tomography (CT scan) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) also can detect cysts. CT scans require X-rays and sometimes injected dyes, which can be associated with some degree of complications in certain patients.
Papanicolaou Cancer of the cervix (cervical cancer) is the second most common cause of cancer- related deaths among women worldwide. The best way to detect cervical cancer is by having regular Papanicolaou tests, or Pap smears. (Pap is a shortened version of the name of the doctor who developed the screening test.) A Pap smear is a microscopic examination of cells taken from the uterine cervix.
Causes abnormal changes in the cervical tissue. Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the cause of almost all cervical cancers. Other known risk factors for cervical cancer include early sexual contact, multiple sexual partners, cigarette smoking, HIV infection and a weakened immune system, and taking oral contraceptives (birth control pills).
Symptoms Cervical cancer does not usually cause pain, although it may in very advanced stages. The most common symptom is abnormal vaginal bleeding. This is any bleeding from the vagina other than during menstruation. Abnormal vaginal discharge also may occur with cervical cancer.
Treatment This is usually a step-by-step process, involving the removal of cells or tissue to diagnose cancer and to find out how far it has invaded. If the deepest cells removed by biopsy were normal, no further treatment may be needed. If the deepest cells removed by biopsy were cancerous or precancerous, this means the cancer has invaded farther than the biopsy.