Reconstruction

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Reconstruction after Civil War

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Reconstruction

  1. 1. Reconstruction andReconstruction and Changes in the UnitedChanges in the United StatesStates
  2. 2. The ChoicesThe Choices  Lincoln’s 10Lincoln’s 10 Percent Plan-Percent Plan- more lenientmore lenient  10 % of voters10 % of voters would have towould have to swearswear allegiance, andallegiance, and there would bethere would be amnesty foramnesty for mostmost Confederates.Confederates.  Wade-Davis Bill-Wade-Davis Bill- More radicalMore radical Republicans saidRepublicans said 50% should have to50% should have to swear allegiance,swear allegiance, and voting rightsand voting rights in statein state conventionsconventions should be revokedshould be revoked for those whofor those who volunteered forvolunteered for Confederacy.(notConfederacy.(not signed by Lincoln)signed by Lincoln)
  3. 3. Swearing AllegianceSwearing Allegiance HEADQUARTERS, UNITED STATESHEADQUARTERS, UNITED STATES FORCES,FORCES, No. 372                                                          No. 372                                                           PROVOST MARSHAL’S OFFICE.PROVOST MARSHAL’S OFFICE. Chester, S.C., Aug. 31, 1865.Chester, S.C., Aug. 31, 1865.                        I, Jacob F. Strait, do solemnly swear,I, Jacob F. Strait, do solemnly swear, in presence of Almighty God, that I willin presence of Almighty God, that I will henceforth faithfully support and defend thehenceforth faithfully support and defend the Constitution of the United States and theConstitution of the United States and the Union of the State thereunder, and that I will,Union of the State thereunder, and that I will, in like manner, abide by and faithfully supportin like manner, abide by and faithfully support all Laws and Proclamations which have beenall Laws and Proclamations which have been made during the existing Rebellion withmade during the existing Rebellion with reference to the Emancipation of Slaves – “Soreference to the Emancipation of Slaves – “So help me God.”help me God.” Sworn to and subscribed before me, atSworn to and subscribed before me, at Chester S.C., this 31 day of Aug., 1865.Chester S.C., this 31 day of Aug., 1865. [signed] Jacob F. Strait[signed] Jacob F. Strait [signed] Edw. Cahill Cap[??], Provost Marshal[signed] Edw. Cahill Cap[??], Provost Marshal This is a transcript of a primaryThis is a transcript of a primary source. To the right is an oathsource. To the right is an oath signed by a former member of thesigned by a former member of the Confederacy.Confederacy. Citation:Citation: Oath of Allegiance for Jacob F.Oath of Allegiance for Jacob F. Strait. 31 August 1865. Papers ofStrait. 31 August 1865. Papers of the Gaston, Strait, Wylie andthe Gaston, Strait, Wylie and Baskin Families. South CarolinaBaskin Families. South Carolina Library, University of SouthLibrary, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SouthCarolina, Columbia, South Carolina.Carolina.
