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Índice en Español de la versión internacional del Manual de certificación de la ACFE, hoy en día el referente profesional por excelencia en materia de compliance y fraude a nivel mundial.

Índice en Español de la versión internacional del Manual de certificación de la ACFE, hoy en día el referente profesional por excelencia en materia de compliance y fraude a nivel mundial.

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  • 1. Fraud Examiners Manual 2011 International Edition Select a section below to view its chapters: ŒŒ Main Table of Contents ŒŒ Law ŒŒ Preface and Introduction ŒŒ Investigation ŒŒ Financial Transactions ŒŒ Fraud Prevention & & Fraud Schemes Deterrence SEARCH ŒŒ Copyright and Bibliography©2011 Association of Certified Fraud Examiners. All rights reserved.The ACFE logo is a trademark owned by the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners, Inc.
  • 2. Fraud Examiners Manual 2011 International Edition financial transactions & fraud schemes HOME | FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS & FRAUD SCHEMES | LAW | INVESTIGATION | FRAUD PREVENTION & DETERRENCE | SEARCH ŒŒ Table of Contents ŒŒ Asset Misappropriation: ŒŒ Cheque and Credit Card Fraud Fraudulent Disbursements ŒŒ Accounting Concepts ŒŒ Insurance Fraud ŒŒ Asset Misappropriation: ŒŒ Management’s and Auditors’ Inventory and Other Assets ŒŒ Health Care Fraud Responsibilities ŒŒ Bribery and Corruption ŒŒ Consumer Fraud ŒŒ Financial Statement Fraud ŒŒ Theft of Intellectual Property ŒŒ Computer and Internet Fraud ŒŒ Asset Misappropriation: Cash Receipts ŒŒ Financial Institution Fraud ŒŒ Public Sector Fraud©2011 Association of Certified Fraud Examiners. All rights reserved.The ACFE logo is a trademark owned by the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners, Inc.
  • 3. Fraud Examiners Manual 2011 International Edition law HOME | FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS & FRAUD SCHEMES | LAW | INVESTIGATION | FRAUD PREVENTION & DETERRENCE | SEARCH ŒŒ Table of Contents ŒŒ Individual Rights ŒŒ Overview of the Legal System ŒŒ The Civil Justice System ŒŒ The Law Related to Fraud ŒŒ The Criminal Justice System ŒŒ Bankruptcy (Insolvency) Fraud ŒŒ Evidence ŒŒ Securities Fraud ŒŒ Testifying as a Witness ŒŒ Money Laundering©2011 Association of Certified Fraud Examiners. All rights reserved.The ACFE logo is a trademark owned by the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners, Inc.
  • 4. Fraud Examiners Manual 2011 International Edition investigation HOME | FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS & FRAUD SCHEMES | LAW | INVESTIGATION | FRAUD PREVENTION & DETERRENCE | SEARCH ŒŒ Table of Contents ŒŒ Digital Forensics ŒŒ Analysing Documents ŒŒ Tracing Illicit Transactions ŒŒ Interview Theory and Application ŒŒ Reporting Standards ŒŒ Covert Examinations ŒŒ Fraud Examination Checklist ŒŒ Sources of Information ŒŒ Sample Reports ŒŒ Accessing Information Online ŒŒ Engagement Contracts and Opinion Letters ŒŒ Data Analysis and Reporting Tools©2011 Association of Certified Fraud Examiners. All rights reserved.The ACFE logo is a trademark owned by the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners, Inc.
  • 5. Fraud Examiners Manual 2011 International Edition fraud prevention & deterrence HOME | FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS & FRAUD SCHEMES | LAW | INVESTIGATION | FRAUD PREVENTION & DETERRENCE | SEARCH ŒŒ Table of Contents ŒŒ Fraud Prevention Programs ŒŒ Understanding Human Behaviour ŒŒ Fraud Risk Assessment ŒŒ Theories of Crime Causation ŒŒ Ethics for Fraud Examiners ŒŒ White-Collar Crime ŒŒ ACFE Code of Professional Ethics ŒŒ Organisational Crime ŒŒ CFE Code of Professional Standards ŒŒ Occupational Fraud©2011 Association of Certified Fraud Examiners. All rights reserved.The ACFE logo is a trademark owned by the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners, Inc.
  • 6. FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS AND FRAUD SCHEMES FRAUD EXAMINERS MANUAL INTERNATIONAL VERSION TABLE OF CONTENTS OCCUPATIONAL FRAUDSACCOUNTING CONCEPTSAccounting Basics ........................................................................................................................ 1.101 Accounts and the Accounting Cycle .................................................................................. 1.102 Journal Entries ....................................................................................................................... 1.104 Accounting Methods ............................................................................................................ 1.104Financial Statements .................................................................................................................... 1.105 Balance Sheet ......................................................................................................................... 1.106 Income Statement ................................................................................................................. 1.108 Statement of Owners’ Equity .............................................................................................. 1.110 Statement of Cash Flows ..................................................................................................... 1.112 Cash Flows from Operations ....................................................................................... 1.113 Cash Flows from Investing Activities ......................................................................... 1.114 Cash Flows from Financing Activities ........................................................................ 1.114 Users of Financial Statements ............................................................................................. 1.114MANAGEMENTS AND AUDITORS RESPONSIBILITIESManagement .................................................................................................................................. 1.201 The Treadway Commission ................................................................................................. 1.201 Mandatory Independent Audit Committee ................................................................ 1.202 Written Charter ............................................................................................................... 1.202 Resources and Authority ............................................................................................... 1.202 Informed, Vigilant, and Effective Audit Committees ............................................... 1.202 The COSO Reports .............................................................................................................. 1.202 Internal Control—Integrated Framework .................................................................. 1.202 Enterprise Risk Management—Integrated Framework............................................ 1.203 COSO Guidance for Smaller Public Companies ....................................................... 1.204 Document Retention Policies .............................................................................................. 1.205 What Documents Should Be Kept? ............................................................................ 1.206 Document Storage.......................................................................................................... 1.206 Document Destruction .................................................................................................. 1.207 DRP Managers ................................................................................................................ 1.207 Fraud Prevention Programs ................................................................................................. 1.207Corporate Governance ................................................................................................................ 1.208 The Importance of Corporate Governance ...................................................................... 1.208 The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development ................................. 1.2082011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International) 1.i
  • 7. FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS AND FRAUD SCHEMESMANAGEMENTS AND AUDITORS RESPONSIBILITIES (CONT.) The OECD Principles of Corporate Governance..................................................... 1.209External Auditors ......................................................................................................................... 1.220 International Standard on Auditing (ISA) 240, The Auditor’s Responsibility to Consider Fraud in the Audit of Financial Statements ........................................................ 1.220 Purpose of the Standard ................................................................................................ 1.220 Characteristics of Fraud ................................................................................................. 1.220 Responsibility for the Prevention and Detection of Fraud ...................................... 1.223 Responsibilities of the Auditor ..................................................................................... 1.223 Objectives ........................................................................................................................ 1.224 Definitions ....................................................................................................................... 1.224 Professional Scepticism ................................................................................................. 1.225 Discussion Among the Engagement Team ................................................................ 1.225 Risk Assessment Procedures and Related Activities ................................................. 1.225 Identification and Assessment of the Risks of Material Misstatement Due to Fraud ............................................................................................................... 1.228 Responses to the Assessed Risks of Material Misstatement Due to Fraud ........... 1.229 Evaluation of Audit Evidence ...................................................................................... 1.230 Auditor Unable to Continue the Engagement ........................................................... 1.231 Management Representations ....................................................................................... 1.232 Communications to Management and with Those Charged with Governance .... 1.232 Communications to Regulatory and Enforcement Authorities ............................... 1.233 Documentation ............................................................................................................... 1.233 Appendix ......................................................................................................................... 1.234 International Principles for Auditor Oversight ................................................................ 1.236 The International Organisation of Securities Commissions’ Principles for Auditor Oversight ............................................................................................... 1.237 The Public Interest Oversight Board ......................................................................... 1.244 International Standards for Government Auditing .......................................................... 1.245 The International Organisation of Supreme Audit Institutions ............................. 1.245 Professional Framework ................................................................................................ 1.245Internal Auditors .......................................................................................................................... 1.254 Standard 1210—Proficiency ................................................................................................ 1.254 1210.A2 ............................................................................................................................ 1.254 Standard 1220—Due Professional Care ............................................................................ 1.254 1220.A1 ............................................................................................................................ 1.255 1220.A3 ............................................................................................................................ 1.255 Standard 2110—Governance .............................................................................................. 1.255 2110.A1 ............................................................................................................................ 1.255 Standard 2120—Risk Management .................................................................................... 1.256 2120.A1 ............................................................................................................................ 1.256 2120.A2 ............................................................................................................................ 1.256 Standard 2130—Control ...................................................................................................... 1.2561.ii 2011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International)
  • 8. FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS AND FRAUD SCHEMESMANAGEMENTS AND AUDITORS RESPONSIBILITIES (CONT.) 2130.A1 ............................................................................................................................ 1.256 Standard 2210—Engagement Objectives .......................................................................... 1.256 2110.A1 ............................................................................................................................ 1.256 2110.A2 ............................................................................................................................ 1.257 IIAs IPPF—Practice Guide: Internal Auditing and Fraud ..................................................... 1.257 Internal Audits Role in Fighting Fraud ...................................................................... 1.257 Other Roles and Responsibilities for Fraud Prevention and Detection................. 1.258Certified Fraud Examiners.......................................................................................................... 1.259 Help Resolve Allegations of Fraud ..................................................................................... 1.259 Obtain Evidence .................................................................................................................... 1.259 Take Statements..................................................................................................................... 1.260 Write Reports ......................................................................................................................... 1.260 Testify to Findings ................................................................................................................ 1.260 Assist in the Detection and Prevention of Fraud ............................................................. 1.260FINANCIAL STATEMENT FRAUDWhat Is Financial Statement Fraud? ......................................................................................... 1.303Why Financial Statement Fraud Is Committed ....................................................................... 1.303Trends in Financial Statement Fraud ........................................................................................ 1.305Financial Statement Fraud Schemes .......................................................................................... 1.305 Fictitious Revenues ............................................................................................................... 1.306 Sales with Conditions ..................................................................................................... 1.307 What Red Flags Are Associated with Fictitious Revenues? ..................................... 1.307 Timing Differences (Including Premature Revenue Recognition) ................................ 1.308 Premature Revenue Recognition .................................................................................. 1.308 Long-Term Contracts .................................................................................................... 1.310 Channel Stuffing ............................................................................................................. 1.310 Recording Expenses in the Wrong Period ................................................................. 1.311 What Red Flags Are Associated with Timing Differences (Including Premature Revenue Recognition)? ........................................................................... 1.311 Improper Asset Valuation .................................................................................................... 1.312 Inventory Valuation ....................................................................................................... 1.312 Accounts Receivable ...................................................................................................... 1.313 Business Combinations.................................................................................................. 1.314 Fixed Assets..................................................................................................................... 1.314 Understating Assets........................................................................................................ 1.316 Misclassifying Assets ...................................................................................................... 1.316 What Red Flags Are Associated with Improper Asset Valuation?.......................... 1.316 Concealed Liabilities and Expenses .................................................................................... 1.316 Liability/Expense Omissions ....................................................................................... 1.317 Capitalised Expenses ...................................................................................................... 1.3192011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International) 1.iii
  • 9. FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS AND FRAUD SCHEMESFINANCIAL STATEMENT FRAUD (CONT.) What Red Flags Are Associated with Concealed Liabilities and Expenses?.......... 1.320 Improper Disclosures ........................................................................................................... 1.321 Liability Omissions ......................................................................................................... 1.321 Subsequent Events ......................................................................................................... 1.321 Related-Party Transactions ........................................................................................... 1.322 Accounting Changes ...................................................................................................... 1.323 What Red Flags Are Associated with Improper Disclosures? ................................. 1.323What Red Flags Are Associated with Financial Statement Fraud Generally? ..................... 1.324Detection of Fraudulent Financial Statement Schemes ......................................................... 1.325Financial Statement Analysis ...................................................................................................... 1.327 Percentage Analysis—Horizontal and Vertical ................................................................. 1.328 Vertical Analysis Discussion ......................................................................................... 1.329 Horizontal Analysis Discussion.................................................................................... 1.330 Ratio Analysis......................................................................................................................... 1.330 Common Financial Ratios ............................................................................................. 1.331 Tax Return Review ................................................................................................................ 1.334Interviews in Fraudulent Financial Statement Cases .............................................................. 1.334 Interviewing Techniques ...................................................................................................... 1.335 The Interview .................................................................................................................. 1.337Prevention of Financial Statement Fraud ................................................................................. 1.343 Internal Auditors ................................................................................................................... 1.343 Management ........................................................................................................................... 1.343 Reduce the Situational Pressures that Encourage Financial Statement Fraud ...... 1.343 Reduce the Opportunity to Commit Fraud ................................................................ 1.344 Reduce the Rationalisation of Fraud—Strengthen Employee Personal Integrity ........................................................................................................ 1.344ASSET MISAPPROPRIATION: CASH RECEIPTSSkimming ....................................................................................................................................... 1.401 Sales Skimming ...................................................................................................................... 1.402 Register Manipulation .................................................................................................... 1.404 Skimming During Nonbusiness Hours ....................................................................... 1.405 Skimming of Off-Site Sales ........................................................................................... 1.405 Poor Collection Procedures .......................................................................................... 1.406 Understated Sales ........................................................................................................... 1.407 Theft of Cheques Received Through the Mail........................................................... 1.409 Cheque for Currency Substitutions .................................................................................... 1.411 Skimming Receivables .......................................................................................................... 1.412 Forcing Account Balances or Destroying Transaction Records ............................. 1.412 Lapping ............................................................................................................................ 1.413 Stolen Statements ........................................................................................................... 1.4141.iv 2011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International)
  • 10. FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS AND FRAUD SCHEMESASSET MISAPPROPRIATION: CASH RECEIPTS (CONT.) False Account Entries .................................................................................................... 1.415 Inventory Padding ................................................................................................................. 1.416 Detection of Skimming Schemes ........................................................................................ 1.417 Receipt or Sales Level Detection.................................................................................. 1.417 Journal Entry Review ..................................................................................................... 1.417 Detecting Lapping of Sales or Receivables ................................................................. 1.417 Prevention of Skimming Schemes ...................................................................................... 1.418 Receipt or Sales Level Control ..................................................................................... 1.418 General Controls ............................................................................................................ 1.418 Skimming Controls......................................................................................................... 1.418Cash Larceny................................................................................................................................. 1.419 Incoming Cash ....................................................................................................................... 1.420 Theft of Cash from the Register .................................................................................. 1.420 Other Larceny of Sales and Receivables ..................................................................... 1.423 Cash Larceny from the Deposit .......................................................................................... 1.424 Deposit Lapping ............................................................................................................. 1.428 Deposits in Transit ......................................................................................................... 1.428 Detection of Cash Larceny .................................................................................................. 1.428 Receipt Recording .......................................................................................................... 1.428 Control Objectives ......................................................................................................... 1.429 Analytical Review ........................................................................................................... 1.429 Detection at the Register ............................................................................................... 1.430 Cash Account Analysis .................................................................................................. 1.430 Prevention of Cash Larceny ................................................................................................ 1.430 Segregation of Duties ..................................................................................................... 1.430 Assignment Rotation and Mandatory Vacations ....................................................... 1.431 Surprise Cash Counts and Procedure Supervision .................................................... 1.431 Physical Security of Cash ............................................................................................... 1.431ASSET MISAPPROPRIATION: FRAUDULENT DISBURSEMENTSRegister Disbursement Schemes ................................................................................................ 1.501 False Refunds ......................................................................................................................... 1.501 Fictitious Refunds........................................................................................................... 1.503 Overstated Refunds........................................................................................................ 1.503 Credit Card Refunds ...................................................................................................... 1.503 False Voids ............................................................................................................................. 1.504 Concealing Register Disbursement Schemes .................................................................... 1.507 Small Disbursements...................................................................................................... 1.508 Destroying Records ........................................................................................................ 1.508 Detection of Register Disbursement Schemes ................................................................. 1.508 Fictitious Refunds or Voided Sales .............................................................................. 1.5082011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International) 1.v
  • 11. FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS AND FRAUD SCHEMESASSET MISAPPROPRIATION: FRAUDULENT DISBURSEMENTS (CONT.) Review and Analysis of Decreases in Gross Sales and/or Increases in Returns and Allowances ............................................................................................. 1.509 Register Disbursement Scheme Red Flags ................................................................. 1.509 Prevention of Register Disbursement Schemes................................................................ 1.510Cheque Tampering Schemes ...................................................................................................... 1.510 Forged Maker Schemes ........................................................................................................ 1.511 Obtaining the Cheque .................................................................................................... 1.511 To Whom Is the Cheque Made Payable?.................................................................... 1.512 Forging the Signature ..................................................................................................... 1.514 Converting the Cheque .................................................................................................. 1.516 Forged Endorsement Schemes ........................................................................................... 1.516 Intercepting Cheques Before Delivery ........................................................................ 1.516 Theft of Returned Cheques .......................................................................................... 1.518 Re-Routing the Delivery of Cheques ........................................................................... 1.519 Converting the Stolen Cheque...................................................................................... 1.519 Altered Payee Schemes ......................................................................................................... 1.520 Altering Cheques Prepared by Others: Inserting a New Payee ............................... 1.520 Altering Cheques Prepared by Others: “Tacking On” ............................................. 1.522 Altering Cheques Prepared by the Fraudster: Erasable Ink ..................................... 1.522 Altering Cheques Prepared by the Fraudster: Blank Cheques ................................. 1.523 Converting Altered Cheques......................................................................................... 1.523 Authorised Maker Schemes ................................................................................................. 1.523 Overriding Controls Through Intimidation ............................................................... 1.524 Poor Controls.................................................................................................................. 1.526 Concealing Cheque Tampering Schemes........................................................................... 1.526 The Fraudster Reconciling the Bank Statement ........................................................ 1.527 Re-Alteration of Cheques .............................................................................................. 1.528 Miscoding Fraudulent Cheques .................................................................................... 1.528 Re-Issuing Intercepted Cheques .................................................................................. 1.529 Bogus Supporting Documents ..................................................................................... 1.530 Detection of Cheque Tampering Schemes ........................................................................ 1.530 Account Analysis Through Cut-Off Statements ....................................................... 1.530 Bank Reconciliations ...................................................................................................... 1.530 Bank Confirmation ......................................................................................................... 1.531 Cheque-Tampering Red Flags ...................................................................................... 1.531 Prevention of Cheque Tampering Schemes ...................................................................... 1.532 Cheque Disbursement Controls ................................................................................... 1.532 Bank-Assisted Controls ................................................................................................. 1.533 Physical Tampering Prevention .................................................................................... 1.533 Cheque Theft Control Procedures ............................................................................... 1.534Billing Schemes ............................................................................................................................. 1.534 Invoicing Via Shell Companies ........................................................................................... 1.5351.vi 2011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International)
  • 12. FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS AND FRAUD SCHEMESASSET MISAPPROPRIATION: FRAUDULENT DISBURSEMENTS (CONT.) Forming a Shell Company ............................................................................................. 1.535 Submitting False Invoices ............................................................................................. 1.537 Self-Approval of Fraudulent Invoices ......................................................................... 1.538 “Rubber Stamp” Supervisors ........................................................................................ 1.538 Reliance on False Documents ...................................................................................... 1.539 Collusion .......................................................................................................................... 1.539 Purchases of Services Rather than Goods .................................................................. 1.539 Pass-Through Schemes .................................................................................................. 1.540 Invoicing Via Nonaccomplice Vendors ............................................................................. 1.540 Pay-and-Return Schemes............................................................................................... 1.540 Overbilling with a Nonaccomplice Vendor’s Invoices ............................................. 1.542 Personal Purchases With Company Funds........................................................................ 1.542 Personal Purchases Through False Invoicing ............................................................ 1.542 Personal Purchases on Credit Cards or Other Company Accounts ....................... 1.545 Detection ................................................................................................................................ 1.549 Analytical Review ........................................................................................................... 1.549 Computer-Assisted Analytical Review ........................................................................ 1.549 Statistical Sampling ......................................................................................................... 1.550 Vendor or Outsider Complaints .................................................................................. 1.550 Site Visits—Observation ............................................................................................... 1.550 Sample Audit Program .................................................................................................. 1.550 Prevention of Billing Schemes ............................................................................................ 1.552 Education (Training) ...................................................................................................... 1.553 Compensation ................................................................................................................. 1.553 Proper Documentation .................................................................................................. 1.553 Proper Approvals ........................................................................................................... 1.553 Segregation of Duties ..................................................................................................... 1.553 Hotlines ............................................................................................................................ 1.553 Competitive Bidding ...................................................................................................... 1.553 Prevention Checklist ...................................................................................................... 1.554Payroll Fraud Schemes ................................................................................................................ 1.554 Ghost Employees .................................................................................................................. 1.555 Adding the Ghost to the Payroll .................................................................................. 1.555 Collecting Timekeeping Information .......................................................................... 1.558 Issuing the Ghost’s Paycheque ..................................................................................... 1.559 Delivery of the Paycheque ............................................................................................ 1.559 Falsified Hours and Salary ................................................................................................... 1.560 Manually Prepared Timecards ...................................................................................... 1.561 Time Clocks and Other Automated Timekeeping Systems ..................................... 1.565 Rates of Pay ..................................................................................................................... 1.565 Commission Schemes ........................................................................................................... 1.565 Fictitious Sales................................................................................................................. 1.5652011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International) 1.vii
