Genetic Engineering Advancement,History and ImpactsTo Modern Human Society.
Imagine You Are a Geneticist You specialize in genetic engineering in agriculture. You have agreed to provide expert advice to people with a terrible problem.
The Problem Black bugs have infested the rice of Philippines severely reducing the major source of food. Malnutrition is a real concern. Employment and the related economy are suffering, as well.
The Wvbgone Company has apromising strain of weevil-resistant cornin development in the United States.The corn has been geneticallyengineered.
Questions:• Who would have thought that a tomato could possess characteristics of a fish? What about a plant possessing characteristics of a firefly; or a pig with human traits?• These things may sound like science experiments gone wrong, but in truth, these are products of experiments that went well. The fish-like tomato and others are results of genetic modification or genetic manipulation, which are more commonly known as genetic engineering.
The Issues Should Wvbgone Corn be planted in Philippines? Should this research be pursued? To understand, you must be able to answer the following: What traits have been genetically engineered into corn and why? What are some of the benefits and risks to genetic engineering? (health, environmental, ecological, and social) Should genetic engineering be permitted in our society? Do the benefits of genetically engineered foods outweigh the risks?
History of genetic eng.Before genetic engineering:• Prehistoric times to 1900 Gatherers find food from plants they find in nature, and farmers plant seeds saved from domesticated crops. Foods are manipulated through the use of yeast and fermentation. Some naturalists and farmers begin to recognize "hybrids," plants produced through natural breeding between related varieties of plants .1900 European plant scientists begin using Gregor Mendels genetic theory to manipulate and improve plant species. This is called "classic selection." A plant of one variety is crossed with a related plant to produce desired characteristics.
What it is all about?Genetic engineering is the process of taking genes and segments of DNA from one species and putting them into another species, thus breaking the species barrier and artificially modifying the DNA of various species. These changes in DNA result in an alteration of reproductive and hereditary processes of the organisms since the process is irreversible and the organisms offspring will also possess this unique DNA (Levine).
Modern genetic engineering1953 James Watson and Francis Crick publish their discovery of the three- dimensional double helix structure of DNA. This discovery will eventually lead to the ability of scientists to identify and "splice" genes from one kind of organism into the DNA of another.1973 Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen combine their research to create the first successful recombinant DNA organism.1980 The U.S. Supreme Court in Diamond v. Chakrabarty rules that genetically altered life forms can be patented. The decision allows the Exxon Oil Company to patent an oil-eating microorganism.
1953 James Watson and Francis Crick publish their discovery of the three- dimensional double helix structure of DNA. This discovery will eventually lead to the ability of scientists to identify and "splice" genes from one kind of organism into the DNA of another.1973 Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen combine their research to create the first successful recombinant DNA organism.1980 The U.S. Supreme Court in Diamond v. Chakrabarty rules that genetically altered life forms can be patented. The decision allows the Exxon Oil Company to patent an oil-eating microorganism.
1982 The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approves the first genetically engineered drug, Genentechs Humulin, a form of human insulin produced by bacteria. This is the first consumer product developed through modern bioengineering.1986 The first field tests of genetically engineered plants (tobacco) are conducted in Belgium.1987 The first field tests of genetically engineered crops (tobacco and tomato) are conducted in the United States.
1992 Calgenes Favr Savr tomato, engineered to remain firm for a longer period of time, is approved for commercial production by the US Department of Agriculture.1992 The FDA declares that genetically engineered foods are "not inherently dangerous" and do not require special regulation.1994 The European Unions first genetically engineered crop, tobacco, is approved in France.2000 International Biosafety Protocol is approved by 130 countries at the Convention on Biological Diversity in Montréal, Canada. The protocol agrees upon labeling of genetically engineered crops, but still needs to be ratified by 50 nations before it goes into effect.
Agriculture"Were looking at a doubling of the population in the next 40 years. Were looking at a need for food production increases of 250 percent. At the same time, were looking at dwindling resources for that food production. So clearly, biotechnology with its ability to improve yield, quality and nutritional value will help us in feeding todays and tomorrows population." Terry Medley, J.D. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service US Department of Agriculture
Genetic engineeringGenetic engineering can be done on any living organism because all living organisms contain DNA within each cell nucleus. Genetic engineering involves the manipulation of DNA and the transfer of gene components in order to encourage replication of desired traits. The same techniques used to further medical genetics (such as cloning, gene therapy and splicing, etc.) are used to enhance crops and livestock to more effectively feed the growing human population, preserve the diverse variety of life on the planet, and many other exciting possibilities
• Simple genetic engineering has been practiced since ancient times. For thousands of years, plant and animal breeders have selected parent stock with certain desirable traits to produce offspring with the same characteristics.• Fast dogs could be bred to become faster, sweet corn could be bred to become sweeter, and so on.• By selecting and crossbreeding, farmers changed the genetic makeup of many of the plants and animals that exists today.• Modern genetic engineers, however, do not wait for generations of offspring to develop a trait; instead, they isolate the genes responsible for a specific trait and insert them into the DNA string of another plant or animal.