  4. 4. Freedman’sFreedman’s BureauBureau  Set up to help newlySet up to help newly freed slaves andfreed slaves and other refugees of theother refugees of the war.war.  Set up schoolsSet up schools  Helped find jobsHelped find jobs  Resolved disputesResolved disputes between blacks andbetween blacks and whiteswhites  Provided clothingProvided clothing ““The Freedmen’s BureauThe Freedmen’s Bureau In the years following the Civil War, the Bureau ofIn the years following the Civil War, the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (theRefugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (the Freedmen’s Bureau) provided assistance to tens ofFreedmen’s Bureau) provided assistance to tens of thousands of former slaves and impoverished whites inthousands of former slaves and impoverished whites in the Southern States and the District of Columbia.the Southern States and the District of Columbia. The war had liberated nearly four million slaves andThe war had liberated nearly four million slaves and destroyed the region’s cities, towns, and plantation-destroyed the region’s cities, towns, and plantation- based economy. It left former slaves and many whitesbased economy. It left former slaves and many whites dislocated from their homes, facing starvation, anddislocated from their homes, facing starvation, and owning only the clothes they wore. The challenge ofowning only the clothes they wore. The challenge of establishing a new social order, founded on freedomestablishing a new social order, founded on freedom and racial equality, was enormous.and racial equality, was enormous. The Bureau was established in the War Department inThe Bureau was established in the War Department in March 1865 to undertake the relief effort and theMarch 1865 to undertake the relief effort and the unprecedented social reconstruction that would bringunprecedented social reconstruction that would bring freed people to full citizenship.freed people to full citizenship. It issued food and clothing, operated hospitals andIt issued food and clothing, operated hospitals and temporary camps, helped locate family members,temporary camps, helped locate family members, promoted education, helped freedmen legalizepromoted education, helped freedmen legalize marriages, provided employment, supervised labormarriages, provided employment, supervised labor contracts, provided legal representation, investigatedcontracts, provided legal representation, investigated racial confrontations, settled freedmen on abandonedracial confrontations, settled freedmen on abandoned or confiscated lands, and worked with Africanor confiscated lands, and worked with African American soldiers and sailors and their heirs to secureAmerican soldiers and sailors and their heirs to secure back pay, bounty payments, and pensions.”back pay, bounty payments, and pensions.” http://www.archives.gov/research/african-http://www.archives.gov/research/african- americans/freedmens-bureau/brochure.pdfamericans/freedmens-bureau/brochure.pdf
  5. 5.  This is a copyThis is a copy of a primaryof a primary source foundsource found in the U.S.in the U.S. Archives. It’sArchives. It’s a report froma report from a freedman’sa freedman’s school. Whatschool. What can youcan you understandunderstand from lookingfrom looking at it?at it?
  6. 6. Lincoln assassinatedLincoln assassinated  It occurred 5 days after LeeIt occurred 5 days after Lee surrendered to Grant atsurrendered to Grant at Appomattox. It was Good Friday,Appomattox. It was Good Friday, April 14, 1865.April 14, 1865.  John Wilkes Booth and hisJohn Wilkes Booth and his conspirators wanted to bringconspirators wanted to bring chaos to the Union, so thatchaos to the Union, so that Confederate forces would beConfederate forces would be encouraged to fight again.encouraged to fight again. Pictured from top clockwise: Ford’s Theatre balcony, John Wilkes Booth, and three conspirators.
  7. 7.  Ironically, the single shotIronically, the single shot from this derringer wouldfrom this derringer would end Lincoln’s idea ofend Lincoln’s idea of trying to reunite thetrying to reunite the country more peacefullycountry more peacefully and give racial equality.and give racial equality. It would take anotherIt would take another 100 years for that.100 years for that. Pistol on display at Ford’s Theatre, where Lincoln had been watching Our American Cousin.
  8. 8. The South PostwarThe South Postwar  PhysicalPhysical destruction- Mostdestruction- Most of the war tookof the war took place in the South.place in the South.  FinanciallyFinancially destroyed-destroyed- worthless $,worthless $, closed banks, lossclosed banks, loss of fortunesof fortunes  Wounded soldiersWounded soldiers returningreturning  4 million freedmen4 million freedmen with no jobs orwith no jobs or educationeducation Illustration showing Jackson from the August 8, 1863, edition of The Illustrated London News.
  9. 9. Problems That Would Arise FromProblems That Would Arise From The RuinsThe Ruins  About 4 million formerAbout 4 million former slaves were now freeslaves were now free (“Freedmen”) but had(“Freedmen”) but had little opportunity for jobslittle opportunity for jobs or any hope of providingor any hope of providing for their families.for their families.  Hundreds of thousandsHundreds of thousands of veterans were alsoof veterans were also created by the war.created by the war.
