Reviewing Essential Linguistics by David Freeman and Yvonne Freeman Presented Kathryn Jesser and Abigail Bloem
Why this Book is important according to Halliday and Freeman and Freeman
First and Second Language Acquisition
The technical aspects of linguistics and how they work in the classroom
Why This Book is Important to Teachers
According to Halliday, cited in Freeman and Freeman, we all learn:
Freeman and Freeman: “Teachers with linguistic knowledge can help their students learn language.” (xi)
What Does it Mean to “Know” a Word?
P ragmatic understanding
We have to know what these things are in order to teach them.
First Language Acquisition: History
Skinner and Behavioris m: all learning is a process of stimulus and response
However, Lindfor Believed:
Environments vary, and children learn at about the same time all around the world
Animals would also speak if this were the case
Children do not imitate adults
Learning language is too speedy to be done this way!
First Language Acquisition: Chomsky: A Door to Current Views
“ Cognitive Science” Children are born with innate cognitive abilities
Evidence for the innate:
Limited amount of evidence for hypotheses
Limited feedback (mostly from caretakers)
Children never maker certain mistakes
Chomsky's Grammars: How children acquire language:
Universal Grammar: we're born with the qualities of all languages (the one we learn is the dominant one)
Generative Grammar:the rules of the dominant language that make up any given sentence. These must be learned.
First Language Acquisition: Current Views
Psychology: Children have a specific way of learning: babbling, first words , 2 word phrases, then rapid growth into fluency.
Sociology, Anthropology and Education: Do we let children make mistakes?
Children who are corrected more often don’t use more error free language. Actually, “their language didn’t develop as well, and they did not succeed to the same degree academically as children whose parents focused on understanding and extending...meaning” (9)
Second Language Acquisition: Two Ways to Learn in the Classroom
To Learn: “to gain knowledge understanding or skill but study, instruction or experience”
To Acquire: “to come into possession or control of…to have as a new characteristic or trait”
Learning Language: teachers will use correct form versus content (how it is said is better than understanding the meaning)
Acquiring Language: making meaning is more important than how it is said.
The Views of the teacher greatly affect how the student learns
Phonology and Teaching
Phonemic Awareness: words are made up of individual sounds which can be perceived and manipulated
The Five Levels:
Hear rhymes and alliteration
Do oddity tasks
Blend or split syllables
Perform phonemic segmentation
Perform phoneme manipulation tasks
Second Language Learning:
Learning:phonology is acquired through audiolingual (repetition and drills)
Acquisition: phonology is acquired by using the language to communicate
A Note on Phonics
There are at least 5 approaches to teaching phonics:
Synthetic: letters to sounds to words
Analytic:analyzing known words and sounds to make new words
Analogy based: use word families to make new words
Spelling: segment words into phonemes and write the words with the sounds
Embedded: letter-sound correspondences while reading
Onset-rime: connect sounds of new words and rhymes to the letters that spell them
Some Issues with Phonics
Readers need to see the whole word to know it's meaning and pronunciation
Some words are spelled the same but sound different and have different meanings
Sounding out doesn't always work
The Teacher: Often assumes a child having trouble needs more phonics. Actually, these problems could be a result of an over reliance on phonics.
A Note on the Book
Morphology in the Classroom Key in Second Language Learning
Front loading: learning, talking, wondering, reading and writing about a new subject/word.
2 Types of Language:
Cautions and Awesomes
Issues on the Cover
Charts and Text
Easy to understand and Strong Purpose
Freeman, David E and Yvonne S. Freeman. Essential Linguistics . Portsmouth, NH. Heinneman, 2004.
Merriam-Webster Online. Merriam-Webster Inc. 2009. < http://Merriam-webster.com >
Halliday, M. A. K. “Three Aspects of Children's Lanugage Developement: Learning Language, Learning Through Language and Learning About Language.” In Oral and Written Development Research: Impact on Schools. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.