  • 13. FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS AND FRAUD SCHEMESASSET MISAPPROPRIATION: FRAUDULENT DISBURSEMENTS (CONT.) Altered Sales .................................................................................................................... 1.567 Altering Commission Rates .......................................................................................... 1.568 Detection of Payroll Schemes ............................................................................................. 1.568 Independent Payroll Distribution ................................................................................ 1.568 Analysis of Payee Address or Accounts ...................................................................... 1.568 Duplicate Identification Numbers ............................................................................... 1.568 Overtime Authorisation ................................................................................................ 1.568 Commissions ................................................................................................................... 1.568 Analysis of Deductions from Payroll Cheques .......................................................... 1.569 Other Detection Methods ............................................................................................. 1.569 Prevention of Payroll Schemes............................................................................................ 1.569 Segregation of Duties ..................................................................................................... 1.570 Periodic Review and Analysis of Payroll ..................................................................... 1.570 Indicators of Payroll Fraud ........................................................................................... 1.571Expense Reimbursement Schemes ............................................................................................ 1.572 Mischaracterised Expense Reimbursements ..................................................................... 1.573 Overstated Expense Reimbursements ............................................................................... 1.576 Altered Receipts .............................................................................................................. 1.576 Overpurchasing............................................................................................................... 1.578 Overstating Another Employee’s Expenses ............................................................... 1.578 Orders to Overstate Expenses ..................................................................................... 1.578 Fictitious Expense Reimbursements .................................................................................. 1.579 Producing Fictitious Receipts ....................................................................................... 1.579 Obtaining Blank Receipts from Vendors.................................................................... 1.579 Claiming the Expenses of Others ................................................................................ 1.581 Multiple Reimbursements .................................................................................................... 1.581 Detection of Expense Reimbursement Schemes ............................................................. 1.582 Review and Analysis of Expense Accounts ................................................................ 1.582 Detailed Review of Expense Reports .......................................................................... 1.582 Prevention of Expense Reimbursement Schemes............................................................ 1.582 Detailed Expense Reports: Submission and Review ................................................. 1.582ASSET MISAPPROPRIATION: INVENTORY AND OTHER ASSETSMisuse of Inventory and Other Assets ..................................................................................... 1.601 The Costs of Inventory Misuse ........................................................................................... 1.601Theft of Inventory and Other Assets........................................................................................ 1.602 Larceny Schemes ................................................................................................................... 1.602 The False Sale.................................................................................................................. 1.605 Asset Requisitions and Transfers ........................................................................................ 1.605 Purchasing and Receiving Schemes .................................................................................... 1.606 Falsifying Incoming Shipments .................................................................................... 1.6071.viii 2011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International)
  • 14. FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS AND FRAUD SCHEMESASSET MISAPPROPRIATION: INVENTORY AND OTHER ASSETS (CONT.) False Shipments of Inventory and Other Assets .............................................................. 1.607 Concealing Inventory Shrinkage ......................................................................................... 1.609 Altered Inventory Records ............................................................................................ 1.612 Fictitious Sales and Accounts Receivable ................................................................... 1.612 Write-Off of Inventory and Other Assets .................................................................. 1.613 Physical Padding ............................................................................................................. 1.613 Detection of Inventory Schemes ........................................................................................ 1.613 Statistical Sampling ......................................................................................................... 1.613 Perpetual Inventory Records ........................................................................................ 1.613 Shipping Documents ..................................................................................................... 1.614 Physical Inventory Counts ............................................................................................ 1.614 Analytical Review ........................................................................................................... 1.614 Computer-Generated Trend Analysis ......................................................................... 1.615 Detailed Audit Program ................................................................................................ 1.616 Prevention of Inventory Schemes ...................................................................................... 1.617 Proper Documentation .................................................................................................. 1.617 Segregation of Duties ..................................................................................................... 1.618 Independent Checks ...................................................................................................... 1.618 Physical Safeguards ........................................................................................................ 1.618BRIBERY AND CORRUPTIONBribery ........................................................................................................................................... 1.701 Kickback Schemes................................................................................................................. 1.702 Diverting Business to Vendors..................................................................................... 1.704 Overbilling Schemes ...................................................................................................... 1.704 Other Kickback Schemes .............................................................................................. 1.706 Kickback Payments ........................................................................................................ 1.706 Bid-Rigging Schemes ............................................................................................................ 1.707 The Presolicitation Phase .............................................................................................. 1.707 The Solicitation Phase.................................................................................................... 1.711 The Submission Phase ................................................................................................... 1.712 Economic Extortion ............................................................................................................. 1.713 Illegal Gratuities..................................................................................................................... 1.713 Methods of Making Illegal Payments ................................................................................. 1.714 Gifts, Travel, and Entertainment ................................................................................. 1.714 Cash Payments ................................................................................................................ 1.714 Checks and Other Financial Instruments ................................................................... 1.715 Hidden Interests ............................................................................................................. 1.715 Loans ................................................................................................................................ 1.715 Payment of Credit Card Bills ........................................................................................ 1.715 Transfers at Other than Fair Market Value ................................................................ 1.7152011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International) 1.ix
  • 15. FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS AND FRAUD SCHEMESBRIBERY AND CORRUPTION (CONT.) Promises of Favourable Treatment ............................................................................. 1.715Detection of Bribery Schemes ................................................................................................... 1.716 Red Flags of Bribery Schemes ............................................................................................. 1.716 The Corrupt Recipient ................................................................................................... 1.716 The Corrupt Payer .......................................................................................................... 1.717 General Purchasing ........................................................................................................ 1.717 Presolicitation .................................................................................................................. 1.717 Bid Solicitation ................................................................................................................ 1.718 Bid Submission or Contract Acceptance .................................................................... 1.719 Methods of Proving Corrupt Payments ............................................................................. 1.720 The Business Profile—Analysis ................................................................................... 1.720 Sources of Information for the Business Profile ....................................................... 1.722 Proving On-Book Payments................................................................................................ 1.722 Fictitious Disbursement Schemes ................................................................................ 1.722 Ghost Employee Schemes ............................................................................................ 1.726 Overbilling Schemes ...................................................................................................... 1.726 Proving Off-Book Payments ............................................................................................... 1.727 Indirect Evidence of Unrecorded Sales on the Suspect Company’s Books and Records ..................................................................................................... 1.727 Unbalanced Ratios of Costs to Sales ........................................................................... 1.727 Investigation in the Marketplace .................................................................................. 1.728 Proving Payments in Cash ............................................................................................ 1.728Conflicts of Interest ..................................................................................................................... 1.730 Purchase Schemes ................................................................................................................. 1.732 Unique Assets ................................................................................................................. 1.734 Turnaround Sales ............................................................................................................ 1.735 Sales Schemes......................................................................................................................... 1.735 Underbillings ................................................................................................................... 1.735 Writing Off Sales ............................................................................................................ 1.736 Other Schemes....................................................................................................................... 1.736 Business Diversions ....................................................................................................... 1.736 Resource Diversions ...................................................................................................... 1.736 Financial Interest in Companies Under Perpetrator’s Supervision ......................... 1.737 Financial Disclosure ....................................................................................................... 1.737 Appearance of Conflict of Interest .............................................................................. 1.737 Detection of Conflicts of Interest ...................................................................................... 1.738 Tips and Complaints ...................................................................................................... 1.738 Comparison of Vendor Addresses with Employee Addresses ................................ 1.738 Review of Vendor Ownership Files ............................................................................ 1.738 Review of Exit Interviews and Comparisons of Vendor Addresses to Addresses of Subsequent Employers ....................................................................... 1.7381.x 2011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International)
  • 16. FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS AND FRAUD SCHEMESBRIBERY AND CORRUPTION (CONT.) Interviews of Purchasing Personnel for Favourable Treatment of One or More Vendors .............................................................................................................. 1.739 Policies Requiring Certain Employees to Provide the Names and Employers of Immediate Family Members............................................................. 1.739 Prevention of Conflicts of Interest ..................................................................................... 1.739THEFT OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTYCompetitive Intelligence (CI) Versus Espionage .................................................................... 1.802Open Sources of Information .................................................................................................... 1.803 Why Do Companies Resort to Corporate Espionage? .................................................... 1.804 The Bootstrap Effect ............................................................................................................ 1.806The Intelligence Pyramid ............................................................................................................ 1.807 Fundamental Intelligence Techniques................................................................................ 1.807 Basic Sources.......................................................................................................................... 1.807 Industry Analyst Reports ............................................................................................... 1.808 Electronic Sources .......................................................................................................... 1.808 Creative Sources .................................................................................................................... 1.809 Classified Ads .................................................................................................................. 1.809 Environmental Impact Statements .............................................................................. 1.810 Proxies .............................................................................................................................. 1.810 Posing as a Customer ..................................................................................................... 1.810Building Financial Statements .................................................................................................... 1.811 How Income Statements Are Calculated ........................................................................... 1.812 Revenue Estimates ......................................................................................................... 1.812 Costs of Goods Sold ...................................................................................................... 1.812 Overhead ......................................................................................................................... 1.813 How Balance Sheets Are Calculated................................................................................... 1.813Nontraditional Sources................................................................................................................ 1.814A Corporate Spy Uses Open Sources: What of It? ................................................................. 1.815Favourite Targets ......................................................................................................................... 1.816 Research and Development ................................................................................................. 1.816 Marketing ................................................................................................................................ 1.817 Manufacturing and Production ........................................................................................... 1.817 Human Resources ................................................................................................................. 1.817How Information Is Lost ........................................................................................................... 1.817 Accident .................................................................................................................................. 1.818 Poor Information Security Procedures .............................................................................. 1.818 On-site Materials That Are Targeted ........................................................................... 1.818 Guarding Manual Systems............................................................................................. 1.820 Guarding Information Stored in Electronic Format................................................. 1.821Basic Principles of Spying ........................................................................................................... 1.8232011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International) 1.xi
  • 17. FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS AND FRAUD SCHEMESTHEFT OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY (CONT.) Recruited Spies ...................................................................................................................... 1.823 False Flag Recruitment .................................................................................................. 1.823 Recruiting by Justification ............................................................................................. 1.824 Trapping Recruits ........................................................................................................... 1.824 Counter-Recruitment Training ............................................................................................ 1.824 After Recruitment ................................................................................................................. 1.825 Targeted Information .................................................................................................... 1.825 Methods for Safely Collecting Data ............................................................................. 1.826 Communications Between the Employee and the Control...................................... 1.826 Security Measures for the Recruit ................................................................................ 1.827 Planting Bugs .................................................................................................................. 1.827 Deception Techniques .......................................................................................................... 1.827 Employment Advertisements ....................................................................................... 1.828 Headhunter Scams.......................................................................................................... 1.828 Market Research Scams ................................................................................................. 1.828 Phoney Contract Bids .................................................................................................... 1.828Infiltration Techniques ................................................................................................................ 1.829 Posing as an Employee or Contract Labourer .................................................................. 1.829 Stealing Badges ...................................................................................................................... 1.830 Moles and Sleepers ................................................................................................................ 1.831 Places Where Spies Snoop ................................................................................................... 1.831 Mailroom ......................................................................................................................... 1.832 Loading Docks ................................................................................................................ 1.832 Storage Areas................................................................................................................... 1.832 Hotels ............................................................................................................................... 1.833 Warning Signs of Infiltrations ............................................................................................. 1.834 Countermeasures ................................................................................................................... 1.836Transactional Intelligence ........................................................................................................... 1.837 Informants .............................................................................................................................. 1.837 Decoy Websites ..................................................................................................................... 1.838Telling Good Lies ........................................................................................................................ 1.839Visual Surveillance Against People ............................................................................................ 1.840 Pre-Recruitment Surveillance .............................................................................................. 1.840 Briefing Files on the Subject ................................................................................................ 1.841 Moving Surveillance .............................................................................................................. 1.841 Fixed Surveillance.................................................................................................................. 1.842E-Mail ............................................................................................................................................ 1.842Social Engineering........................................................................................................................ 1.843 The Neophyte ........................................................................................................................ 1.843 The Power Broker ................................................................................................................. 1.843 The Systems Administrator ................................................................................................. 1.844 Fraudulent Surveys ................................................................................................................ 1.8441.xii 2011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International)
  • 18. FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS AND FRAUD SCHEMESTHEFT OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY (CONT.) Fake Prizes ............................................................................................................................. 1.844 Reverse Social Engineering .................................................................................................. 1.844 Countering Social Engineering ............................................................................................ 1.845Cloaking and Misdirection .......................................................................................................... 1.846 Intelligence Needs ................................................................................................................. 1.846 Print Media ...................................................................................................................... 1.846 Database Searches .......................................................................................................... 1.847 Existing Staffing ............................................................................................................. 1.847 Security Surveys .............................................................................................................. 1.848 Cloaking Operations ............................................................................................................. 1.849 Trash and Waste Disposal ............................................................................................. 1.850 Deliveries and Shipments .............................................................................................. 1.850 Hours of Operation and Power Consumption .......................................................... 1.850 Emissions......................................................................................................................... 1.850 Food Deliveries............................................................................................................... 1.851 Computer Emanations .................................................................................................. 1.851 Travel Plans ..................................................................................................................... 1.851 Misdirection ........................................................................................................................... 1.852 Spotting False Suitors .................................................................................................... 1.852 Vendors and Suppliers ................................................................................................... 1.854 Technical Articles and Publications ............................................................................. 1.854 Consultants ...................................................................................................................... 1.854 Dealing with Employees Who Are Leaving ............................................................... 1.855 Hackers ............................................................................................................................ 1.855Technical Surveillance ................................................................................................................. 1.856 Aerial Photography ............................................................................................................... 1.858 Bugging and Wiretapping ..................................................................................................... 1.858 The Insertion Point ........................................................................................................ 1.858 The Technology .............................................................................................................. 1.859 Warning Signs of Bugging ............................................................................................. 1.861 Preliminary Search Procedures ..................................................................................... 1.864 Video Surveillance ................................................................................................................. 1.867 Photographic Cameras.......................................................................................................... 1.868 Minicameras .................................................................................................................... 1.868 Digital Cameras ............................................................................................................... 1.868 Infrared Film ................................................................................................................... 1.869 Digital Cameras ............................................................................................................... 1.869 Cellular Telephones............................................................................................................... 1.870 Monitoring Computer Emanations .................................................................................... 1.870 Tape Recorders ...................................................................................................................... 1.871 Computer System Penetrations ........................................................................................... 1.871Investigating an Information Theft Case ................................................................................. 1.8712011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International) 1.xiii
  • 19. FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS AND FRAUD SCHEMESTHEFT OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY (CONT.)Program for Safeguarding Proprietary Information (SPI) ..................................................... 1.873 Task Force .............................................................................................................................. 1.873 Employee Awareness ............................................................................................................ 1.874 Nondisclosure Agreements .................................................................................................. 1.874 Document Classification ...................................................................................................... 1.875 Visitors .................................................................................................................................... 1.875 Offices..................................................................................................................................... 1.875 Maintenance Workers ........................................................................................................... 1.876 Meeting Rooms...................................................................................................................... 1.876 Quiet Rooms .......................................................................................................................... 1.876 Communications Equipment .............................................................................................. 1.876 Electronic Mail and Voice Mail ........................................................................................... 1.876 Computer Systems ................................................................................................................ 1.877 Faxing Documents ................................................................................................................ 1.878 Video Encryption .................................................................................................................. 1.878 Corporate Telephone Exchanges........................................................................................ 1.878 Trade Shows and Public Events ......................................................................................... 1.879 Foreign Travel........................................................................................................................ 1.879Technical Surveillance Countermeasures (TSCM) Survey ..................................................... 1.879Preventing Employee Theft of Proprietary Information ....................................................... 1.881 Employee Awareness ............................................................................................................ 1.881 Nondisclosure and Noncompetition Agreements............................................................ 1.882 Make Sure Employees Know When Not to Speak .......................................................... 1.883 Exit Interviews....................................................................................................................... 1.883Protecting the Trade Secrets of Others .................................................................................... 1.884FINANCIAL INSTITUTION FRAUDEmbezzlement Schemes ............................................................................................................. 1.901 Types of Embezzlement Schemes ...................................................................................... 1.901 False Accounting Entries .............................................................................................. 1.901 Unauthorised Withdrawals ............................................................................................ 1.901 Unauthorised Disbursement of Funds to Outsiders ................................................. 1.901 Paying Personal Expenses from Bank Funds............................................................. 1.902 Theft of Physical Property ............................................................................................ 1.902 Moving Money from Customers’ Dormant or Inactive Accounts ......................... 1.902 Unauthorised, Unrecorded Cash Payments................................................................ 1.902 Theft and Other Unauthorised Use of Collateral ...................................................... 1.902 Detection Methods ............................................................................................................... 1.902Loan Fraud .................................................................................................................................... 1.903 Financial Institution Failures as a Result of Real Estate Loan Fraud ............................ 1.903 Common Loan Fraud Schemes .......................................................................................... 1.9031.xiv 2011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International)
