Alliteration• The repetition of the same consonantsounds at any place, but often at thebeginning of words.
Assonance• The repetition or a pattern of (the same)vowel sounds
Ballad• A poem that tells a story similar to a folktale or legend and often has a repeatedrefrain.
Context• Can be historical, social, linguistic –something outside the text that you needto know to grasp its meaning.
Couplet• In a poem, a pair of lines that are thesame length and (usually) rhyme and forma complete thought.
Dialect• Regional English words that don’t belongto Standard English
Dramatic Monologue• Poem voiced or spoken by a character
Elegy• A poem that laments the death of aperson, or one that is simply sad andthoughtful
End-stopped• Lines which end - with a full-stop – or witha pause/item of punctuation.
Enjambment• A line ending in which the sensecontinues, with no punctuation (so nopause), into the following line or stanza.• Also called run-on line• Compare: end-stopped line
Form• General way of organising a poem• Similar to genre or sub-genre• There are some particular forms such asballads or sonnets
Feminine rhyme• A rhyme that occurs in a final unstressedsyllable e.g. mama/dada
Half-Rhyme• Imperfect rhyme where just consonantsrhyme rather than vowels:It seemed that out of the battle I escapedDown some profound dull tunnel, long since scoopedThrough granites which Titanic wars had groined.Yet also there encumbered sleepers groaned,Too fast in thought or death to be bestirred.Then, as I probed them, one sprang up, and stared
Iambic Pentameter• Line of verse with five (penta) beats• …where each beat falls on the secondsyllable in each foot (=bar)To be / or not / to be/ that is / the quest/ion(and yes, Shakespeare is breaking his own rule here…)
Imagery• Word-pictures, figures of speech,descriptions that evoke ideas, feelings,objects actions, states of mind etc.• Often repeated in patterns of imagery• Metaphors and similes are kinds ofimagery
Masculine rhyme• A rhyme that occurs in a final stressedsyllable:
Metaphor• A figure of speech in which two things arecompared, usually by saying one thing isanother, or by substituting a moredescriptive word for the more common orusual word that would be expected.
Narrative• Telling a story. Ballads, epics, and laysare different kinds of narrative poems.
Non-standard English• A variety of English that is non-standard,such as Caribbean English
Onomatopoeia• A figure of speech in which words areused to imitate sounds. Examples ofonomatopoeic words are:
Personification• A figure of speech in which nonhumanthings or abstract ideas are given humanattributes:
Rhyme scheme• The way rhymes are organised throughouta poem.• The pattern of rhyme in a stanza or poemis shown usually by using a different letterfor each final sound.• In a poem with an aabba rhyme scheme,the first, second, and fifth lines end in onesound, and the third and fourth lines endin another.
Rhythm• the arrangement of beats and stresses ina poem
Simile• A figure of speech in which two things arecompared using the word "like" or "as."
Sonnet• A lyric poem about love that is 14 lines long.• English (or Shakespearean) sonnets arecomposed of three quatrains and a final couplet,with a rhyme scheme of abab cdcd efef gg.• English sonnets are written generally in iambicpentameter.
Speaker• The voice that is speaking in the poem
Stanza• A verse or chunk of a poem.• The stanzas of a poem are usually of thesame length and follow the same patternof meter and rhyme.
Stress• The prominence or emphasis given toparticular syllables. Stressed syllablesusually stand out because they have long,rather than short, vowels, or because theyhave a different pitch or are louder thanother syllables.
Symbol• When a word, phrase or image stands foran idea or theme i.e. a red rose is asymbol of love
Tone• The overall feeling of a poem.• How the speaking voice of the poemsounds.
Voice• the speaker who speaks a poem or part ofa poem
What is x an example of?1. the worlds a stage, he was a lion in battle,drowning in debt, and a sea of troubles.2. "Moses supposes his toeses are roses."3. pleasure/leisure, longing/yearning4. tons of money, waiting for ages, a flood oftears5. She sells seashells by the seashore, PeterPiper picked a peck of pickled peppers.6. cat/hat, desire/fire, observe/deserve.
7. You are my sun. I give you a red redrose. She had me on the cross.8. "What happens to a dream deferred?/Does it dry up/ like a raisin in the sun?“9. buzz, hiss, zing, clippety-clop, cock-a-doodle-do, pop, splat, thump, tick-tock.10.the sky is crying, dead leaves danced inthe wind, blind justice.