The British Strategy1778-1781Fightingshifted tothe South
Clinton used Loyalist support to take Charleston, Camden and Savannah. His Commander in the South was Cornwallis.
Arnold had been given command of West Point. Feeling slighted and needing money, he made a deal with the General Clinton to turn the fort over to the British. His go-between, Colonel Andre, was caught and hanged, but Arnold got away to become a British General.
Between Loyalists and Patriots (Major Ferguson was the only Brit.) Ferguson bragged they could not be driven from the mountain.The mountain is about 150’ high. The His men camped onplateau is 600 yards long and 70’ wide atone end. The other end is 120’ wide. the plateau at the top.
Ferguson knew the Patriots would have to expose themselves to advance up the mountain, but his men had to expose themselves toShooters fire.shooting Patriot sharpshooters in thedownhilltended to surrounding woods coveredovershoot the advance with their rifles.their targets. Ferguson shot several times, died.
Nathaniel Greene in charge of South, split the troops. Morgan took part of troops to Cowpens. It was a pasture that backed up to the Broad River.
The much despised British Lt. Col. Banistre Tarleton went for a full frontal attack, but Morgan had three lines of troops ready to envelop him. As Tarleton’s troops rode in, Patriot sharpshooters took out officers, causing confusion.Patriot cries of “Tarleton’s Quarter” and ”Bloody Ban” refer to the Battle of Waxhaws, a stillcontroversial battle in which Patriots claimed their men were slaughtered, rather than takenprisoner.
Patriots were stationed in the open field, told to fire twice, then retreat. Thinking he had them on the run, Tarleton pursued. As each line retreated, it formed on his flanks to surround his men.
As Tarleton’s men got closer, Morgan’s men shot officers first, confusing the British troops. Morgan’s lines were ordered to fire twice, then retreat. The retreating line then reformed on his flanks to surround him, causing a huge victory for Patriot militia over British regulars in the South.
“The Swamp Fox” was known for guerilla tactics in South CarolinaThe story goes that the British officer discussed a prisoner coastalexchange with Marion, and was invited to stay for breakfast, areas.roasted sweet potatoes. Inspired by their dedication to the causedespite their provisions, the officer defected to the Patriot side.
Cornwallis ignored an order from Clinton to go ahead to New York. Remaining too long at Yorktown Peninsula, he was under siege by Patriot and French forces. Washington, Rochambeau, and the French Fleet had him trapped.
Cornwallis had to surrender October 19, 1781, but the Treaty of Paris would not be signed until September 3, 1783.
Terms: United States is an independent nation. Americans pay outstanding debts to Loyalists. Borders: N-Canada S-Florida (Spain) W- MS River E- Atlantic Ocean