  • 20. FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS AND FRAUD SCHEMESFINANCIAL INSTITUTION FRAUD (CONT.) Loans to Nonexistent Borrowers ................................................................................. 1.903 Sham Loans with Kickbacks and Diversion ............................................................... 1.903 Double-Pledging Collateral ........................................................................................... 1.904 Reciprocal Loan Arrangements .................................................................................... 1.904 Swapping Bad Loans—Daisy Chains .......................................................................... 1.904 Linked Financing ............................................................................................................ 1.904 False Applications with False Credit Information ..................................................... 1.904 Single-Family Housing Loan Fraud ............................................................................. 1.904 Construction Loans ........................................................................................................ 1.904 Red Flags of Loan Fraud...................................................................................................... 1.908 Nonperforming Loans ................................................................................................... 1.908 High Turnover in Developer’s Personnel ................................................................... 1.909 High Turnover in Tenant Mix ...................................................................................... 1.909 Increased Change Orders .............................................................................................. 1.909 Missing Documentation ................................................................................................ 1.909 Loan Increases or Extensions, Replacement Loans .................................................. 1.911 Funds Transformation ................................................................................................... 1.912 Cash Flow Deficiencies ................................................................................................. 1.912 Change in Ownership Makeup ..................................................................................... 1.912 Disguised Transactions......................................................................................................... 1.912Real Estate Fraud ......................................................................................................................... 1.913 Appraisal Fraud ..................................................................................................................... 1.914 The Role of the Appraiser............................................................................................. 1.914 Fundamentals of Real Estate Appraisals ..................................................................... 1.914 Determining “Value” ..................................................................................................... 1.914 Valuation Methods ......................................................................................................... 1.915 Fraudulent Appraisals .................................................................................................... 1.916 Uses for Fraudulent Appraisals .................................................................................... 1.916 Red Flags of “Made-as-Instructed” Appraisals .......................................................... 1.917 Detecting Fraudulent Appraisals .................................................................................. 1.917 Equity Skimming ................................................................................................................... 1.918 Property Flipping .................................................................................................................. 1.918 Nominee or Strawman Loans.............................................................................................. 1.919 Mortgage Pulling ................................................................................................................... 1.919New Account Fraud Schemes .................................................................................................... 1.919 False Identification ................................................................................................................ 1.919 Business Accounts Using Stolen Cheques ......................................................................... 1.919 Personal Accounts Using Fraudulent Cheques................................................................. 1.920 Prevention .............................................................................................................................. 1.920 Personal Accounts .......................................................................................................... 1.920 Business Accounts .......................................................................................................... 1.921 Detection ................................................................................................................................ 1.9222011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International) 1.xv
  • 21. FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS AND FRAUD SCHEMESFINANCIAL INSTITUTION FRAUD (CONT.)Money Transfer (Wire) Fraud Schemes .................................................................................... 1.922 Instantaneous Transfer ......................................................................................................... 1.922 Common Schemes ................................................................................................................ 1.923 Dishonest Bank Employees .......................................................................................... 1.923 Misrepresentation of Identity ....................................................................................... 1.923 System Password Security Compromised ................................................................... 1.923 Forged Authorisations ................................................................................................... 1.923 Unauthorised Entry and Interception ......................................................................... 1.923 Preventing and Detecting Wire Transfer Fraud ............................................................... 1.923 Business Audits and Other Controls ........................................................................... 1.923 Bank Audits ..................................................................................................................... 1.924Automated Teller Machine (ATM) Fraud ................................................................................ 1.925 Detection ................................................................................................................................ 1.926Advanced Fee Fraud .................................................................................................................... 1.926 Red Flags ................................................................................................................................ 1.926 Brokered Loans ..................................................................................................................... 1.927Letter-of-Credit Fraud ................................................................................................................. 1.927Inside/Outside Frauds ................................................................................................................ 1.927 Account Information Frauds............................................................................................... 1.928 Trading Activities .................................................................................................................. 1.928Prevention ..................................................................................................................................... 1.928 Loan Origination, Underwriting, Closing, Disbursement, and Servicing Segregation......................................................................................................... 1.928 Committee Approval of All Large or Unusual Transactions.......................................... 1.928 Transfer Journal Entries and Orders Review .................................................................... 1.929 Independent Review of Loans ............................................................................................ 1.929 Management Review of Write-Offs ................................................................................... 1.929 Routine Examination of Officers’ Accounts .................................................................... 1.929 Proper Lending Policies ....................................................................................................... 1.929 Document Requirements for Standard Transactions ...................................................... 1.929 Information Verification (For Example, Loan Applications)......................................... 1.930 Employee Training ................................................................................................................ 1.930 Standardised Procedures ...................................................................................................... 1.930The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision ....................................................................... 1.931 The Basel Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision ....................................... 1.932 The International Convergence of Capital Measurement and Capital Standards ........ 1.938 Capital Requirements ............................................................................................................ 1.938 The Basel II Framework ...................................................................................................... 1.939 Sound Practices for the Management and Supervision of Operational Risk ............... 1.941 Background ..................................................................................................................... 1.942 Industry Trends and Practices ...................................................................................... 1.943 Sound Practices ............................................................................................................... 1.9441.xvi 2011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International)
  • 22. FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS AND FRAUD SCHEMESCHEQUE AND CREDIT CARD FRAUDCheque Fraud ............................................................................................................................... 1.1001 Counterfeiting Cheques ........................................................................................................ 1.1001 Signs of Counterfeit and Forged Cheques .................................................................. 1.1002 Cheque Fraud Vulnerabilities .............................................................................................. 1.1002 Cheque Theft ......................................................................................................................... 1.1002 Cheque Fraud Schemes ........................................................................................................ 1.1003 Paperhangers ................................................................................................................... 1.1003 Stop Payment Orders..................................................................................................... 1.1003 Cheque Kiting ................................................................................................................. 1.1004 Demand Drafts ............................................................................................................... 1.1004 Third-Party Bill Paying Services ................................................................................... 1.1004 Travellers’ Cheques ........................................................................................................ 1.1005 Payroll Cheque Fraud .................................................................................................... 1.1005 Dumpster Diving............................................................................................................ 1.1006 Scanning ........................................................................................................................... 1.1006 System Password Security Compromised ................................................................... 1.1006Cheque Fraud Rings .................................................................................................................... 1.1006Cheque Fraud Detection ............................................................................................................. 1.1007 FBI Profile of Cheque Fraud Activity ................................................................................ 1.1007 Detection Techniques ........................................................................................................... 1.1008Cheque Fraud Prevention and Investigation ........................................................................... 1.1009 Cheque Fraud Investigations ............................................................................................... 1.1010 Cheque Fraud Prevention Tools ......................................................................................... 1.1011 Check Writing Pens ........................................................................................................ 1.1011 Fingerprint Identifiers .................................................................................................... 1.1012 Forensic Document Examination ................................................................................ 1.1012 Signature .......................................................................................................................... 1.1012 Handwriting..................................................................................................................... 1.1013 Video Spectral Comparator .......................................................................................... 1.1013 Electrostatic Detection Apparatus ............................................................................... 1.1013Credit Card Fraud ........................................................................................................................ 1.1013 Credit Card Schemes............................................................................................................. 1.1013 Unauthorised Use of a Lost or Stolen Card ............................................................... 1.1013 Organised Crime Rings.................................................................................................. 1.1014 Advance Payments ......................................................................................................... 1.1014 Stolen Card Numbers .................................................................................................... 1.1014 Shave and Paste .............................................................................................................. 1.1015 De-Emboss/Re-Emboss ............................................................................................... 1.1015 Counterfeit Cards ........................................................................................................... 1.1015 Telephone/Mail Order Fraud....................................................................................... 1.1016 Mail Theft ........................................................................................................................ 1.10162011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International) 1.xvii
  • 23. FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS AND FRAUD SCHEMESCHEQUE AND CREDIT CARD FRAUD (CONT.) False Applications .......................................................................................................... 1.1016 Credit “Doctors” ............................................................................................................ 1.1016 True Name Fraud ........................................................................................................... 1.1016 Non-Receipt Fraud ........................................................................................................ 1.1017 Key-Enter Counterfeiting ............................................................................................. 1.1017 Creditmaster .................................................................................................................... 1.1017 Probing ............................................................................................................................. 1.1017 Skimming ......................................................................................................................... 1.1018 Pretext Calling ................................................................................................................. 1.1018 Account Takeover .......................................................................................................... 1.1018 Institutional Identity Theft and “Spoof” Sites ........................................................... 1.1018 Guidance for Cardholders ................................................................................................... 1.1019 Merchant Scams .................................................................................................................... 1.1020 Company Credit Cards ......................................................................................................... 1.1021Prevention and Detection of Credit Card Fraud ..................................................................... 1.1021 Prevention .............................................................................................................................. 1.1023 Education Programs ...................................................................................................... 1.1023 Liaison with Law Enforcement .................................................................................... 1.1023 Technological Deterrents ..................................................................................................... 1.1023 Activation of Cards ........................................................................................................ 1.1024 CyberSource Advanced Fraud Screen ......................................................................... 1.1024 Computer Edits .............................................................................................................. 1.1024 Card Scrutiny at Point of Sale ....................................................................................... 1.1025 Smart Cards and Chip Cards ........................................................................................ 1.1025 Internet/Telephone Orders .......................................................................................... 1.1025Electronic Bill Payment and Person-to-Person Payments ..................................................... 1.1027 Electronic Fund Transfer ..................................................................................................... 1.1027 Electronic Bill Presentment and Payment ......................................................................... 1.1028 Biller Direct Systems ...................................................................................................... 1.1028 Person to Person (P2P) Payment Systems ........................................................................ 1.1029 A Model of P2P: PayPal ................................................................................................ 1.1030 Types of Fraud....................................................................................................................... 1.1030 Detection and Deterrence of Electronic Transfer Fraud ................................................ 1.1031 Issuance and Use of Access Devices ........................................................................... 1.1031 Operation of Payment Systems .................................................................................... 1.1032 Protection of Internet Addresses ................................................................................. 1.1033 Prevention of EFT Fraud in Other Companies ........................................................ 1.1033INSURANCE FRAUDTypes of Insurance Policies ........................................................................................................ 1.1101Agent/Broker Fraud .................................................................................................................... 1.11021.xviii 2011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International)
  • 24. FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS AND FRAUD SCHEMESINSURANCE FRAUD (CONT.) Cash, Loan, and Dividend Cheques ................................................................................... 1.1102 Settlement Cheques ............................................................................................................... 1.1102 Premium Fraud ...................................................................................................................... 1.1102 Fictitious Payees .................................................................................................................... 1.1103 Fictitious Death Claims ........................................................................................................ 1.1103 Underwriting Irregularities ................................................................................................... 1.1103 Misrepresentation ........................................................................................................... 1.1103 False Information ........................................................................................................... 1.1103 Fictitious Policies ............................................................................................................ 1.1104 Surety and Performance Bond Schemes ..................................................................... 1.1104 Sliding ............................................................................................................................... 1.1104 Twisting............................................................................................................................ 1.1104 Churning .......................................................................................................................... 1.1104Vehicle Insurance Schemes ........................................................................................................ 1.1104 Ditching .................................................................................................................................. 1.1104 Past Posting ............................................................................................................................ 1.1105 Vehicle Repair ........................................................................................................................ 1.1105 Vehicle Smuggling ................................................................................................................. 1.1105 Phantom Vehicles ................................................................................................................. 1.1105 Staged Accidents.................................................................................................................... 1.1105 Two Vehicle Accident.................................................................................................... 1.1105 Three or More Vehicle Accident.................................................................................. 1.1106 Other Staged Accidents ................................................................................................. 1.1106 Inflated Damages .................................................................................................................. 1.1106 Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) Switch................................................................... 1.1106 Rental Car Fraud ................................................................................................................... 1.1106Property Schemes......................................................................................................................... 1.1106 Inflated Inventory ................................................................................................................. 1.1107 Phoney or Inflated Thefts .................................................................................................... 1.1107 Paper Boats ............................................................................................................................ 1.1107Life Insurance Schemes............................................................................................................... 1.1107 Fraudulent Death Claims ..................................................................................................... 1.1107 Murder for Profit................................................................................................................... 1.1107Liability Schemes .......................................................................................................................... 1.1107“Red Flags” of Insurance Fraud ................................................................................................ 1.1108General Insurance Fraud Indicators.......................................................................................... 1.1111Computer-Generated Detection Reports ................................................................................. 1.1112 Address Similarity Report .................................................................................................... 1.1112 Electronic Confirmations ..................................................................................................... 1.1112 Exception or Manual Override Reports ............................................................................ 1.1112Workers’ Compensation Fraud .................................................................................................. 1.1112 Common Schemes ................................................................................................................ 1.11122011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International) 1.xix
  • 25. FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS AND FRAUD SCHEMESINSURANCE FRAUD (CONT.) Premium Fraud ............................................................................................................... 1.1112 Agent Fraud..................................................................................................................... 1.1114 Claimant Fraud ............................................................................................................... 1.1114 Organised Fraud ............................................................................................................. 1.1115 Red Flags ................................................................................................................................ 1.1116 Investigation Tips .................................................................................................................. 1.1119 Premium Fraud ............................................................................................................... 1.1119 Claimant Fraud ............................................................................................................... 1.1119HEALTH CARE FRAUDDefinition ...................................................................................................................................... 1.1201Provider Fraud.............................................................................................................................. 1.1201 Provider Services Charged But Not Rendered ................................................................. 1.1201 Overutilisation ....................................................................................................................... 1.1201 Unnecessary Medical Testing .............................................................................................. 1.1202 Fictitious Providers – Bogus Doctors ................................................................................ 1.1202 Photocopied Claim Forms with Benefit Assignment Repeatedly Submitted by a Provider with New Date of Service ................................................................................ 1.1202 Double Billing ........................................................................................................................ 1.1202 Fictitious Diagnostic Codes ................................................................................................. 1.1202 Coding Fragmentation .......................................................................................................... 1.1203 Mutually Exclusive Procedures ........................................................................................... 1.1204 Upcoding ................................................................................................................................ 1.1204Insured Fraud ............................................................................................................................... 1.1204 Fictitious Claims .................................................................................................................... 1.1204 Multiple Claims ...................................................................................................................... 1.1204 Alteration ................................................................................................................................ 1.1205 Ineligible Dependants ........................................................................................................... 1.1205 Doctor Shopping ................................................................................................................... 1.1205 Third-Party Fraud.................................................................................................................. 1.1205 Death of Insured ................................................................................................................... 1.1205 Red Flags ................................................................................................................................ 1.1206 Detection ......................................................................................................................... 1.1206 Employee Claims Fraud ....................................................................................................... 1.1206 Detection ......................................................................................................................... 1.1207 Prevention ....................................................................................................................... 1.1207CONSUMER FRAUDCon Schemes ................................................................................................................................ 1.1301 Advance Fee Swindles and Debt Consolidation Schemes .............................................. 1.1302 Directory Advertising Schemes ........................................................................................... 1.13021.xx 2011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International)
  • 26. FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS AND FRAUD SCHEMESCONSUMER FRAUD (CONT.) Merchandising Schemes ....................................................................................................... 1.1303 Personal Improvement Frauds ............................................................................................ 1.1303 Diploma Mills ........................................................................................................................ 1.1303 Modeling Schools .................................................................................................................. 1.1303 Direct Debit from Chequing Accounts ............................................................................. 1.1303 Equity-Skimming Schemes .................................................................................................. 1.1304 Fundraising, Nonprofits, and Religious Schemes............................................................. 1.1304 Home-Based Businesses....................................................................................................... 1.1304 Home Improvements ........................................................................................................... 1.1304 Money Manager or Financial Planner ................................................................................ 1.1304 Phone Card Schemes ............................................................................................................ 1.1304 Scavenger or Revenge Scheme ............................................................................................ 1.1304 Sweepstakes, Giveaways, and Prizes .................................................................................. 1.1305 College Scholarship Services................................................................................................ 1.1305 Credit Repair .......................................................................................................................... 1.1305 Weight Loss Fraud ................................................................................................................ 1.1305 Other Con Schemes .............................................................................................................. 1.1305 Block Hustle .................................................................................................................... 1.1305 Pigeon Drop .................................................................................................................... 1.1305 Bank Examiner Swindle ................................................................................................ 1.1306 Jamaican Handkerchief or Envelope Switch .............................................................. 1.1306 The Obituary Hustle ...................................................................................................... 1.1306 Three-Card Monte .......................................................................................................... 1.1306 Poker Bunco .................................................................................................................... 1.1306 Missing-Heir Scheme ..................................................................................................... 1.1306 Gold Mine Swindle......................................................................................................... 1.1307 Spanish Prisoner Game ................................................................................................. 1.1307 Murphy Game ................................................................................................................. 1.1307 Badger Game................................................................................................................... 1.1307 Goat Pasture Scam ......................................................................................................... 1.1307Telemarketing Fraud.................................................................................................................... 1.1307 Telemarketing Terminology................................................................................................. 1.1308 Boiler Room Staff ........................................................................................................... 1.1308 Fronters ............................................................................................................................ 1.1308 Closers .............................................................................................................................. 1.1308 Verifiers ............................................................................................................................ 1.1308 Staff Exploitation .................................................................................................................. 1.1309 Telemarketing Suppliers ....................................................................................................... 1.1309 Turnkeys .......................................................................................................................... 1.1310 Independent Service Organisations ............................................................................. 1.1310 Factoring Companies ..................................................................................................... 1.1310 Cheque-Cashing Establishments .................................................................................. 1.13112011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International) 1.xxi
