Tennyson   mariana
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Tennyson mariana Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Mariana
  • 2. Story/narration• This poem derives from a line in Measure for Measure : “Mariana in themoated grange”, where she waits for a lover, Angelo, who in fact has jiltedher.• The poem is highly descriptive and contains some striking images but it isnot really a narrative: nothing happens. It is a poem that is aboutdepression, abandonment, isolation.• Each stanza describes a different facet of the ‘moated grange’: thefarmhouse and barns are decrepit; Mariana stays in the grange, crying; shewakes, and walks, in the night, until the dawn; the ‘sluice’ is full of moss andblack water and the poplar shakes in the wind; the tree’s shadow fallsacross her when the wind is up; the house is full of old faces and the noisesof small animals; other sounds upset her and she hates the evening.• Each stanza ends with a four-line refrain which is pretty much the same –Mariana’s voice complaining about her lover not coming, and wishing for herown death.
  • 3. Form• 7 twelve-line stanzas, composed of three quatrains using the rhymescheme ABAB CDDC EFEF. Central couplet perhaps binds stanzastightly, prevents advancement.• The last quatrain is a four-line refrain (practically identical bit) sense of invariance therefore monotonous, chant-like, hypnotic,incantatory, generative of the depressed mood or sense (as in otherpoems by Tennyson) that she is under a curse.• The line are written in iambic tetrameter (uses ballad metre/commonmetre) with the exception of the trimeter of the tenth and twelfthlines  pulsing heartbeat with slight accelerations. Often reversedfeet (trochaics) in middle quatrain = missed beats, spondees inrefrain = stretched-out feeling.
  • 4. Structure• Static and monotonous day (stanzas 1, 4, 6) alternates withunending, lonely, broken nights (stanzas 2, 3, 5, 7).• Perhaps day and night blend into one. Mariana is in a dream orreverie, composed of unevent and nothingness.• There is no sense of progression, only of repetition, of being stuck.• Lineation: mixtures of end-stopped, enjambed/run-on lines – can beconfusing (deliberately?) Sometimes sense is also hard to follow (asin the last verse, possibly) and this dullness and confusionreplicates Mariana’s own upset and feeling that she is lost.
  • 5. Language• Imagery: visual but little metaphor, simile  static/ metonymic• Lexis/ diction focuses on synonyms for decay, negativity -everything is damp, decaying, mouldy, even the sense of thepoem’s freshness; has few active present-tense verbs• Sound: assonance, assonantal  hence sad• Rhetorical figures:  repetitiveness, sense of dullness, stasis– Anaphora – repetition of word at start of verse, clause, sentence – ‘old, old, old’– Epizeuxis – immediate repetition – ‘aweary, aweary’
  • 6. Technique:The Pathetic Fallacy, Symbol• The external world of the poem perhaps is meant to suggestMariana’s empty, decaying self. Her collapsing house is a metaphorfor her collapsing mind, trapped, brooding on the past.• As outside, so inside: identifying externalities with inner states isknown as the ‘pathetic fallacy’ but can be used very successfullyand perhaps Tennyson does so here.• Symbol: Poplars (the only thing of any height in the surroundinglandscape) are phallic symbols and shadow her bed (suggestingshe is blighted by her lover, or desirous of him) and features inOvid’s Metamorphoses (defines ‘Latin’ idea of love). In it, Pariscarves his girlfriend Oenone’s name on a poplar, but then abandonsher, so the tree is a classical symbol of abandonment and brokenpromises.
  • 7. AO2 – first questionyou answer in theexam.
  • 8. Write about the ways that Tennysontells the story in Mariana.• Introduce your answer by summarising the story of Mariana.• Begin to analyse some (maybe 3) of the features of language that have beenused. For example:– synonyms that show decay and stasis;– spondee – long vowels placed at the ends of lines to lengthen the sound;– the lack of voice – all we hear is the narrator and Mariana’s declaration;– the lack of verbs – and when they do appear – the negation of action;– the contrast between her stillness and the movement of time.• Comment on the structure of the poem and how this tells the story. Forexample:– the use of the refrain;– epizeuxis – immediate repeated repetition; anaphora – repetition at start of line, stanza;– the collapsing rhyme pattern – the lines folding in around the central couplet;– the pace/rhythm/metre of the lines.– the lack of narrative event• Make a concluding comment analysing the form of the poem – the resultingoverall style of the poem – and how this affects the way the story is told.Use your ownannotations and ideas.
  • 9. John Everett Millais,‘Mariana in the moatedgrange’, 1851
  • 10. John Everett Millais,‘Mariana in the moatedgrange’, 1851