• A large part of genetic engineering in agriculture is simply trying to achieve the same results that farmers have been producing for hundreds of years, but with genetic engineering the process is controlled and deliberate- thus the results are obtained faster and more accurately.
• Genetic scientists are developing vaccines and hormones for animals as well as disease resistant and more nutritious plants. The genetic science developments of today are just as revolutionary as the "Green Revolution" of the 1950s when new pesticides, fertilizers, antibiotics, and hormones caused great increases in food production.• In 1981, new advancements made genetic engineering more feasible with the creation of the "gene machine". Gene splicing could be done using polynucleotide assembly machines (machines that make DNA by assembling base pair sequences) that made chains of genetic fragments to lengths determined by programmers. These "gene machines" add one nucleotide after another onto the deoxyribose backbone in the order specified. This allowed scientists to find, cut and reassemble genes, and change the order of the genetic messages.
• Later that decade, this invention enabled American researchers to transfer a gene from a French bean seed into a sunflower cell. The gene was spliced into a bacterium that would normally infect the sunflower cell; instead of infecting the cell, though, the recombinant DNA that replaced the disease genes simply created a "sun bean" plant, a food extremely rich in protein. Using this and similar methods, plants can be altered to bear more and healthier food.
genetic engineering the use of various methods to manipulate the DNA (genetic material) of cells to change hereditary traits or produce biological products. The techniques include the use of hybridomas (hybrids of rapidly multiplying cancer cells and of cells that make a desired antibody) to make monoclonal antibodies; gene splicing or recombinant DNA, in which the DNA of a desired gene is inserted into the DNA of a bacterium, which then reproduces itself, yielding more of the desired gene; and polymerase chain reaction, which makes perfect copies of DNA fragments and is used in DNA fingerprinting.
• Genetically engineered products include bacteria designed to break down oil slicks and industrial waste products, drugs (human and bovine growth hormones, human insulin, interferon), and plants that are resistant to diseases, insects, and herbicides, that yield fruits or vegetables with desired qualities, or that produce toxins that act as pesticides.• Genetic engineering techniques have also been used in the direct genetic alteration of livestock and laboratory animals
• Because genetic engineering involves techniques used to obtain patents on human genes and to create patentable living organisms, it has raised many legal and ethical issues. The safety of releasing into the environment genetically altered organisms that might disrupt ecosystems has also been questioned.• The discovery in 2001 of genetically engineered DNA in native Mexican corn varieties made concerns of genetic pollution actual, and led some scientists to worry that the spread of transgenes through cross- pollination could lead to a reduction in genetic diversity in important crops. Imports of genetically modified corn, soybeans, and other crops have been curtailed or limited in some countrie
Process:• in order to understand how genetic manipulation is accomplished, it is important first to understand the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA. Within its chemical structure, DNA stores the information that determines an organisms hereditary or genetic properties. DNA is made up of a linked series of units called nucleotides (Blaese), Different nucleotide sequences determine different genes genetic information. Genetic engineering is based on this genetic information.
• Genetic manipulation is carried out through a process known as recombinant-DNA formation, or gene splicing. This procedure behind genetic engineering is one whereby segments of genetic material from one organism are transferred to another. The basis of the technique lies in the use of restriction enzymes that split DNA strands wherever certain desired sequences of nucleotides, or specific genes, occur. This desired segment of DNA is referred to as donor DNA. The process of gene splicing results in a series of fragments of DNA, each of which express the same desired gene that can then combine with plasmids (Rubenstein).
• Plasmids are small, circular molecules of DNA that are found in many bacteria. The bacteria act as vectors in the process of genetic engineering. The desired gene cannot be directly inserted into the recipient organism, or host, therefore there must be an organism that can carry the donor DNA into the host. Plasmid DNA is isolated from bacteria and its circular structure is broken by restriction enzymes (Dworkin). The desired donor DNA is then inserted in the plasmid, and the circle is resealed by ligases, which are enzymes that repair breaks in DNA strands.