  • 27. FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS AND FRAUD SCHEMESCONSUMER FRAUD (CONT.) Common Telemarketing Scams .......................................................................................... 1.1311 Senior Scams ................................................................................................................... 1.1311 Targeting the Unemployed ........................................................................................... 1.1312 Affinity Fraud.................................................................................................................. 1.1312 Consolation ..................................................................................................................... 1.1312 Toll-Free Numbers......................................................................................................... 1.1313 Automatic Debits ........................................................................................................... 1.1313 Business Opportunities (Biz Ops) and Work-at-Home Schemes ........................... 1.1314 Fly and Buy ...................................................................................................................... 1.1314 Vending Machine and Pay Phone Scams .................................................................... 1.1315 Entrepreneurial Enterprises .......................................................................................... 1.1315 Employment Services .................................................................................................... 1.1315 Credit Services................................................................................................................. 1.1316 Credit Repair Scams ....................................................................................................... 1.1316 Prime-Rate Credit Cards................................................................................................ 1.1316 Gold Cards ...................................................................................................................... 1.1316 Real Estate ....................................................................................................................... 1.1317 Art/Rare Items ............................................................................................................... 1.1317 Collectibles and Memorabilia........................................................................................ 1.1318 Precious Stones ............................................................................................................... 1.1318 Precious Metals ............................................................................................................... 1.1319 International Calls .......................................................................................................... 1.1319 Selling Free Information................................................................................................ 1.1319 Scholarship Services ....................................................................................................... 1.1319 Charity Fronts ................................................................................................................. 1.1320 Door-to-Door Promotions ........................................................................................... 1.1320 Prizes, Sweepstakes, Discount Services ...................................................................... 1.1320 Magazine Subscriptions ................................................................................................. 1.1321 Office and Household Supplies ................................................................................... 1.1321 Phishing ........................................................................................................................... 1.1321 SMiShing or Tishing....................................................................................................... 1.1323 Voice Phishing or Vishing............................................................................................. 1.1323 Pharming .......................................................................................................................... 1.1323 Recovery Rooms............................................................................................................. 1.1324Ponzi and Pyramid Schemes ...................................................................................................... 1.1324 Definition ............................................................................................................................... 1.1324 Illegal Pyramid or Ponzi Scheme?....................................................................................... 1.1325 Pyramid Schemes, Legal and Illegal ............................................................................. 1.1325 What’s the Difference Between an Illegal Pyramid and a Ponzi Scheme? ................... 1.1326 Categories of Ponzi Schemes .............................................................................................. 1.1328 Pure Cash Schemes ........................................................................................................ 1.1328 Product Fronts ................................................................................................................ 1.13301.xxii 2011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International)
  • 28. FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS AND FRAUD SCHEMESCONSUMER FRAUD (CONT.) Spotting Pyramid Schemes................................................................................................... 1.1332Identity Theft ................................................................................................................................ 1.1334 The Profile.............................................................................................................................. 1.1334 Common Ways of Obtaining Information........................................................................ 1.1335 Sorting Through Discarded Trash ............................................................................... 1.1335 Shoulder Surfing ............................................................................................................. 1.1336 Rifling Through CoWorkers’ Desk Drawers.............................................................. 1.1336 Theft of Mail—Incoming or Outgoing ....................................................................... 1.1336 Using an Accomplice Within the Organisation ......................................................... 1.1336 Soliciting Identifiers Through False Job Application Schemes ............................... 1.1337 Certifications, Diplomas, or Licences Placed On Workplace Walls ....................... 1.1337 Using Pretext, Ruse, or Gag Calls ................................................................................ 1.1337 Rental and Loan Applications ...................................................................................... 1.1337 Public Records ................................................................................................................ 1.1337 The Internet .................................................................................................................... 1.1338 Tracking Down the Thief .................................................................................................... 1.1338 Confronting the Fraudster ................................................................................................... 1.1339 Preventing False Identity Fraud .......................................................................................... 1.1339 What To Do If Your Identity Is Stolen ............................................................................. 1.1340COMPUTER AND INTERNET FRAUDComputer Fraud ........................................................................................................................... 1.1401Computer Hacking....................................................................................................................... 1.1403 Definition ............................................................................................................................... 1.1403 Social Engineering ................................................................................................................. 1.1404 Hacker Computer Manipulation ......................................................................................... 1.1405 Trojan Horse ................................................................................................................... 1.1405 Trap Doors ...................................................................................................................... 1.1405 Salami Techniques .......................................................................................................... 1.1405 Logic Bombs ................................................................................................................... 1.1405 Data Diddling.................................................................................................................. 1.1406 Scavenging and Dumpster Diving ............................................................................... 1.1406 Data Leakage ................................................................................................................... 1.1406 Piggybacking/Impersonation ....................................................................................... 1.1406 Simulation and Modelling ............................................................................................. 1.1406 Wire Tapping .................................................................................................................. 1.1406 Network Weaving ........................................................................................................... 1.1406 Altering the Way a System Generates Passwords ...................................................... 1.1407 Buffer Overflow Exploits ............................................................................................. 1.1407 Privilege Escalation Exploits ........................................................................................ 1.1408 Backdoors ........................................................................................................................ 1.14082011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International) 1.xxiii
  • 29. FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS AND FRAUD SCHEMESCOMPUTER AND INTERNET FRAUD (CONT.) HTTP Exploits ............................................................................................................... 1.1408 Anti-Hacker Measures .......................................................................................................... 1.1409 Hacker Detection Measures................................................................................................. 1.1410 Hacking Insurance ................................................................................................................ 1.1411Electronic Mail ............................................................................................................................. 1.1411 E-Mail Security Concerns .................................................................................................... 1.1412 E-mail Ownership .......................................................................................................... 1.1412 Organisational Liability .................................................................................................. 1.1413Computer Viruses ........................................................................................................................ 1.1414 Hoaxes .................................................................................................................................... 1.1415 Types and Terminology of Computer Viruses ................................................................. 1.1415 Macro Virus ..................................................................................................................... 1.1415 Boot Sector Viruses........................................................................................................ 1.1416 Parasitic Viruses .............................................................................................................. 1.1416 TSR Viruses ..................................................................................................................... 1.1417 Application Software Viruses ....................................................................................... 1.1417 Multi-Partite Viruses ...................................................................................................... 1.1417 Polymorphic Viruses ...................................................................................................... 1.1418 Stealth Viruses ................................................................................................................. 1.1418 Mutation Engine Viruses ............................................................................................... 1.1418 Network Viruses ............................................................................................................. 1.1419 Worms .............................................................................................................................. 1.1419 Virus Carriers ......................................................................................................................... 1.1420 Virus Indicators ..................................................................................................................... 1.1420 Virus Protection .................................................................................................................... 1.1421 Antivirus Software Operation ............................................................................................. 1.1421 Conventional Disk Scanners ......................................................................................... 1.1421 Heuristic Scanners .......................................................................................................... 1.1421 Behaviour-Based Detection Scanners ......................................................................... 1.1422 Change Detection Scanners .......................................................................................... 1.1422 Inoculation....................................................................................................................... 1.1422 Investigating Virus Infections ............................................................................................. 1.1422Internet Fraud ............................................................................................................................... 1.1423 Typical Internet Schemes ..................................................................................................... 1.1423 Modem Hijacking ........................................................................................................... 1.1423 Internet Commerce ........................................................................................................ 1.1424 Get Rich Quick ............................................................................................................... 1.1424 Pyramid Schemes ............................................................................................................ 1.1424 Foreign Trusts ................................................................................................................. 1.1424 Chain Letters ................................................................................................................... 1.1425 Investment and Securities Fraud .................................................................................. 1.1425 Spamming ........................................................................................................................ 1.14251.xxiv 2011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International)
  • 30. FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS AND FRAUD SCHEMESCOMPUTER AND INTERNET FRAUD (CONT.) Counterfeit Cheque Scams ............................................................................................ 1.1426 Phishing ........................................................................................................................... 1.1426 SMiShing or Tishing....................................................................................................... 1.1429 Pharming .......................................................................................................................... 1.1430 Combating Internet Fraud ................................................................................................... 1.1430Electronic Commerce .................................................................................................................. 1.1431 Applying Encryption to E-Commerce Security ................................................................ 1.1433 Smart Cards ..................................................................................................................... 1.1433Insider Threats.............................................................................................................................. 1.1434 Characteristics ........................................................................................................................ 1.1435Computer Security ....................................................................................................................... 1.1436 Effective Security .................................................................................................................. 1.1436 Securing the Communications Network ..................................................................... 1.1436 Passwords ........................................................................................................................ 1.1436 Other Network Security ................................................................................................ 1.1437 The Risk Assessment Process ............................................................................................. 1.1438Internal Controls in the Data Centre ........................................................................................ 1.1438 Systems Maintenance ............................................................................................................ 1.1439 Implementation Controls ..................................................................................................... 1.1439 Computer Operations ........................................................................................................... 1.1440 System Software .................................................................................................................... 1.1440 Data Files ................................................................................................................................ 1.1440 Access and Telecommunication Controls ......................................................................... 1.1440 Segregation of Duties ........................................................................................................... 1.1441 Logs and History Files .......................................................................................................... 1.1441 Security Software ................................................................................................................... 1.1442Internal Controls in Computer Applications ........................................................................... 1.1443 Control Techniques .............................................................................................................. 1.1443 Control Objectives ................................................................................................................ 1.1444 Evaluating Application Controls......................................................................................... 1.1444 End-User Computing Internal Control ............................................................................. 1.1445Conducting an Investigation Regarding Computer Crimes ................................................... 1.1445PUBLIC SECTOR FRAUDFalse Claims and Statements ...................................................................................................... 1.1501 Examples of False Claims .................................................................................................... 1.1501 Detection ................................................................................................................................ 1.1501 Failure to Produce Documents in a Timely Manner ................................................. 1.1502 Failure to Respond to Inquiries in a Timely Manner ................................................ 1.1502 Inadequacies in Reporting Requirements ................................................................... 1.1502 Failure to Have Adequate Information Gathering and Retrieval Systems ............ 1.15022011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International) 1.xxv
  • 31. FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS AND FRAUD SCHEMESPUBLIC SECTOR FRAUD (CONT.) Altered or Missing Documents .................................................................................... 1.1502 Photocopied or Duplicate Documents ....................................................................... 1.1503 Failure to Have Adequate Supporting Documentation for Reports and Summary Data ............................................................................................................. 1.1503Beneficiary Fraud ......................................................................................................................... 1.1503 Detection ................................................................................................................................ 1.1503Contract and Procurement Fraud .............................................................................................. 1.1504 Elements of a Contract......................................................................................................... 1.1504 Contract and Procurement Fraud Schemes ...................................................................... 1.1505 Presolicitation Phase ...................................................................................................... 1.1505 Solicitation and Negotiation Phase .............................................................................. 1.1507 Contract Performance and Administration Phase ..................................................... 1.1510 Computer Programs.............................................................................................................. 1.1513The Government Employee’s Role ........................................................................................... 1.1513 Common Problems of Investigators .................................................................................. 1.1513 Lack of Familiarity with Terminology ......................................................................... 1.1513 Wide Variety of Case Assignments .............................................................................. 1.1513 Case Loads ....................................................................................................................... 1.1514 Key Issues Facing Investigators .......................................................................................... 1.1514 Overcoming the Reluctance to Investigate ....................................................................... 1.1514Interviewing Government Officials .......................................................................................... 1.1515 Assigning the Interview ........................................................................................................ 1.1515 Obstructing the Investigation .............................................................................................. 1.1516 Rules of Procedure ................................................................................................................ 1.15161.xxvi 2011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International)
  • 32. LAW FRAUD EXAMINERS MANUAL INTERNATIONAL VERSION TABLE OF CONTENTSOVERVIEW OF THE LEGAL SYSTEMBasic Concepts of the Law ......................................................................................................... 2.101Substantive and Procedural Law ................................................................................................ 2.101Types of Legal Systems ............................................................................................................... 2.101Sources of Law ............................................................................................................................. 2.102Court Systems ............................................................................................................................... 2.103THE LAW RELATED TO FRAUDDefinition of Fraud ...................................................................................................................... 2.201Principal Types of Fraud ............................................................................................................. 2.201 Misrepresentation of Material Facts ................................................................................... 2.201 Concealment of Material Facts............................................................................................ 2.203 Bribery..................................................................................................................................... 2.204 Types of Bribery Schemes ..............................................................................................2.204 Methods of Making Corrupt Payments........................................................................2.205 Corrupt Influence ............................................................................................................2.205 Illegal Gratuity .................................................................................................................2.206 Extortion ................................................................................................................................ 2.206 Conflict of Interest ................................................................................................................ 2.206 Forgery .................................................................................................................................... 2.208 Theft ........................................................................................................................................ 2.208 Embezzlement .................................................................................................................2.208 Larceny ..............................................................................................................................2.208 Misappropriation of Trade Secrets ...............................................................................2.209 Breach of Fiduciary Duty ..................................................................................................... 2.210 Duty of Loyalty ................................................................................................................2.210 Duty of Care.....................................................................................................................2.210International Initiatives Against Fraud and Corruption ......................................................... 2.211 Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 2.211 The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development ............................... 2.211 The Recommendation on Combating Bribery in International Business ...............2.212 The Tax Recommendation and Revised Recommendation ......................................2.213 The Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions..........................................................................2.214 Other OECD Instruments .............................................................................................2.216 United Nations Convention Against Corruption ............................................................. 2.219 Prevention ........................................................................................................................2.220 Criminalization .................................................................................................................2.2202011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International) 2.i
  • 33. LAWTHE LAW RELATED TO FRAUD (CONT.) Asset Recovery .................................................................................................................2.221 International Cooperation ..............................................................................................2.222Major Regional Initiatives Against Corruption ........................................................................ 2.222 Inter-American Convention Against Corruption ............................................................. 2.222 European Union Convention on the Fight Against Corruption Involving Officials of the European Communities or Officials of Member States ................... 2.222 Council of Europe Criminal Law Convention on Corruption ....................................... 2.223 African Union Convention on Preventing and Combating Corruption ....................... 2.223BANKRUPTCY (INSOLVENCY) FRAUDIntroduction .................................................................................................................................. 2.301Bankruptcy Schemes .................................................................................................................... 2.301 Concealed Assets ................................................................................................................... 2.301 The Planned Bustout ............................................................................................................ 2.301 Multiple Filings ...................................................................................................................... 2.302 Credit Card Bustout .............................................................................................................. 2.302 Forged Filings ........................................................................................................................ 2.302 Typing Services or Petition Mills ........................................................................................ 2.303The World Bank Principles for Effective Insolvency and Creditor Rights Systems.......... 2.303 Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 2.303 Objectives and Scope of the World Bank Principles ....................................................... 2.304 Legal Framework for Creditor Rights ................................................................................ 2.306 Compatible Credit and Enforcement Systems ............................................................2.306 Collateral Systems ............................................................................................................2.306 Enforcement Systems .....................................................................................................2.307 Legal Framework for Insolvency ........................................................................................ 2.307 Selected Antifraud Requirements........................................................................................ 2.309 Governance and Management .......................................................................................2.309 Avoidable Transactions ..................................................................................................2.309 Reorganisation Proceedings ................................................................................................. 2.310 Implementation: Institutional and Regulatory Frameworks ........................................... 2.310 Overarching Considerations of Sound Investment Climates: Transparency, Accountability, and Corporate Governance ............................................................2.311 Selected Antifraud Requirements........................................................................................ 2.315 Integrity of the System ....................................................................................................2.315 Competence and Integrity of Insolvency Representatives ........................................2.315SECURITIES FRAUDIntroduction .................................................................................................................................. 2.401Securities Laws and Regulations ................................................................................................ 2.401What Constitutes a Security? ...................................................................................................... 2.401 Traditional Securities ............................................................................................................ 2.402 Stocks ................................................................................................................................2.402 Bonds ................................................................................................................................2.4022.ii 2011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International)
