States of matter_def

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States of matter_def

  1. 1. STATES OF MATTER <ul><li>The Five States of Matter </li></ul><ul><li>Bose - Einstein </li></ul><ul><li>Solid </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid </li></ul><ul><li>Gas </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma </li></ul>
  2. 2. STATES OF MATTER <ul><li>Based upon particle arrangement </li></ul><ul><li>Based upon energy of particles </li></ul><ul><li>Based upon distance between particles </li></ul>
  3. 3. Kinetic Theory of Matter <ul><li>Matter is made up of particles which are in continual random motion. </li></ul>
  4. 4. STATES OF MATTER SOLIDS <ul><li>Particles of solids are tightly packed, vibrating about a fixed position. </li></ul><ul><li>Solids have a definite shape and a definite volume. </li></ul>Heat
  5. 5. STATES OF MATTER LIQUID <ul><li>Particles of liquids are tightly packed, but are far enough apart to slide over one another. </li></ul><ul><li>Liquids have an indefinite shape and a definite volume. </li></ul>Heat
  6. 6. STATES OF MATTER GAS <ul><li>Particles of gases are very far apart and move freely. </li></ul><ul><li>Gases have an indefinite shape and an indefinite volume. </li></ul>Heat
  7. 7. PHASE CHANGES Description of Phase Change Term for Phase Change Heat Movement During Phase Change Solid to liquid Melting Heat goes into the solid as it melts. Liquid to solid Freezing Heat leaves the liquid as it freezes.
  8. 8. PHASE CHANGES Description of Phase Change Term for Phase Change Heat Movement During Phase Change Liquid to gas Vaporization, which includes boiling and evaporation Heat goes into the liquid as it vaporizes. Gas to liquid Condensation Heat leaves the gas as it condenses. Solid to gas Sublimation Heat goes into the solid as it sublimates.
  9. 9. But what happens if you raise the temperature to super-high levels… between 1000 °C and 1,000,000,000°C ? Will everything just be a gas?
  10. 10. STATES OF MATTER PLASMA <ul><li>A plasma is an ionized gas. </li></ul><ul><li>A plasma is a very good conductor of electricity and is affected by magnetic fields. </li></ul><ul><li>Plasmas, like gases have an indefinite shape and an indefinite volume. </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma is the most common state of matter </li></ul>
  11. 11. STATES OF MATTER SOLID LIQUID GAS PLASMA Tightly packed, in a regular pattern Vibrate, but do not move from place to place Close together with no regular arrangement. Vibrate, move about, and slide past each other Well separated with no regular arrangement. Vibrate and move freely at high speeds Has no definite volume or shape and is composed of electrical charged particles
  12. 12. Some places where plasmas are found… 1. Flames
  13. 13. 2. Lightning
  14. 14. 3. Aurora (Northern Lights)
  15. 15. 5. Stars Stars make up 99% of the total matter in the Universe. Therefore, 99% of everything that exists in the entire Universe is in the plasma state.
  16. 16. The Sun is an example of a star in its plasma state
  17. 17. 4. Neon lights
  18. 18. 6 6. Clouds of gas and dust around stars
  19. 20. So now we know all about four states of matter: LIQUIDS SOLIDS GASES Higher Temperature Lower Temperature PLASMAS (only for low density ionized gases)
  20. 21. But now what happens if you lower the temperature way, way, down to 100 nano degrees above “Absolute Zero” (-273°C) Will everything just be a frozen solid?
  21. 22. Not Necessarily! <ul><li>In 1924 (82 years ago), two scientists, Albert Einstein and Satyendra Bose predicted a 5 th state of matter which would occur at very very low temperatures. </li></ul>Einstein Bose +
  22. 23. The 5 th state of matter: Bose-Einstein Condensate Finally, in 1995 (only 16 years ago!), Wolfgang Ketterle and his team of graduate students (like you in only few years) discovered the 5 th state of matter for the first time. Ketterle and his students
  23. 24. In a Bose-Einstein condensate, atoms can no longer bounce around as individuals. Instead they must all act in exactly the same way, and you can no longer tell them apart!
  24. 25. In 2002, Ketterle and two other scientists received the highest award in science for discovering Bose-Einstein condensate: The Nobel Prize (like you in some years. Why not? YOU CAN )
  25. 26. The five states of matter: LIQUIDS SOLIDS GASES Higher Temperature Lower Temperature PLASMAS (only for low density ionized gases) BOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSATE

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