• This reconstructed plasmid, which contains an extra gene, can be replaced in the bacteria, where it is cloned, or duplicated, in large numbers. The combined vector and donor DNA fragment constitute the recombinant-DNA molecule. Once inside a host cell, this molecule is replicated along with the hosts DNA during cell division. These divisions produce a clone of identical cells, each having a copy of the recombinant-DNA molecule and thus permanently changing the genetic makeup of the host organism (Steinbrecher). Genetic engineering has been accomplished.
Types of Genetic Engineering• Negative• Positive
Negative Genetic Engineering• Correct a genetic defect
Positive Genetic Engineering• Make a life-form better.
Eugenics• Eugenics- make improvements upon organism.
Types of Genetic Therapy• Somatic Therapy• Germ line Therapy
Somatic Therapy• Somatic therapy is a type of genetic therapy that only affects the individual.• Changes are not passed on to any subsequent generations or off spring.
Germ line Therapy• Germ line therapy is a type of genetic therapy that not only affects the individual but also the off spring.• Changes are passed on to subsequent generations.
Splicing• Splicing is a method where genes from one organism are “spliced” into the DNA of another organism. This is the most common method of genetic engineering.
Philosophical Views•Conservative – Michael Ruse “Can we do better than God?”•Liberal – Jonathan Glover “Decisions: the Genetic Supermarket”
Michael Ruse• Argues that we cannot get it better than God. His main point is that if we make everyone with superhuman powers and abilities the world will become a dramatically different and radically worse place.• The awe of human creation and achievement will be lost, with everyone excelling at everything.
Jonathan Glover• Argues that both positive and negative genetic engineering is morally permissible.• He employs the philosophical argument of Robert Nowzick, a libertarian.• Most libertarians are against any government interference in the private affairs of citizens, but Nowzick recognizes the inherent dangers in genetic engineering and suggest a system of government regulation at the "genetic supermarket".
Government Regulation.• Most libertarians are against any government interference in the private affairs of citizens, but Nowzick recognizes the inherent dangers in genetic engineering and suggest a system of government regulation at the "genetic supermarket".
Genetic Supermarket• In the genetic supermarket parents would have a limited voice in opting for genetic engineering of both positive and negative features.• The government would simply ensure that no dangerous modifications were made.
The Council for ResponsibleGenetics (CRG)• Opposes the use of germ-line therapy in humans. Further any changes made to an organism at an embryonic stage have the potential to be passed on to future generations, like Germline therapy.• The goal of cleansing the gene pool of recessive genes and to improve the human organism would take thousands of years. Further such benefits would only be realized by families, and not by the population as a whole.
Evolution and Science• Many feel that evolution is wrong or false.• Science, such a genetics, helps to confirm evolution of life on our planet on a daily basis.
Evolution• Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection, Evolution of Species.• Charles Darwin Published the Origin of Species in 1859
Chimpanzee and humanancestors may haveinterbred.• Genetic analysis suggests a messy split between the two lineages.• The evolutionary split between humans and our nearest evolutionary cousins, chimpanzees, may have occurred more recently than we thought, according to a new comparison of the respective genetic sequences.
A Bizarre Love Triangle• Our two sets of ancestors may have interbred many thousands of years after first parting company.
Our earliest ancestor?• Previous estimates put the split at as much as 7 million years ago — meaning that Toumaï, a fossil dating from at least 6.5 million years ago in Chad and assigned to the species Sahelanthropus tchadensis, was hailed as the earliest- known member of the line that gave rise to modern humans.
Harvard Med says…• Researchers led by David Reich of Harvard Medical School in Boston, Massachusetts, now calculate that the split may have occurred no more than 6.3 million years ago, and possibly as recently as 5.4 million. That would make Toumaï older than the time of the split.
How do they know?• The researchers make their claim after comparing the genetic codes of humans, chimpanzees, gorillas and other primates in unprecedented detail — more than 20 million DNA letters in all. By checking the differences between different species DNA sequences, they were able to estimate the time since they first diverged.
We share an X.• Reich and his team explain in their study, published online in Nature. Different sections of the genome differ by different amounts, suggesting that they parted ways at different times. The divorce period between the two species, the data suggest, could have lasted a million years. The region bearing the most similarity is the X chromosome. This is exactly what one might expect if the two lineages had continued to interbreed after first starting to separate.