  • 34. LAWSECURITIES FRAUD (CONT.) Certificates of Deposit ....................................................................................................2.402 Futures and Options .......................................................................................................2.403 Investment Contracts ........................................................................................................... 2.404 Examples of Investment Contracts ..............................................................................2.404Commodity Futures, Exchange-Traded Options, and OTC Options ................................. 2.412 Commodity Futures Primer ................................................................................................. 2.412 The Principle of Offset...................................................................................................2.413 Trading on Margin...........................................................................................................2.413 Trading Basics ..................................................................................................................2.414 Options Primer ...................................................................................................................... 2.414 Exchange-Traded Options .............................................................................................2.415 Relationship of the Underlying Security to an Option ..............................................2.415 Option Values and Premiums .......................................................................................2.416 Over-the-Counter (OTC) Options ..................................................................................... 2.416Securities Fraud Schemes ............................................................................................................ 2.417 Securities Fraud by Registered Persons and Entities ....................................................... 2.417 Churning ...........................................................................................................................2.417 Unsuitable Recommendations .......................................................................................2.418 Failure to Supervise .........................................................................................................2.418 Parking ..............................................................................................................................2.418 Front Running—Dual Trading .....................................................................................2.419 Bucket Shops....................................................................................................................2.420 Excessive Markups ..........................................................................................................2.420 Misuse or Misappropriation of Customer’s Securities ...............................................2.420 Unauthorised Trading .....................................................................................................2.420 Systematically Trading Accounts Against Each Other ..............................................2.420 Block Order Schemes .....................................................................................................2.421 Market Manipulation .......................................................................................................2.422 Insider Trading.................................................................................................................2.423 Disclosures (Misrepresentations and Omissions) .......................................................2.423 Securities Fraud by Unregistered Persons ......................................................................... 2.424 Backdating Stock Options ................................................................................................... 2.424Investigative Tips ......................................................................................................................... 2.425 Promotional Materials .......................................................................................................... 2.425Securities Fraud and the Internet............................................................................................... 2.427 Same Old Frauds, New Medium......................................................................................... 2.427 Newsletters .......................................................................................................................2.428 Online Trading .................................................................................................................2.428The International Organisation of Securities Commissions .................................................. 2.429 Overview of the IOSCO Principles ................................................................................... 2.430 The Protection of Investors...........................................................................................2.430 Ensuring That Markets Are Fair, Efficient, and Transparent ...................................2.431 The Reduction of Systemic Risk ...................................................................................2.432 The IOSCO Fraud Report ................................................................................................... 2.435 Corporate Governance ...................................................................................................2.4362011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International) 2.iii
  • 35. LAWSECURITIES FRAUD (CONT.) Transparency and Regulation of Corporate Bond Markets ......................................2.437 Conflicts of Interest in Initial Public Offerings ..........................................................2.437 Special Purpose Entities .................................................................................................2.438MONEY LAUNDERING Money Laundering Methods ............................................................................................... 2.501 The Money Laundering Process ......................................................................................... 2.502 Placement..........................................................................................................................2.502 Layering .............................................................................................................................2.502 Integration ........................................................................................................................2.502 Using a Legitimate Business to Launder Funds................................................................ 2.504 Income Statement Laundering ......................................................................................2.504 Balance Sheet Laundering ..............................................................................................2.505 Favourite Businesses for Hiding or Laundering Money.................................................. 2.506 Bars, Restaurants, and Night Clubs ..............................................................................2.506 Vending Machine Operations ........................................................................................2.507 Wholesale Distribution ...................................................................................................2.507 Real Estate Purchases .....................................................................................................2.507 ATMs ................................................................................................................................2.507 Calling in a Specialist............................................................................................................. 2.508Enforcement and Prevention Strategies ................................................................................... 2.508 Policy Statement .................................................................................................................... 2.508 “Know Your Customer” Programs .................................................................................... 2.509 New Deposit Accounts ..................................................................................................2.509 New Loan Accounts .......................................................................................................2.510 Services for Non-Accountholders ................................................................................2.510 Monitoring Accounts ............................................................................................................ 2.511 Special Problems for Insurance Companies ...................................................................... 2.511 Red Flags...........................................................................................................................2.511 Detection ..........................................................................................................................2.512Alternative Remittance Systems ................................................................................................. 2.512International Anti-Money Laundering Organizations and Initiatives .................................. 2.515 The Financial Action Task Force........................................................................................ 2.516 The United Nations .............................................................................................................. 2.516 International Monetary Fund/World Bank ....................................................................... 2.516 The Egmont Group of Financial Intelligence Units ........................................................ 2.516The Financial Action Task Force .............................................................................................. 2.517 40+9 Recommendations ...................................................................................................... 2.517 Recent Revisions to the Forty Recommendations ........................................................... 2.518 Legal Systems ...................................................................................................................2.518 Financial Institutions and Related Professions ...........................................................2.518 International Cooperation ..............................................................................................2.521 Non-Cooperative Countries and Territories ..................................................................... 2.5212.iv 2011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International)
  • 36. LAWINDIVIDUAL RIGHTSRights and Obligations Under Criminal Law ........................................................................... 2.601 The Right to Remain Silent.................................................................................................. 2.601 Right to Counsel .................................................................................................................... 2.602 Confessions ............................................................................................................................ 2.602The Law Relating to Search and Seizure .................................................................................. 2.602 Reasonableness ...................................................................................................................... 2.603 Definition of a Search Warrant ........................................................................................... 2.603 Consent Searches................................................................................................................... 2.604 Evidence in Plain View......................................................................................................... 2.604 Surveillance............................................................................................................................. 2.604Investigations in Private Actions ............................................................................................... 2.606 Defamation............................................................................................................................. 2.607 Untrue Statement of Fact ............................................................................................... 2.607 Published to Third Parties.............................................................................................. 2.607 Unprivileged Occasions .................................................................................................. 2.607 Damaging to Reputation ................................................................................................ 2.608 Invasion of Privacy ............................................................................................................... 2.608 Publicity of Private Facts ................................................................................................2.608 Intrusion into Seclusion..................................................................................................2.609 False Imprisonment .............................................................................................................. 2.609 Malicious Prosecution........................................................................................................... 2.610 Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress..................................................................... 2.610 Wrongful Discharge .............................................................................................................. 2.610 Whistleblower Laws .............................................................................................................. 2.611THE CIVIL JUSTICE SYSTEMIntroduction .................................................................................................................................. 2.701Procedure in Civil Cases ............................................................................................................. 2.701 Beginning the Action ............................................................................................................ 2.701 Discovery ................................................................................................................................ 2.702 Trials in Civil Cases ............................................................................................................... 2.703 Decisions in Civil Cases ....................................................................................................... 2.704THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEMThe Charging Process.................................................................................................................. 2.801 Information or Indictment .................................................................................................. 2.801The Trial Process ......................................................................................................................... 2.801 The Burden of Proof in Criminal Trials ............................................................................ 2.801 Participants in the Trial Process .......................................................................................... 2.802 Witnesses ......................................................................................................................... 2.802 The Prosecutor ................................................................................................................2.802 Defence Counsel .............................................................................................................2.803 The Judge ..........................................................................................................................2.8032011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International) 2.v
  • 37. LAWTHE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM (CONT.) Jury Selection ......................................................................................................................... 2.803 How a Trial is Conducted .................................................................................................... 2.804 Reaching a Verdict ................................................................................................................ 2.805Sentencing ..................................................................................................................................... 2.806Appeal ............................................................................................................................................ 2.806Punishment ................................................................................................................................... 2.806Corporate Criminal Liability ....................................................................................................... 2.806 Liability of Officers and Employees ................................................................................... 2.807 Punishment of Corporations ............................................................................................... 2.807EVIDENCEThree Basic Forms of Evidence ................................................................................................ 2.901Direct Versus Circumstantial Evidence .................................................................................... 2.902Admissibility of Evidence ........................................................................................................... 2.902Special Rules Concerning Some Types of Circumstantial Evidence .................................... 2.904 Character Evidence ............................................................................................................... 2.904 Opinion Testimony ............................................................................................................... 2.905 Exceptions to the Opinion Rule ...................................................................................2.906Exhibits .......................................................................................................................................... 2.906 Authenticating Typical Exhibits .......................................................................................... 2.907 Demonstrative Evidence ................................................................................................2.907 Diagrams ...........................................................................................................................2.908 Writings .............................................................................................................................2.908 Business Records and Other Documents ....................................................................2.908 Government Documents ...............................................................................................2.909 Digital Evidence ..............................................................................................................2.909 Photographs .....................................................................................................................2.909General Points .............................................................................................................................. 2.910 The “Best Evidence” Rule ................................................................................................... 2.910 Objections to Exhibits.......................................................................................................... 2.911 Chain of Custody .............................................................................................................2.911Hearsay .......................................................................................................................................... 2.913 Exceptions to the Hearsay Rule .......................................................................................... 2.914 The Truth of the Statement Is Not at Issue ................................................................2.914 Admissions by an Adverse Party ...................................................................................2.914 Statement Against Interest .............................................................................................2.915 Business and Government Records..............................................................................2.915 Absence of an Entry in Business Records ...................................................................2.915 Recorded Recollections ..................................................................................................2.916 Former Testimony...........................................................................................................2.916 Present Sense Impressions .............................................................................................2.916 Excited Utterances ..........................................................................................................2.916 Then Existing Mental, Emotional, or Physical Condition ........................................2.917 Statements for Purposes of Medical Diagnosis or Treatment ..................................2.9172.vi 2011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International)
  • 38. LAWEVIDENCE (CONT.) Printed Matter, Learned Treatises, and Refresher Writings ......................................2.917 Other Exceptions ............................................................................................................2.918 Impeachment ......................................................................................................................... 2.918Privileges........................................................................................................................................ 2.919 Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 2.919 Attorney-Client Privilege ...................................................................................................... 2.919 Attorney Work Product........................................................................................................ 2.921 Self Evaluation Privilege....................................................................................................... 2.921 Marital Privilege ..................................................................................................................... 2.922 Law Enforcement Privilege to Withhold the Identity of an Informant ........................ 2.922TESTIFYING AS A WITNESSIntroduction .................................................................................................................................. 2.1001Pre-Trial Preparation ................................................................................................................... 2.1003 Conflicts of Interest .............................................................................................................. 2.1003 Preparing a Report ................................................................................................................ 2.1004 Discoverability of Expert’s Reports ................................................................................... 2.1005 Keeping Good Files .............................................................................................................. 2.1005Qualifying to Testify as an Expert Witness .............................................................................. 2.1005 Qualifications ......................................................................................................................... 2.1006 Testimony ............................................................................................................................... 2.1007Preparing to Testify ..................................................................................................................... 2.1008 Depositions of Expert Witnesses ....................................................................................... 2.1008 Appearance ............................................................................................................................. 2.1009 Do’s and Don’ts .................................................................................................................... 2.1009Direct Examination ..................................................................................................................... 2.1011 Presenting Expert Testimony. ............................................................................................. 2.1011 Direct Testimony Considerations ....................................................................................... 2.1012Cross-Examination ...................................................................................................................... 2.1013 Myopic Vision ........................................................................................................................ 2.1015 Safety ....................................................................................................................................... 2.1015 Contradiction ......................................................................................................................... 2.1016 New Information .................................................................................................................. 2.1016 Support Opposing Side’s Theory ........................................................................................ 2.1016 Bias .......................................................................................................................................... 2.1016 Confrontation ........................................................................................................................ 2.1017 Sounding Board ..................................................................................................................... 2.1017 Fees.......................................................................................................................................... 2.1017 Terms of Engagement .......................................................................................................... 2.1017 Discrediting the Witness ...................................................................................................... 2.1017Attacking the Fraud Examiner ................................................................................................... 2.1018 Personal Attacks .................................................................................................................... 2.10182011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International) 2.vii
  • 39. LAWTESTIFYING AS A WITNESS (CONT.) Failure to Follow the Standards of the Profession ........................................................... 2.1018Expressing an Opinion on Guilt................................................................................................ 2.1019Summary ........................................................................................................................................ 2.10202.viii 2011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International)
  • 40. INVESTIGATION FRAUD EXAMINERS MANUAL INTERNATIONAL VERSION TABLE OF CONTENTSANALYSING DOCUMENTSObtaining Documentary Evidence ............................................................................................ 3.101 Types of Evidence................................................................................................................. 3.102 Organisation of Evidence .................................................................................................... 3.102 Chronologies ................................................................................................................... 3.103 To-Do Lists ..................................................................................................................... 3.103Examining Fraudulent Documents ........................................................................................... 3.103Early Consultation with an Expert Can Prove Valuable ........................................................ 3.104Types of Forensic Document Examinations ........................................................................... 3.104Handling Documents as Physical Evidence ............................................................................. 3.105 Chain of Custody................................................................................................................... 3.106 Preserving for Fingerprint Examinations .......................................................................... 3.106 Charred or Partially Burned Documents ........................................................................... 3.107 Recognising Phoney Documents ........................................................................................ 3.107Identifying Writings ..................................................................................................................... 3.108 Class Characteristics .............................................................................................................. 3.109 Copy-Book Styles ........................................................................................................... 3.109 “Copycat” Styles ............................................................................................................. 3.109 Natural Variations, Disguise, Distortions, and Forgeries ................................................ 3.109 Variations ......................................................................................................................... 3.109 Disguise ............................................................................................................................ 3.110 Distortions ....................................................................................................................... 3.110 Forgeries .......................................................................................................................... 3.110The Document Expert’s Findings ............................................................................................. 3.111 Non-Identification ................................................................................................................ 3.111 Identification .......................................................................................................................... 3.111 Inconclusive ........................................................................................................................... 3.112How to Obtain Handwriting Samples ...................................................................................... 3.112 Non-Dictated Writing Samples ........................................................................................... 3.112 Dictated Writing Samples .................................................................................................... 3.113 Obtaining Dictated Handwriting Samples by Court Order ..................................... 3.113 Preparation for Taking Dictated Handwriting Samples ........................................... 3.113 Directions for Obtaining Dictated Handwriting Samples ........................................ 3.114Typewriters and Computer Printers .......................................................................................... 3.114 Typewriter Ribbons Could Be Evidence ........................................................................... 3.115 Avoid Taking Unnecessary Samples ................................................................................... 3.115 Taking Typewriter Samples.................................................................................................. 3.1152011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International) 3.i
  • 41. INVESTIGATIONANALYSING DOCUMENTS (CONT.)Photocopies .................................................................................................................................. 3.116 Identifying the Source of a Photocopy .............................................................................. 3.116 Permanent “Trash Marks” ............................................................................................ 3.117 Transient “Trash Marks” ............................................................................................... 3.117 Taking Photocopier Samples ............................................................................................... 3.117Dating a Document ..................................................................................................................... 3.118 The “Alibi” Document ......................................................................................................... 3.118 The “Long Lost” Will ........................................................................................................... 3.118 Valuable Historical and Collectible Documents ............................................................... 3.118 Anachronisms in Documentary Materials ......................................................................... 3.119Indented Writings ........................................................................................................................ 3.119 Developing Indented Writings ............................................................................................ 3.120Counterfeit Printed Documents ................................................................................................ 3.120 Counterfeiting Methods ....................................................................................................... 3.121 Detecting Counterfeits ......................................................................................................... 3.121Fingerprints ................................................................................................................................... 3.122 Fingerprints on Paper or Other Absorbent Porous Surfaces ......................................... 3.122 Fingerprints on Hard, Non-Porous Surfaces .................................................................... 3.123 Fingerprint Comparison Standards .................................................................................... 3.123INTERVIEW THEORY AND APPLICATIONPreparation .................................................................................................................................... 3.201Characteristics of a Good Interview ......................................................................................... 3.201Characteristics of a Good Interviewer ...................................................................................... 3.202Question Typology ...................................................................................................................... 3.202 Introductory Questions ........................................................................................................ 3.203 Informational Questions ...................................................................................................... 3.203 Closing Questions ................................................................................................................. 3.203 Assessment Questions .......................................................................................................... 3.203 Admission-Seeking Questions ............................................................................................. 3.204Legal Considerations When Conducting an Interview ........................................................... 3.204 Legal Authority to Conduct Interviews ............................................................................. 3.204 False Imprisonment .............................................................................................................. 3.204 Use of Deception in Interviews .......................................................................................... 3.205 Recording Interviews ............................................................................................................ 3.205Elements of Conversations......................................................................................................... 3.205 Expression .............................................................................................................................. 3.205 Persuasion............................................................................................................................... 3.206 Therapy ................................................................................................................................... 3.206 Ritual ....................................................................................................................................... 3.206 Information Exchange.......................................................................................................... 3.206Inhibitors of Communication .................................................................................................... 3.2073.ii 2011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International)
  • 42. INVESTIGATIONINTERVIEW THEORY AND APPLICATION (CONT.) Competing Demands for Time ........................................................................................... 3.207 Ego Threat ............................................................................................................................. 3.207 Repression ....................................................................................................................... 3.207 Disapproval ..................................................................................................................... 3.207 Loss of Status .................................................................................................................. 3.208 Etiquette ................................................................................................................................. 3.208 Trauma .................................................................................................................................... 3.208 Forgetting ............................................................................................................................... 3.208 Chronological Confusion ..................................................................................................... 3.209 Inferential Confusion............................................................................................................ 3.209 Unconscious Behaviour........................................................................................................ 3.209Facilitators of Communication .................................................................................................. 3.209 Fulfilling Expectations .......................................................................................................... 3.210 Recognition ............................................................................................................................ 3.210 Altruistic Appeals .................................................................................................................. 3.210 Sympathetic Understanding ................................................................................................. 3.210 New Experience .................................................................................................................... 3.211 Catharsis.................................................................................................................................. 3.211 Need for Meaning ................................................................................................................. 3.211 Extrinsic Rewards.................................................................................................................. 3.211Interview Mechanics .................................................................................................................... 3.212 Note-Taking ........................................................................................................................... 3.212 Maintain Eye Contact ........................................................................................................... 3.212 Opinions ................................................................................................................................. 3.212 Writing Down Questions ..................................................................................................... 3.213 Documenting Results ........................................................................................................... 3.213Introductory Questions ............................................................................................................... 3.213 Four Objectives ..................................................................................................................... 3.213 Provide the Introduction ............................................................................................... 3.213 Establish Rapport ........................................................................................................... 3.213 Establish the Interview Theme .................................................................................... 3.214 Observe Reactions.......................................................................................................... 3.216 Methodology .......................................................................................................................... 3.219 Physical Contact ............................................................................................................. 3.219 Don’t Interview More than One Person..................................................................... 3.220 Privacy .............................................................................................................................. 3.220 Establish Transitional Statement .................................................................................. 3.220 Seek Continuous Agreement ........................................................................................ 3.221 Do Not Invade Body Space .......................................................................................... 3.221Informational Questions ............................................................................................................. 3.221 Question Sequences .............................................................................................................. 3.222 Questioning Techniques....................................................................................................... 3.2222011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International) 3.iii
  • 43. INVESTIGATIONINTERVIEW THEORY AND APPLICATION (CONT.) Open Questions.............................................................................................................. 3.222 Closed Questions............................................................................................................ 3.223 Leading Questions .......................................................................................................... 3.223 Double-Negative Questions ......................................................................................... 3.224 Complex Questions ........................................................................................................ 3.224 Attitude Questions ......................................................................................................... 3.224 Controlled Answer Techniques .................................................................................... 3.224 Free Narratives................................................................................................................ 3.225 Suggestions ............................................................................................................................. 3.225 Methodology .......................................................................................................................... 3.226 Begin with Background Questions .............................................................................. 3.226 Observe Verbal and Nonverbal Behaviour ................................................................ 3.227 Ask Nonleading (Open) Questions ............................................................................. 3.227 Approach Sensitive Questions Carefully..................................................................... 3.228 Dealing with Resistance........................................................................................................ 3.228 “I’m Too Busy” .............................................................................................................. 3.229 “I Don’t Know Anything About It” ........................................................................... 3.229 “I Don’t Remember” ..................................................................................................... 3.229 “What Do You Mean by That?” .................................................................................. 3.230 Difficult People ..................................................................................................................... 3.230 Don’t React ..................................................................................................................... 3.230 Disarm the Person.......................................................................................................... 3.230 Change Tactics ................................................................................................................ 3.231 Make It Easy to Say “Yes” ............................................................................................ 3.231 Make It Hard to Say “No” ............................................................................................ 3.231 Volatile Interviews ................................................................................................................ 3.231 Physical Symptoms ......................................................................................................... 3.232 Other Considerations ..................................................................................................... 3.232 Overcoming Objections ................................................................................................ 3.233Closing Questions ........................................................................................................................ 3.234 Reconfirm Facts.............................................................................................................. 3.234 Gather Additional Facts ................................................................................................ 3.234 Conclude the Interview ................................................................................................. 3.236Assessment Questions ................................................................................................................. 3.237 Norming or Calibrating ........................................................................................................ 3.237 Physiology of Deception ...................................................................................................... 3.238 Verbal Clues .................................................................................................................... 3.239 Nonverbal Clues ............................................................................................................. 3.242 Methodology of Assessment Questions ............................................................................ 3.243Admission-Seeking Questions.................................................................................................... 3.248 Purpose of Questions ........................................................................................................... 3.249 Preparation ............................................................................................................................. 3.2493.iv 2011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International)
  • 44. INVESTIGATIONINTERVIEW THEORY AND APPLICATION (CONT.) Interview Room .............................................................................................................. 3.249 Note-Taking .................................................................................................................... 3.250 Presence of Outsiders .................................................................................................... 3.250 Theme Development ............................................................................................................ 3.250 Steps in the Admission-Seeking Interview ........................................................................ 3.251 Direct Accusation ........................................................................................................... 3.251 Observe Reaction ........................................................................................................... 3.252 Repeat Accusation .......................................................................................................... 3.252 Interrupt Denials ............................................................................................................ 3.253 Establish Rationalisation ............................................................................................... 3.255 Diffuse Alibis .................................................................................................................. 3.260 Present an Alternative Question .................................................................................. 3.263 Obtain a Benchmark Admission .................................................................................. 3.263 Reinforce Rationalisation .............................................................................................. 3.264 Verbal Confession .......................................................................................................... 3.264 Motive for Offence ........................................................................................................ 3.267Kinesic Interview and Interrogation ......................................................................................... 3.271 Self-Initiated Verbal Statements .......................................................................................... 3.272 Prompted Verbal Responses ............................................................................................... 3.273 Structured Questions ..................................................................................................... 3.273 Nonverbal Behaviour/Body Language .............................................................................. 3.273Criteria-Based Statement Analysis ............................................................................................. 3.275 Parts of Speech ...................................................................................................................... 3.275 Pronouns.......................................................................................................................... 3.275 Possessive Pronouns ...................................................................................................... 3.276 Verbs ................................................................................................................................ 3.276 Balance of the Statement...................................................................................................... 3.277 General Characteristics ......................................................................................................... 3.277 Specific Content .................................................................................................................... 3.278 Peculiarities of Content ........................................................................................................ 3.278The Cognitive Interview Technique.......................................................................................... 3.279 The Narrative Phase ............................................................................................................. 3.280 Reconstruct the Circumstances of the Event ............................................................. 3.281 Instruct the Eyewitness to Report Everything and Be Complete ........................... 3.281 Recall the Events in Different Orders......................................................................... 3.281 Change Perspective ........................................................................................................ 3.281 Specific Details ...................................................................................................................... 3.282 Physical Appearance ...................................................................................................... 3.282 Names .............................................................................................................................. 3.282 Number ............................................................................................................................ 3.282 Speech Characteristics ................................................................................................... 3.283 Conversation ................................................................................................................... 3.2832011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International) 3.v
  • 45. INVESTIGATIONCOVERT EXAMINATIONSEstablishing an Identity ............................................................................................................... 3.302Objectives ...................................................................................................................................... 3.303Problems in Covert Operations ................................................................................................. 3.304Surveillance ................................................................................................................................... 3.305 Methods of Surveillance ....................................................................................................... 3.305 Preparation ............................................................................................................................. 3.306 Electronic Equipment.................................................................................................... 3.306 Basic Precautions ............................................................................................................ 3.306 Techniques of Foot Surveillance......................................................................................... 3.307 One-Person Surveillance ............................................................................................... 3.307 Two-Person Surveillance ............................................................................................... 3.307 Three-Person Surveillance............................................................................................. 3.307 Other Techniques ........................................................................................................... 3.308 Techniques of Vehicle Surveillance .................................................................................... 3.308 General ............................................................................................................................. 3.308 One-Vehicle Surveillance .............................................................................................. 3.309 Two-Vehicle Surveillance .............................................................................................. 3.309 Fixed Surveillance.................................................................................................................. 3.309 Satellite Surveillance .............................................................................................................. 3.310 Night Surveillance Equipment ............................................................................................ 3.310Sources and Informants .............................................................................................................. 3.311 Types of Informants ............................................................................................................. 3.312 Basic Lead Informants ................................................................................................... 3.312 Participant Informants ................................................................................................... 3.312 Covert Informants .......................................................................................................... 3.312 Accomplice/Witness Informants ................................................................................. 3.312 Objectives of Source and Informant Information ........................................................... 3.313 Recruitment of Sources and Informants ........................................................................... 3.314 Motives of Sources and Informants ................................................................................... 3.315 Sources ............................................................................................................................. 3.315 Informants ....................................................................................................................... 3.315 Legal Considerations ............................................................................................................. 3.316 Reporting Contacts ............................................................................................................... 3.316 Promises of Confidentiality ................................................................................................. 3.317Use of Operatives ........................................................................................................................ 3.318SOURCES OF INFORMATIONMunicipal/Regional/County Government .............................................................................. 3.401 Building Inspector Records ................................................................................................. 3.401 Regulatory Agency Records ................................................................................................. 3.402 City Tax Assessor/Collector Records ................................................................................ 3.402 Coroner’s Register ................................................................................................................. 3.4023.vi 2011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International)
  • 46. INVESTIGATIONSOURCES OF INFORMATION (CONT.) Court Records ........................................................................................................................ 3.402Federal, State, and Provincial Governments ............................................................................ 3.403 Birth, Death, and Marriage Records ................................................................................... 3.403 Professional Associations and Licensing Boards.............................................................. 3.403 Land Registry Office ............................................................................................................. 3.404 Business Filings Division ..................................................................................................... 3.405 Department of Labour ......................................................................................................... 3.405 Civil Litigation Records ........................................................................................................ 3.405 Criminal Records ................................................................................................................... 3.405 Bankruptcy Records .............................................................................................................. 3.405 Customs and Revenue Agencies ......................................................................................... 3.405 Other Regulatory Agencies .................................................................................................. 3.406Commercial Sources of Information......................................................................................... 3.406 Associations and Lobby Groups......................................................................................... 3.406 Better Business Bureau .................................................................................................. 3.406 Chamber of Commerce ................................................................................................. 3.406 Abstract and Title Companies ............................................................................................. 3.407 Bonding Companies.............................................................................................................. 3.407 Credit Card Records ............................................................................................................. 3.407 Stockbrokers .......................................................................................................................... 3.407 Western Union....................................................................................................................... 3.407 International Air Transport Association ............................................................................ 3.407 International Foundation for Art Research ....................................................................... 3.408Public Record Database Vendors .............................................................................................. 3.408 Types of Public Record Database Vendors ...................................................................... 3.408 Commercial Database Vendors .................................................................................... 3.408 Search Firms .................................................................................................................... 3.408 Document Retrievers ..................................................................................................... 3.409 Types of Information Available .......................................................................................... 3.409Directories ..................................................................................................................................... 3.409 City Directories ...................................................................................................................... 3.410 Gale ......................................................................................................................................... 3.410 Gale Directory Library................................................................................................... 3.410 Gale Directory of Databases......................................................................................... 3.410 Directories in Print ......................................................................................................... 3.411 Gale Directory of Publications and Broadcast Media ............................................... 3.411 Encyclopedia of Associations ....................................................................................... 3.411 Encyclopedia of Business Information Sources ........................................................ 3.411 D&B’s Million Dollar Database Series............................................................................... 3.412 Factiva ..................................................................................................................................... 3.412 Index to Legal Periodicals .................................................................................................... 3.412 Insurance Reporting Services .............................................................................................. 3.4122011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International) 3.vii
  • 47. INVESTIGATIONSOURCES OF INFORMATION (CONT.) IHS Fairplay ........................................................................................................................... 3.412 Magazines for Libraries ........................................................................................................ 3.413 Mergent ................................................................................................................................... 3.413 Mergent’s Bank and Finance Manual and News Reports......................................... 3.413 Reader’s Guide to Periodical Literature ............................................................................. 3.413 Standard & Poor’s NetAdvantage ...................................................................................... 3.414 Corporation Records...................................................................................................... 3.414 Company Profile ............................................................................................................. 3.414 Register of Corporations, Directors, and Executives ............................................... 3.414 The Global Banking Resource ............................................................................................ 3.414Banks and Financial Institutions ................................................................................................ 3.414International Law Enforcement Organisations ....................................................................... 3.415 International Criminal Police Organisation ....................................................................... 3.415 International Chamber of Commerce Commercial Crime Bureau ................................ 3.416 International Criminal Police Organisation Case Tracking System ............................... 3.416 United Nations Crime and Justice Information Network............................................... 3.416 World Criminal Justice Library Network ........................................................................... 3.416ACCESSING INFORMATION ONLINE Limitations of Online Database Searches .......................................................................... 3.501 Online Searches Through Database Vendors ................................................................... 3.502 Locating People Using Online Records ............................................................................. 3.503 Types of Searches ........................................................................................................... 3.503 Obtaining Financial Information and Locating Assets.................................................... 3.503 Searches for Hard Assets............................................................................................... 3.504 Searches for Potential Assets ........................................................................................ 3.504 Finding Legal Records .......................................................................................................... 3.504 Conducting Background Checks......................................................................................... 3.505 Due Diligence ................................................................................................................. 3.505 Employment Background ............................................................................................. 3.505 Newspaper/Media Databases ............................................................................................. 3.506 LexisNexis ....................................................................................................................... 3.507 HighBeam Research ....................................................................................................... 3.507Investigating with the Internet ................................................................................................... 3.507 Traditional Methods for Finding Information on the Internet ...................................... 3.508 Search Engines ................................................................................................................ 3.508 Meta-search Engines ...................................................................................................... 3.509 Directories ....................................................................................................................... 3.510 Non-traditional Methods for Finding Information on the Internet .............................. 3.512 eBay .................................................................................................................................. 3.513 The Whois Protocol ....................................................................................................... 3.513 Craigslist ........................................................................................................................... 3.5133.viii 2011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International)
  • 48. INVESTIGATIONACCESSING INFORMATION ONLINE (CONT.) Archive ............................................................................................................................. 3.514 Zoominfo......................................................................................................................... 3.514 GuideStar ......................................................................................................................... 3.514 Noza ................................................................................................................................. 3.514 Social-Networking Websites ......................................................................................... 3.514 A Guide to Successful Internet Searching ......................................................................... 3.515 Boolean Operators ......................................................................................................... 3.515 Reserved Words and Noise Words .............................................................................. 3.516 Specific Search Operators ............................................................................................. 3.516DATA ANALYSIS AND REPORTING TOOLSData Mining .................................................................................................................................. 3.601Data Analysis ................................................................................................................................ 3.604Using Data Analysis Software .................................................................................................... 3.604 Advantages of Using Data Analysis Software ................................................................... 3.604Core Data Analysis Software Functions ................................................................................... 3.605 Sorting ..................................................................................................................................... 3.606 Record Selection .................................................................................................................... 3.607 Joining Files ............................................................................................................................ 3.607 Multi-File Processing ............................................................................................................ 3.607 Correlation Analysis .............................................................................................................. 3.608 Verifying Multiples of a Number ........................................................................................ 3.608 Compliance Verification....................................................................................................... 3.608 Duplicate Searches ................................................................................................................ 3.609 Vertical Ratio Analysis .......................................................................................................... 3.609 Horizontal Ratio Analysis .................................................................................................... 3.609 Date Functions ...................................................................................................................... 3.610 Graphing ................................................................................................................................. 3.611 Examples of Data Analysis Queries ................................................................................... 3.611 General Ledger Analysis ................................................................................................ 3.611 Accounts Receivable ...................................................................................................... 3.612 Sales Analysis .................................................................................................................. 3.612 Accounts Payable............................................................................................................ 3.612 Asset Management ......................................................................................................... 3.612 Cash Disbursement ........................................................................................................ 3.612 Payroll............................................................................................................................... 3.613 Purchasing ....................................................................................................................... 3.613 Data Analysis Checklist ........................................................................................................ 3.613 Evaluating Data Analysis Software ..................................................................................... 3.614 Evaluating Data Mining Software ....................................................................................... 3.614 Evaluating Data Mining Consultants ................................................................................. 3.615Types of Data Mining and Analysis Software .......................................................................... 3.6152011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International) 3.ix