Hybrids• If a hybrid population did exist, the question remains as to whether it died out, or whether modern humans or chimpanzees (or both) are its descendants.
Who’s related to whom?• Its very difficult to say, admits Reich.• "The fossil data suggest, very tenuously, that it may have been humans who are descended from the hybrid population."• “Human-like fossils far outnumber chimpanzee-like ones in the fossil record, making it difficult to see exactly who was sleeping with whom at the time.” (Nature)
Evolution• Evolutionary theory is as true as any other scientific theory.• Natural selection or survival of the fittest has been confirmed by evidence from the world.• It is a way of organizing our experiences of the world, not unlike any other scientific law.
Poster boy atheism• Who needs God?• Evolution• Explains the world without positing a higher power or deity.
Darwin is a Theist!• “But with regard to the material world, we ca at least go so far as this- we can perceive that events are brought about not by insulated interposition of Divine power, exerted in each particular case, but by the establishment of general laws”-• Whewell: Bridgewater Treatise Prologue, Darwin’s Origin of Species
Evolution• H1- Random• H2- Designer• H3- Evolution• H4- Evolution + Designer• Evolution does not rule out the possibility of intelligent design for the universe.
Dolly the Sheep• In 1997 Scientist in Scotland cloned the first mammal- Dolly the sheep. Not everyone was pleased.• In 2003 Dolly passed away from complications related to her cloning.
$50,000 to clone your cat!• In 2002 scientist cloned the worlds first cat.• In 2004 a woman paid $ 50,000 to have her dead cat cloned.
PGD• In vitro Fertilization has been used for years to help couples have babies.• PGD- Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis can be used to sort embryos before they are implanted.
Choose your Trait• Eyes• Skin Color• Hair• Weight• Height• Sex
Splicing• Splicing is a method where genes from one organism are “spliced” into the DNA of another organism. This is the most common method of genetic engineering.
Is it… 1 2 ? orWhat’s scarier is not knowing the facts!
What is DNA? 3• DNA is molecule of life.• It contains all of instructions (genes) required to make an organism.
What are genetically modified foods?• Also called genetically modified organisms (GMO).• Involves the insertion of DNA from one organism into another OR modification of an organism’s DNA in order to achieve a desired trait. 4 5 A strawberry + = resistant toArctic fish strawberry frostDNA
Examples of GMO’s• Golden rice – rice that contains beta- carotene (Vitamin A), which is not found in regular rice.• Bt corn – corn that contains a chemical normally found in a bacterium (Bacillus thuringiensis) that is toxic to insects but not to humans.• Herbicide resistant plants.
Modifying Genes• Also called recombinant DNA technology, molecular cloning, and genetic engineering.1. Restriction enzymes are used to “cut” DNA segments from one genome.2. DNA ligases are used to “paste” them into another genome. Foreig n DNA
How are animals targeted?• The microinjection method uses a fine needle to inject a solution of DNA into 6 a developing embryo.
How are plants targeted?• Agrobacterium that normally normally infects plants with disease is used to infect plant with gene of interests or…• A particle gun is used to 7 shoot small bits of metal coated with the gene into the plant.
How common are GM foods? 48 foods Products Derived have been Corn Products approved for Canola Corn syrup use by the Potatoes Tofu Canadian Tomatoes Canned foods Food Squash Soya sauce Inspection Soybeans Animals that Agency. Flax feed on Cottonseed GMOs… oilDetails can be found at: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/food-aliment/mh-dm/ofb-bba/nfi-ani/e_novel_foods_and_ingredient.html …. Sugarbeets AND MORE
How common are GMO foods? 8Labeling of GM foods is not mandatory unless ifthere is a health or safety concern (HealthCanada/Canadian Food Inspection Agency)
Potential Benefits Humanitarian:Pestresistance Cheape Reducin Improve r food g worldHerbicide dresistance farming More hungerCold toleranceDrought food andtolerance improvinIncreased g worldnutritionEdible vaccines health Environmental: reduced use of herbicides and chemicals in farming.
Potential Environmental Hazards 11Reducedeffectiveness ofpesticides asinsects become Harm to other organisms Pollen from Bt corn was shown toresistant to cause high mortality rates inengineered toxins. monarch butterfly larvae(9). BUT follow-up studies have shown that the exposure levels in theLoss of fields are negligible(10).biodiversity
Potential Environmental HazardsGene Transfer to non-target species – Herbicide resistant plants and weeds could cross breed and create “superweeds” – To address this one could: • Create sterile male plants that don’t produce pollen • Engineer the plants so that pollen doesn’t contain the foreign genes • Create buffer zones of non-GM crops around GM crops. The buffer crops would not be harvested.