  • 49. INVESTIGATIONDATA ANALYSIS AND REPORTING TOOLS (CONT.) ACL ......................................................................................................................................... 3.616 IDEA ...................................................................................................................................... 3.617 General Functions .......................................................................................................... 3.618 Fraud Tests ...................................................................................................................... 3.619 Excel ........................................................................................................................................ 3.620 ActiveData for Excel ............................................................................................................ 3.621 Fraud Detection Techniques for Accounts Payable ................................................. 3.622 Fraud Detection Techniques for the General Ledger ............................................... 3.626 Fraud Detection Techniques for Revenue.................................................................. 3.627 AutoAudit ............................................................................................................................... 3.629 SNAP! Reporter..................................................................................................................... 3.630 DataWatch Corporation’s Monarch for Windows ........................................................... 3.630 DATAS for IDEA ................................................................................................................ 3.632 IDEA for Windows .............................................................................................................. 3.633 Files, File Management, and File Manipulation ......................................................... 3.633 Data .................................................................................................................................. 3.633 Sampling........................................................................................................................... 3.634 Analysis ............................................................................................................................ 3.634 Arbutus Query ....................................................................................................................... 3.634 Oversight Systems ................................................................................................................. 3.634Reporting and Case Management Software ............................................................................. 3.634 i2’s Analysis Product Line .................................................................................................... 3.635 Analyst’s Notebook............................................................................................................... 3.635 iBase.................................................................................................................................. 3.636 Data Miner....................................................................................................................... 3.636 Analyst’s Workstation .................................................................................................... 3.636 CaseMap by CaseSoft ........................................................................................................... 3.636 Spreadsheets .................................................................................................................... 3.637 Issue Spreadsheet ........................................................................................................... 3.639 Question Spreadsheet .................................................................................................... 3.639 Research Spreadsheets ................................................................................................... 3.639 Linking ............................................................................................................................. 3.640 Filtering ............................................................................................................................ 3.640 Xanalys Suite .......................................................................................................................... 3.641 PowerCase ....................................................................................................................... 3.641 Link Explorer .................................................................................................................. 3.642 Indexer ............................................................................................................................. 3.642 Enterprise Investigation Management ............................................................................... 3.643 Multi-Channel Fraud............................................................................................................. 3.643 i-Sight Case Management Software .................................................................................... 3.644 EthicsPoint Issue and Event Manager ............................................................................... 3.6443.x 2011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International)
  • 50. INVESTIGATIONDIGITAL FORENSICSConducting an Investigation Involving Computers................................................................ 3.701 Computer Investigation Versus Computer Forensics ..................................................... 3.701 Digital Evidence .................................................................................................................... 3.701 Integrity of Digital Evidence ............................................................................................... 3.702 Forensic Experts ................................................................................................................... 3.703 Locating Evidence ................................................................................................................. 3.705 Workstation ..................................................................................................................... 3.706 Network ........................................................................................................................... 3.708 Law Enforcement Assistance .............................................................................................. 3.708Computer Investigation and Computer Forensics .................................................................. 3.708 Seizing Digital Evidence ................................................................................................ 3.708 Image Acquisition........................................................................................................... 3.712 Analysis ............................................................................................................................ 3.713 Reporting and Testifying ............................................................................................... 3.714 Guidelines for Processing Evidence for Removal............................................................ 3.714 Evidence Storage ................................................................................................................... 3.718Forensic Examination and Analysis .......................................................................................... 3.719 Keyword Searches ................................................................................................................. 3.720 Recovering Evidence ............................................................................................................ 3.720 User-Created Files .......................................................................................................... 3.721 User-Protected Files ....................................................................................................... 3.721 Computer-Created Files ................................................................................................ 3.722Digital Forensics Software .......................................................................................................... 3.724 EnCase Forensic .................................................................................................................... 3.724 How EnCase Forensic Works....................................................................................... 3.725 Key Features.................................................................................................................... 3.726 Forensic ToolKit ................................................................................................................... 3.726 Integrated Computer Forensics.................................................................................... 3.726 Enterprise-Class Architecture ....................................................................................... 3.726 Powerful Processing and Speed ................................................................................... 3.727 Advanced Analytics ........................................................................................................ 3.727 Preview, Acquisition, and Analysis of Live Data ....................................................... 3.727 Password Recovery Toolkit ................................................................................................. 3.727 Security Risk Assessment Tool..................................................................................... 3.727 Features ............................................................................................................................ 3.728 ProDiscover Forensics ......................................................................................................... 3.728 Features ............................................................................................................................ 3.729 Gargoyle Investigator Forensic Pro Edition ..................................................................... 3.730 Stego Suite .............................................................................................................................. 3.7312011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International) 3.xi
  • 51. INVESTIGATIONTRACING ILLICIT TRANSACTIONSComprehensive Guidelines for Information to Be Collected in Financial Interviews ...... 3.801 Identification .......................................................................................................................... 3.801 Birth......................................................................................................................................... 3.801 Address During Pertinent Years ......................................................................................... 3.801 Occupation ............................................................................................................................. 3.802 General Background ............................................................................................................. 3.802 Financial Institutions (Business and Personal) ................................................................. 3.802 Source of Income .................................................................................................................. 3.803 Net Income and Expenditures ............................................................................................ 3.803 Liabilities ................................................................................................................................. 3.804 Expenditures .......................................................................................................................... 3.804 Business Operations ............................................................................................................. 3.804 Books and Records ............................................................................................................... 3.804 Business Receipts .................................................................................................................. 3.805Direct Methods of Tracing Financial Transactions ................................................................ 3.805 Financial Institutions ............................................................................................................ 3.805 Internal Bookkeeping Procedures....................................................................................... 3.806 Electronic Banking ................................................................................................................ 3.806 Gaining Access to Records Held by Financial Institutions ............................................ 3.807 Types of Bank Records ........................................................................................................ 3.807 Account Opening Documents ..................................................................................... 3.807 Negotiated Cheques ....................................................................................................... 3.808 Deposit Slips ................................................................................................................... 3.809 Wire Transfers ................................................................................................................ 3.810 Telegraphic Transfers .................................................................................................... 3.810 Intrabank Transfers ........................................................................................................ 3.810 Savings Accounts ............................................................................................................ 3.810 Certificates of Deposit ................................................................................................... 3.810 Bank Statements ............................................................................................................. 3.811 Other Exchange Instruments ....................................................................................... 3.812 Loan Records ......................................................................................................................... 3.813 Line of Credit or Borrowing an Overdraft ................................................................. 3.814 Mortgage Loan Files ...................................................................................................... 3.815 Consumer or Instalment Loans.................................................................................... 3.815 Credit Card Records ............................................................................................................. 3.815 Bank Collection Department Records ............................................................................... 3.816 Debit Cards and Automated Teller Machines .................................................................. 3.816 Safe-Deposit Box Records ................................................................................................... 3.816 Stock Brokerage Records ..................................................................................................... 3.817 Tax Returns and Related Documents ................................................................................ 3.818 Establish a Database ............................................................................................................. 3.818Indirect Methods of Tracing Financial Transactions.............................................................. 3.8213.xii 2011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International)
  • 52. INVESTIGATIONTRACING ILLICIT TRANSACTIONS (CONT.) Elements of Financial Examination Techniques .............................................................. 3.822 The Environment ........................................................................................................... 3.822 The Accounting System................................................................................................. 3.822 Various Detection Techniques ............................................................................................ 3.823 Statistical Sampling ......................................................................................................... 3.823 Net Worth Methods ....................................................................................................... 3.826 Net-Worth Analysis ....................................................................................................... 3.831Locating Hidden Assets .............................................................................................................. 3.839 Common Asset Hiding Techniques ................................................................................... 3.839 Transfer to Family Members or Parties Under Their Control ................................ 3.839 Children’s or Family Trust ............................................................................................ 3.839 Home Mortgage Pay-Down .......................................................................................... 3.840 Insurance Policies ........................................................................................................... 3.840 Prepaid Credit Cards ...................................................................................................... 3.840 Savings Bond Purchases ................................................................................................ 3.840 Cashier’s Cheques and Traveller’s Cheques ............................................................... 3.841 Computer Databases............................................................................................................. 3.841 Locating Assets Through Subpoenas ................................................................................. 3.841 Locating Assets Offshore .................................................................................................... 3.841 Legal Assistance in Obtaining Information Regarding Foreign Assets ........................ 3.843 Letter Rogatory ............................................................................................................... 3.843 Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties ................................................................................. 3.844 Public Records ................................................................................................................ 3.844REPORTING STANDARDSPreparation .................................................................................................................................... 3.901Accuracy of Reports .................................................................................................................... 3.902Clarity ............................................................................................................................................. 3.902Impartiality and Relevance.......................................................................................................... 3.902Timeliness...................................................................................................................................... 3.902Common Reporting Mistakes .................................................................................................... 3.903 Conclusions and Opinions ................................................................................................... 3.903 Evidence ................................................................................................................................. 3.903 Copy Documents .................................................................................................................. 3.904 Safeguarding and Maintaining Documents........................................................................ 3.904Effective Note Taking ................................................................................................................. 3.904Organisation of Information ...................................................................................................... 3.905 Chronological ......................................................................................................................... 3.905 By Transaction ....................................................................................................................... 3.905Analysing the Reader ................................................................................................................... 3.906 Company Insiders ................................................................................................................. 3.906 Attorneys ................................................................................................................................ 3.9062011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International) 3.xiii
  • 53. INVESTIGATIONREPORTING STANDARDS (CONT.) Defendants and Witnesses ................................................................................................... 3.906 Press ........................................................................................................................................ 3.907 Juries ........................................................................................................................................ 3.907Outlining........................................................................................................................................ 3.907 Step One ................................................................................................................................. 3.907 Step Two................................................................................................................................. 3.908 Step Three .............................................................................................................................. 3.908Grammatical Considerations ...................................................................................................... 3.908 Style ......................................................................................................................................... 3.908 Voice ....................................................................................................................................... 3.908 Person ..................................................................................................................................... 3.909 Point of View ......................................................................................................................... 3.909 Constructing Clear Sentences .............................................................................................. 3.910 Rambling Sentences ....................................................................................................... 3.910 Run-On Sentences.......................................................................................................... 3.910 Omitted Verbs ................................................................................................................ 3.910 Omitted Subjects ............................................................................................................ 3.911 Unnecessary Compound Sentences ............................................................................. 3.911 Misplaced Modifiers ....................................................................................................... 3.911 Paragraph Structure............................................................................................................... 3.912Report Structure ........................................................................................................................... 3.912 Suggested Standard Format ................................................................................................. 3.912 Background ..................................................................................................................... 3.912 Executive Summary........................................................................................................ 3.912 Scope ................................................................................................................................ 3.913 Approach ......................................................................................................................... 3.913 Findings............................................................................................................................ 3.913 Summary .......................................................................................................................... 3.914 Impact .............................................................................................................................. 3.914 Recommendations .......................................................................................................... 3.914 Reporting Documents .......................................................................................................... 3.914 Memoranda ............................................................................................................................ 3.915 Cover Page or Letter ............................................................................................................. 3.915 Exhibits ................................................................................................................................... 3.915 Forms ...................................................................................................................................... 3.915 Consent to Search .......................................................................................................... 3.916 Receipt for Property ....................................................................................................... 3.916 Telephone Recording Consent ..................................................................................... 3.916 Consent to Record ......................................................................................................... 3.916 Customer Consent and Authorisation for Access to Financial Records................ 3.917 Evidence Control Log ................................................................................................... 3.917Signed Confessions ...................................................................................................................... 3.9173.xiv 2011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International)
  • 54. INVESTIGATIONREPORTING STANDARDS (CONT.) Voluntariness of Confessions .............................................................................................. 3.917 Intent ....................................................................................................................................... 3.917 Approximate Dates of Offence .......................................................................................... 3.918 Approximate Amounts of Losses ....................................................................................... 3.918 Approximate Number of Instances .................................................................................... 3.918 Willingness to Cooperate ..................................................................................................... 3.918 Excuse Clause ........................................................................................................................ 3.919 Confessor Read the Statement ............................................................................................ 3.919 Truthfulness of Statement.................................................................................................... 3.919 Key Points in Signed Statements ........................................................................................ 3.919Visual Aids .................................................................................................................................... 3.920 Link-Network Diagrams ...................................................................................................... 3.920 Matrices ................................................................................................................................... 3.922 Time-Flow Diagrams ............................................................................................................ 3.923 Summaries of Witnesses’ Statements ................................................................................. 3.923Engagement Contracts ................................................................................................................ 3.924 Elements of the Engagement Contract.............................................................................. 3.924 The Long Form .............................................................................................................. 3.925 The Short Form .............................................................................................................. 3.925 Terms ............................................................................................................................... 3.925 Close ................................................................................................................................. 3.925 Indemnity Clause ............................................................................................................ 3.926 Opinions ................................................................................................................................. 3.926Fraud Examination Checklist ..................................................................................................... 3.9272011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International) 3.xv
  • 55. INVESTIGATION APPENDIXFRAUD EXAMINATION CHECKLISTFraud Examination Checklist ..................................................................................................... 3.1001SAMPLE FRAUD EXAMINATION REPORTSBailey Books, Incorporated ........................................................................................................ 3.1101ENGAGEMENT CONTRACTS AND OPINION LETTERSEngagement Letters Fraud Policy Review Proposal............................................................................................. 3.1201 Fraud Examination Proposal ............................................................................................... 3.1202 Fraud Policy Review Opinion ............................................................................................. 3.1203Fraud Examination Opinion Letters Evidence Does Not Support Allegation ............................................................................ 3.1205 Evidence Supports Allegation ............................................................................................. 3.1206 Inconclusive Evidence .......................................................................................................... 3.12073.xvi 2011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International)
  • 56. FRAUD PREVENTION AND DETERRENCE FRAUD EXAMINERS MANUAL INTERNATIONAL VERSION TABLE OF CONTENTSUNDERSTANDING HUMAN BEHAVIOURBehavioural Analysis and the Detection of Fraud .................................................................. 4.101 Conclusion.............................................................................................................................. 4.106Why People Obey the Law ......................................................................................................... 4.108 Instrumental Perspective ...................................................................................................... 4.108 Normative Perspective ......................................................................................................... 4.108 Legitimacy............................................................................................................................... 4.109 Voluntary Compliance .......................................................................................................... 4.110 Measuring Legitimacy and Compliance ............................................................................. 4.111 Legitimacy and Compliance .......................................................................................... 4.112 Implications of the Chicago Study ............................................................................... 4.113 The Psychological Variables ......................................................................................... 4.113 Legitimacy and Experience ........................................................................................... 4.114 The Meaning of Procedural Justice.............................................................................. 4.115 Influence of Control on the Meaning of Procedural Justice .................................... 4.116THEORIES OF CRIME CAUSATIONClassical Criminology .................................................................................................................. 4.201Routine Activities Theory ........................................................................................................... 4.202Biological Theories ...................................................................................................................... 4.203Psychological Theories ................................................................................................................ 4.204 Cognitive Theories ................................................................................................................ 4.204 Integrated Theories ............................................................................................................... 4.204 Conditioning Theory ............................................................................................................ 4.204Social Structure Theories ............................................................................................................ 4.205 Theory of Anomie ................................................................................................................. 4.205Social Process Theories ............................................................................................................... 4.206 Social Learning Theories ...................................................................................................... 4.206 Theory of Differential Association ..................................................................................... 4.206 Social Control Theory........................................................................................................... 4.208 Differential Reinforcement Theory .................................................................................... 4.210WHITE-COLLAR CRIMEWhat Is White-Collar Crime? ..................................................................................................... 4.301Public Perceptions of White-Collar Crime ............................................................................... 4.303 National Survey of Crime Severity Ratings: Selected Offence Stimuli .......................... 4.303Crimes of the Middle Classes—A Look at White-Collar Crime .................................................. 4.3052011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International) 4.i
  • 57. FRAUD PREVENTION AND DETERRENCEWHITE-COLLAR CRIME (CONT.) Profiles of Offenders ............................................................................................................ 4.306 Cressey Study ......................................................................................................................... 4.306 Effect of Status ...................................................................................................................... 4.307 Organisational Opportunity................................................................................................. 4.307 The Middle Class ................................................................................................................... 4.307 Methodology .......................................................................................................................... 4.308 Offenders Ranked by Status, with Selected Demographic Information ....................... 4.309 Cooperating Defendants ...................................................................................................... 4.310 Pleas by White-Collar Defendants ...................................................................................... 4.311 Judgements ............................................................................................................................. 4.311 Personal Suffering ................................................................................................................. 4.312 Imprisonment ........................................................................................................................ 4.312 Contributing Factors ............................................................................................................. 4.313 Conclusion.............................................................................................................................. 4.314ORGANISATIONAL CRIMECorporate Organisation and Criminal Behaviour ................................................................... 4.402 The Image of the Corporation ............................................................................................ 4.402 Clinard and Yeager ................................................................................................................ 4.403Opportunities for Unlawful Organisational Behaviour .......................................................... 4.404 Organisational Structure ....................................................................................................... 4.404Criminogenic Organisational Structures ................................................................................... 4.406Corporate Executives and Criminal Liability ........................................................................... 4.409Management Behaviour .............................................................................................................. 4.411Controlling Organisational Crime ............................................................................................. 4.412 The Enforcement Effort: Preventing and Reducing Fraud ............................................ 4.414 Compliance ...................................................................................................................... 4.414 Deterrence ....................................................................................................................... 4.415 Increased Enforcement ................................................................................................. 4.415 Fraud Prevention Programs................................................................................................. 4.415OCCUPATIONAL FRAUDResearch in Occupational Fraud and Abuse ............................................................................ 4.501 Edwin H. Sutherland ............................................................................................................ 4.501 Donald R. Cressey ................................................................................................................. 4.502 Cressey’s Hypothesis ...................................................................................................... 4.502 Non-Shareable Financial Problems ............................................................................. 4.503 Perceived Opportunity .................................................................................................. 4.505 Rationalisations ............................................................................................................... 4.506 Conjuncture of Events .................................................................................................. 4.510 Conclusions ..................................................................................................................... 4.510 Dr. Steve Albrecht................................................................................................................. 4.5104.ii 2011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International)
  • 58. FRAUD PREVENTION AND DETERRENCEOCCUPATIONAL FRAUD (CONT.) The Albrecht Study ........................................................................................................ 4.510 The Fraud Scale .............................................................................................................. 4.512 Richard C. Hollinger and John P. Clark............................................................................. 4.514 The Hollinger-Clark Study ............................................................................................ 4.514 Hypotheses of Employee Theft ................................................................................... 4.514 2010 Report to the Nations on Occupational Fraud and Abuse ................................... 4.519 Measuring the Cost of Occupational Fraud ............................................................... 4.520 How Occupational Fraud Is Committed .................................................................... 4.521 Duration of Fraud Schemes .......................................................................................... 4.524 Detection of Fraud Schemes ........................................................................................ 4.524 Geographical Location of Organisations .................................................................... 4.526 Victims of Occupational Fraud .................................................................................... 4.527FRAUD PREVENTION PROGRAMSResponsibility for Fraud Prevention ......................................................................................... 4.601 Vicarious or Imputed Liability ............................................................................................ 4.601 The Treadway Commission ................................................................................................. 4.602 COSO Recommendations ................................................................................................... 4.602 Control Environment .................................................................................................... 4.603 Risk Assessment ............................................................................................................. 4.604 Control Activities............................................................................................................ 4.605 Information and Communication ................................................................................ 4.606 Monitoring ....................................................................................................................... 4.606Implementing a Corporate Compliance Program ................................................................... 4.607 Establishing Standards .......................................................................................................... 4.610 Assigning Responsibility....................................................................................................... 4.610 Audit Committees ................................................................................................................. 4.611 Due Diligence in Hiring ....................................................................................................... 4.611 Communicating the Policy ................................................................................................... 4.612 Training Employees ....................................................................................................... 4.612 Achieving Compliance .......................................................................................................... 4.613 Disciplinary Action ............................................................................................................... 4.613 Appropriate Responses ........................................................................................................ 4.614 Periodic Assessment ............................................................................................................. 4.615 Relation of COSO and Corporate Sentencing Guidelines .............................................. 4.615Procedures to Prevent Fraud...................................................................................................... 4.617 Proactive Fraud Policies ....................................................................................................... 4.617 Use of Analytical Review ............................................................................................... 4.617 Fraud Assessment Questioning .................................................................................... 4.617 Enforcement of Mandatory Vacations ........................................................................ 4.618 Job Rotation .................................................................................................................... 4.6182011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International) 4.iii
  • 59. FRAUD PREVENTION AND DETERRENCEFRAUD PREVENTION PROGRAMS (CONT.) Surprise Audits Where Possible ................................................................................... 4.618 Management Oversight ........................................................................................................ 4.618 Increasing the Perception of Detection ...................................................................... 4.619 Employee Education...................................................................................................... 4.619 Minimise Employee Pressures ...................................................................................... 4.619 Open-Door Policies ....................................................................................................... 4.619 Employee Support Programs........................................................................................ 4.620 Management Climate ..................................................................................................... 4.620 Monitoring Systems .............................................................................................................. 4.620 Reporting Programs ....................................................................................................... 4.621 Hotlines ............................................................................................................................ 4.621Fraud Prevention Policy .............................................................................................................. 4.622 Fraud Policy Objectives ....................................................................................................... 4.622 Selling Fraud Prevention to Management ......................................................................... 4.622 The Impact on the Bottom Line .................................................................................. 4.623 The Impact of Publicity ................................................................................................. 4.623 Writing the Fraud Policy ...................................................................................................... 4.624 Policy Statement ............................................................................................................. 4.624 Scope of Policy ............................................................................................................... 4.624 Actions Constituting Fraud ........................................................................................... 4.624 Nonfraud Irregularities .................................................................................................. 4.624 Investigation Responsibilities ....................................................................................... 4.625 Confidentiality ................................................................................................................. 4.625 Authorisation for Investigation .................................................................................... 4.625 Reporting Procedures .................................................................................................... 4.625 Termination ..................................................................................................................... 4.625 Communicating the Fraud Policy ....................................................................................... 4.625 Orientation/Annual Training ....................................................................................... 4.625 Memoranda ..................................................................................................................... 4.625 Posters .............................................................................................................................. 4.626 Employee Morale ........................................................................................................... 4.626 Legal Considerations ...................................................................................................... 4.626Ethics Programs ........................................................................................................................... 4.626 Origins of Ethics ................................................................................................................... 4.627 Ethics’ Current Place in Business ....................................................................................... 4.628 Ethics Program Development ............................................................................................. 4.628Sample Fraud Policy .................................................................................................................... 4.630Sample Code of Business Ethics and Conduct........................................................................ 4.634 Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 4.634 Competition ........................................................................................................................... 4.635 Fair Competition ............................................................................................................ 4.635 Compliance with Laws and Regulatory Orders ................................................................ 4.6364.iv 2011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International)
  • 60. FRAUD PREVENTION AND DETERRENCEFRAUD PREVENTION PROGRAMS (CONT.) Conflicts of Interest .............................................................................................................. 4.636 Gifts and Entertainment................................................................................................ 4.636 Outside Employment..................................................................................................... 4.638 Relationships with Suppliers and Customers ............................................................. 4.638 Employment of Relatives .............................................................................................. 4.639 Confidential Information and Privacy of Communications ........................................... 4.639 Confidential Information .............................................................................................. 4.639 Company Assets .................................................................................................................... 4.640 Cash and Bank Accounts .............................................................................................. 4.640 Company Assets and Transactions .............................................................................. 4.641 Expense Reimbursement............................................................................................... 4.642 Company Credit Card .................................................................................................... 4.642 Software and Computers ............................................................................................... 4.642 Political Contributions .......................................................................................................... 4.643 Employee Conduct ............................................................................................................... 4.643 Conduct on Company Business ................................................................................... 4.643 Reporting Violations ............................................................................................................. 4.644 Discipline ................................................................................................................................ 4.644 Compliance Letter and Conflict of Interest Questionnaire ............................................ 4.646Code of Conduct Compliance Questionnaire.......................................................................... 4.647 Conflict of Interest ................................................................................................................ 4.647 Political ................................................................................................................................... 4.649 Securities Trading .................................................................................................................. 4.649 Financial Integrity.................................................................................................................. 4.649 Other ....................................................................................................................................... 4.649FRAUD RISK ASSESSMENTWhat Is Fraud Risk? .................................................................................................................... 4.701 Why Should an Organisation Be Concerned About Fraud Risk? .................................. 4.701 The Business It Is In ...................................................................................................... 4.702 The Environment in Which It Operates..................................................................... 4.702 The Effectiveness of Internal Controls Within the Business Processes ................ 4.702 The Ethics and Values of the Company and the People Within It......................... 4.702What Is a Fraud Risk Assessment? ............................................................................................ 4.703 What Is the Objective of a Fraud Risk Assessment? ....................................................... 4.703 Why Should Organisations Conduct Fraud Risk Assessments? .................................... 4.703 Improve Communication and Awareness About Fraud .......................................... 4.703 Identify What Activities Are the Most Vulnerable to Fraud .................................... 4.704 Know Who Puts the Organisation at the Greatest Risk........................................... 4.704 Develop Plans to Mitigate Fraud Risk......................................................................... 4.704 Develop Techniques to Determine If Fraud Has Occurred in High-Risk Areas .......................................................................................................... 4.7042011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International) 4.v
  • 61. FRAUD PREVENTION AND DETERRENCEFRAUD RISK ASSESSMENT (CONT.) What Makes a Good Fraud Risk Assessment? ................................................................. 4.704 The Right Sponsor ......................................................................................................... 4.705 Independence/Objectivity of the People Leading and Conducting the Work ....................................................................................................................... 4.705 A Good Working Knowledge of the Business .......................................................... 4.706 Access to People at All Levels of the Organisation .................................................. 4.706 Engendered Trust ........................................................................................................... 4.707 The Ability to Think the Unthinkable ......................................................................... 4.707 A Plan to Keep It Alive and Relevant ......................................................................... 4.707 Considerations for Developing an Effective Fraud Risk Assessment .......................... 4.707 Packaging It Right .......................................................................................................... 4.707 One Size Does Not Fit All ............................................................................................ 4.708 Keeping It Simple ........................................................................................................... 4.708Preparing the Company for a Fraud Risk Assessment ........................................................... 4.708 Assemble the Right Team to Lead and Conduct the Fraud Risk Assessment ............. 4.709 Determine the Best Techniques to Use to Conduct the Fraud Risk Assessment ....... 4.709 Interviews ........................................................................................................................ 4.710 Focus Groups ................................................................................................................. 4.710 Surveys ............................................................................................................................. 4.710 Anonymous Feedback Mechanisms ............................................................................ 4.711 Obtain the Sponsor’s Agreement on the Work to Be Performed ................................. 4.711 Educate the Organisation and Openly Promote the Process ......................................... 4.711Executing the Fraud Risk Assessment ...................................................................................... 4.712 Choosing a Framework ........................................................................................................ 4.712 Sample Fraud Risk Assessment Framework #1 ............................................................... 4.712 Identify Potential Inherent Fraud Risks ...................................................................... 4.713 Assess the Likelihood of Occurrence of the Identified Fraud Risks ...................... 4.716 Assess the Significance to the Organisation of the Fraud Risks ............................. 4.717 Evaluate Which People and Departments Are Most Likely to Commit Fraud and Identify the Methods They Are Likely to Use................................................. 4.717 Identify and Map Existing Preventive and Detective Controls to the Relevant Fraud Risks .................................................................................................. 4.717 Evaluate Whether the Identified Controls Are Operating Effectively and Efficiently ..................................................................................................................... 4.718 Identify and Evaluate Residual Fraud Risks Resulting from Ineffective or Nonexistent Controls ................................................................................................. 4.719 Sample Fraud Risk Assessment Framework #2—Fraud Risk Index ............................ 4.719 Fraud Risk Index ............................................................................................................ 4.719 Leadership Risk Profile.................................................................................................. 4.720Responding to Residual Fraud Risks......................................................................................... 4.721 Avoid the Risk ....................................................................................................................... 4.722 Transfer the Risk ................................................................................................................... 4.7224.vi 2011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International)
  • 62. FRAUD PREVENTION AND DETERRENCEFRAUD RISK ASSESSMENT (CONT.) Mitigate the Risk .................................................................................................................... 4.722 Assume the Risk .................................................................................................................... 4.722 Combination Approach ........................................................................................................ 4.722Reporting the Results of the Fraud Risk Assessment............................................................. 4.723 Considerations When Reporting the Assessment Results............................................... 4.723 Report Objective—Not Subjective—Results ............................................................ 4.723 Keep It Simple ................................................................................................................ 4.723 Focus On What Really Matters .................................................................................... 4.723 Identify Actions That Are Clear and Measurable to Drive Results ........................ 4.723 Sample Report Formats........................................................................................................ 4.724 Graphic Report Format ................................................................................................. 4.724 Executive Summary Report Format ............................................................................ 4.724 Reporting the Leadership Risk Assessment Results ........................................................ 4.725Making an Impact with the Fraud Risk Assessment ............................................................... 4.725 Begin a Dialogue Across the Company ............................................................................. 4.725 Look for Fraud in High-Risk Areas ................................................................................... 4.726 Hold Action Owners Accountable for Progress .............................................................. 4.726 Keep It Alive and Relevant .................................................................................................. 4.726The Fraud Risk Assessment and the Audit Process ............................................................... 4.726The Fraud Risk Assessment Tool .............................................................................................. 4.728 Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 4.728 MODULE # 1—Employee Assessment .......................................................................... 4.729 MODULE # 2—Management/Key Employee Assessment ......................................... 4.733 MODULE # 3—Physical Controls to Deter Employee Theft and Fraud .................. 4.738 MODULE # 4—Skimming Schemes ................................................................................ 4.740 MODULE # 5—Cash Larceny Schemes .......................................................................... 4.743 MODULE # 6—Cheque Tampering Schemes ................................................................ 4.746 MODULE # 7—Cash Register Schemes ......................................................................... 4.749 MODULE # 8—Purchasing and Billing Schemes .......................................................... 4.751 MODULE # 9—Payroll Schemes ..................................................................................... 4.754 MODULE # 10—Expense Schemes ................................................................................ 4.756 MODULE # 11—Theft of Inventory and Equipment .................................................. 4.757 MODULE # 12—Theft of Proprietary Information ..................................................... 4.761 MODULE # 13—Corruption ............................................................................................ 4.763 MODULE # 14—Conflicts of Interest ............................................................................ 4.764 MODULE # 15—Fraudulent Financial Reports............................................................. 4.765ETHICS FOR FRAUD EXAMINERSWhat Is Ethics?............................................................................................................................. 4.801 An Ethical Decision Maker’s Role ...................................................................................... 4.802 Ethical Decisions ................................................................................................................... 4.802Morality, Ethics, and Legality ..................................................................................................... 4.8032011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International) 4.vii
  • 63. FRAUD PREVENTION AND DETERRENCEETHICS FOR FRAUD EXAMINERS (CONT.) The High Road ...................................................................................................................... 4.803 Philosophy, Ethics, and Law ............................................................................................... 4.804 Means and Ends .................................................................................................................... 4.805Some Concluding Remarks......................................................................................................... 4.806ACFE CODE OF PROFESIONAL ETHICSCommitment to Professionalism and Diligence ...................................................................... 4.902 Professionalism ...................................................................................................................... 4.902 Specialised Knowledge and Formal Education.......................................................... 4.902 Professional Admission Standards ............................................................................... 4.903 Standards of Conduct .................................................................................................... 4.903 Individual Fraud Examiners ......................................................................................... 4.903 Diligence ................................................................................................................................. 4.904Legal and Ethical Conduct and Conflict of Interest ............................................................... 4.904 Illegal Conduct ....................................................................................................................... 4.904 Libel and Slander ............................................................................................................ 4.904 False Imprisonment ....................................................................................................... 4.905 Unethical Conduct ................................................................................................................ 4.905 Conflict of Interest and “Independence” Considerations............................................... 4.906Integrity and Competence........................................................................................................... 4.906 Integrity ................................................................................................................................... 4.907 Professional Competence..................................................................................................... 4.907 Programming................................................................................................................... 4.908 Investigation .................................................................................................................... 4.908 Reporting ......................................................................................................................... 4.908 Professional Scepticism ........................................................................................................ 4.908Court Orders and Testimony ..................................................................................................... 4.909Reasonable Evidential Basis for Opinions ............................................................................... 4.910 Evidential Basis for Opinions ............................................................................................. 4.910 Guilt and Innocence ............................................................................................................. 4.911Confidential Information ............................................................................................................ 4.912 Proper Authorisation ............................................................................................................ 4.914 Relation to Conflict of Interest ........................................................................................... 4.914 Public Information ................................................................................................................ 4.915 Blowing the Whistle .............................................................................................................. 4.915Complete Reporting of Material Matters .................................................................................. 4.916Professional Improvement ......................................................................................................... 4.917Professional Standards and Practices ........................................................................................ 4.918 General Standards ................................................................................................................. 4.918 Independence and Objectivity ...................................................................................... 4.918 Qualifications .................................................................................................................. 4.918 Fraud Examinations ....................................................................................................... 4.9194.viii 2011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International)
  • 64. FRAUD PREVENTION AND DETERRENCEACFE CODE OF PROFESIONAL ETHICS (CONT.) Confidentiality ................................................................................................................. 4.919 Specific Standards.................................................................................................................. 4.919 Independence and Objectivity ...................................................................................... 4.919 Qualifications .................................................................................................................. 4.920 Fraud Examination......................................................................................................... 4.921 Confidentiality ................................................................................................................. 4.921Predication Standards .................................................................................................................. 4.922 Bribery..................................................................................................................................... 4.922 Conflicts of Interest .............................................................................................................. 4.922 Embezzlement ....................................................................................................................... 4.923 False Financial Statements ................................................................................................... 4.923 False Pretences....................................................................................................................... 4.923 Theft ........................................................................................................................................ 4.924CFE CODE OF PROFESIONAL STANDARDSCFE Code of Professional Standards ....................................................................................... 4.1001 I. Preamble ............................................................................................................................. 4.1001 II. Applicability of Code....................................................................................................... 4.1001 III. Standards of Professional Conduct ............................................................................. 4.1002 IV. Standards of Examination ............................................................................................. 4.1004 V. Standards of Reporting ................................................................................................... 4.10042011 Fraud Examiners Manual (International) 4.ix