Potential Human Health RisksAllergens – Genetic engineering could potential introduce or create allergens – For example, inserting genes from a nut into another plant could be dangerous for people who are allergic to nutsUnknown health risks – Biological processes involve a lot of INTERACTIONS – It is often difficult to identify every possible interaction.
Economic Hazards• Elimination of competition – GM seeds are patented• Suicide seeds – Plants with sterile seeds that are infertile are created – Farmers are forced to buy seeds every year• However, some companies have reduced costs or donated GM seeds to impoverished nations.
Creating a balance• So are GM foods a good or bad thing?• It depend on each individual case.• Consumers, the government and Improved Nutrition Environmental risks scientists should Resistance to Health risks disease be responsible for Economic risks Reduced use of weighing the chemicals benefits against the costs.
Spliced Pigs• Gene splicing improves pork farm waste• In the last few years, scientists at Ontarios University of Guelph have created Enviropigs™, a line of transgenic pigs containing both mouse and bacterial chromosomes; the pigs cost less to feed and produce less noxious manure.
USDA Organic• The USDA now certifies all food that has an organic label to be tested.
What it means:• Organic food is produced without using most conventional pesticides• Fertilizers made with synthetic ingredients or sewage sludge;• Bioengineering; (genetic Engineering.)• Ionizing radiation. •
To get the seal…• Before a product can be labeled "organic," a Government-approved certifier inspects the farm where the food is grown to make sure the farmer is following all the rules necessary to meet USDA organic standards.
Organic food contaminated• A variety of foods marked ‘organic’ or ‘GM-free’ sold in the United Kingdom have been found to contain genetically modified (GM) ingredients. Researchers found that out of 25 organic or health food products that should have been GM-free, 10 contained GM soy.
Mix and Match Crops• The United States and Argentina, two of the largest soy producers in the world, produce mostly GM soy, and GM-free crops are often mixed with GM crops after harvesting. Further, seeds that are supposed to be GM-free can contain from 1 percent to 2 percent GM varieties. Over 60 percent of processed foods sole in supermarkets contain soy ingredients.
Contamination with GM• Researchers suggest that it will become increasingly difficult to keep organic products GM-free, and even say that the problem will be 10 times worse in just one year.
No Government Regulation• The United States Government does not require labels for any Genetically engineered food.
Did you know???• Tomato and shrimp DNA• GE Papaya in Hawaii• Cheese 70% of all Cheese• “Golden” rice• “Starlink” corn and Taco Bell in 1994• Bio Toxin (BT) rice• BT Corn• BT Cotton grown in Arizona since 1996
• The US government said it was investigating a type of genetically-modified (GM) corn, approved for use in livestock, that may have turned up in some taco shells at the popular fast-food chain Taco Bell.• Nearly 150,000 boxes of Taco Bell shells, each containing a dozen, were produced in the same batches as those supposedly contaminated.
CheeseMore than 70% of all cheese sold in the US is made with Genetically Modified enzymes
GE papaya• Farmers in the orient ganble that GE papaya will have a longer shelf life and surive the trip to the US and Europe.
Soybean• 60% of the US soybean crop is genetically modified.
Canola Oil• 62 % of the plants from which canola oil is extracted are genetically modified.
• Milk cows are treated with a GE version of a hormone in order to increase milk production.
Vitamins and Minerals• Genetically Modified bacteria and yeast have been used since 1981 to produce vitamins and nutritional supplements.• Many pharmaceutical drugs are the result of genetic engineering.
70% of all processed food• 70% of all processed food is the United states contains Genetically Modified Components.
Benefits• Benefits:• Genetic engineering can cure diseases and improve upon existing plants and animals. Such improvements can be natural pesticides (BT bio toxin) as well as improved yield in crops and animals
Problems• What does it mean to improve or make something better?• What happens when genetically engineered plants or animals escape into nature?• Are all of the side effects known? Should they be further studied before research continues?
Moral Questions• Should scientist try to make plants or animals “better”?• What does it mean to make something “better”?• Is it “better” that corn now produced it’s own poison on its leafs?• Should plant and animal DNA be spliced together?
Moral Questions Continued• Should genetically engineered food be fed to animals that humans are going to eat?• Should the government require labels on all genetically engineered food?• Do we have the right to splice animal DNA into our own bodies? Can we become a real chimera, animal/man?