  10. 10. Lincoln’s Successor,Lincoln’s Successor, Johnson’s planJohnson’s plan  A majority of voters from eachA majority of voters from each southern state had to pledge loyaltysouthern state had to pledge loyalty to the United Statesto the United States  Each state also had to ratify theEach state also had to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment (1865) whichThirteenth Amendment (1865) which had banned slavery throughout thehad banned slavery throughout the nationnation
  11. 11. The South’s Black CodesThe South’s Black Codes  A way that Southerners could restrictA way that Southerners could restrict newly freed African Americansnewly freed African Americans  Most of these state or local laws saidMost of these state or local laws said theythey couldn’tcouldn’t vote, own guns orvote, own guns or serve on juries.serve on juries. https://chnm.gmu.edu/courses/122/recon/code.h tml https://chnm.gmu.edu/courses/122/recon/code.html Mississippi’s Black Codes of 1865
  12. 12. Congress Takes ActionCongress Takes Action  Members of Congress known as RadicalMembers of Congress known as Radical Republicans vowed to take control ofRepublicans vowed to take control of ReconstructionReconstruction  Two main goals:Two main goals:  They wanted to break the power of wealthyThey wanted to break the power of wealthy planters who had long ruled the Southplanters who had long ruled the South  They wanted to ensure that freedmenThey wanted to ensure that freedmen received the right to votereceived the right to vote
  13. 13. Republicans Start To TakeRepublicans Start To Take ControlControl  They passed the CivilThey passed the Civil Rights Act (1866)Rights Act (1866) however, fearing thehowever, fearing the Supreme CourtSupreme Court would declare itwould declare it unconstitutional, theyunconstitutional, they proposed the 14proposed the 14thth AmendmentAmendment
  14. 14. 1414thth AmendmentAmendment  Defined citizens as “all persons bornDefined citizens as “all persons born or naturalized in the United States”or naturalized in the United States”  Guaranteed citizens “equal protectionGuaranteed citizens “equal protection of the laws”of the laws”  Forbade states to “deprive anyForbade states to “deprive any person of life, liberty or propertyperson of life, liberty or property without due process of law”without due process of law”
  15. 15. Radical ReconstructionRadical Reconstruction  Under the Reconstruction Act (1867)Under the Reconstruction Act (1867) Congress threw out any state’s governmentCongress threw out any state’s government that did not ratify the 14that did not ratify the 14thth AmendmentAmendment  To rejoin the Union, states had to write newTo rejoin the Union, states had to write new constitutions and ratify the 14constitutions and ratify the 14thth AmendmentAmendment
  16. 16. Johnson Is Impeached andJohnson Is Impeached and Nearly RemovedNearly Removed Republicans decided to removeRepublicans decided to remove Johnson from office after he tried to limitJohnson from office after he tried to limit what they could do with Reconstructionwhat they could do with Reconstruction They decided to impeach him, or bringThey decided to impeach him, or bring formal charges against him, but they didformal charges against him, but they did not hold up.not hold up.
  17. 17. Grant Is Nominated forGrant Is Nominated for PresidentPresident RepublicansRepublicans nominate Ulysses S.nominate Ulysses S. Grant for President.Grant for President. SouthernSouthern governments allowedgovernments allowed African AmericanAfrican American men to vote, and as amen to vote, and as a result Grant easilyresult Grant easily won the election.won the election.
  18. 18. The Fifteenth AmendmentThe Fifteenth Amendment  Proposed in 1869Proposed in 1869  Forbade any state to deny any citizenForbade any state to deny any citizen the right to vote because of “race,the right to vote because of “race, color, or previous condition ofcolor, or previous condition of servitude”servitude”
  19. 19. Three Groups Step In As LeadersThree Groups Step In As Leaders In The SouthIn The South First were theFirst were the scalawagsscalawags::  Seen as traitors by someSeen as traitors by some  They were white businesspeople who hadThey were white businesspeople who had opposed secession in 1860opposed secession in 1860  They wanted to forget the war and just rebuild theThey wanted to forget the war and just rebuild the South.South.
  20. 20. Second, were theSecond, were the carpetbaggerscarpetbaggers::  Northerners who came to the southNortherners who came to the south after the war hoping to get rich from theafter the war hoping to get rich from the South’s miserySouth’s misery Third, were African AmericansThird, were African Americans  They became sheriffs, mayors, andThey became sheriffs, mayors, and legislators in the new governmentlegislators in the new government
  21. 21. Hiram RevelsHiram Revels  The first AfricanThe first African American in the U.S.American in the U.S. Senate was fromSenate was from Mississippi. He hadMississippi. He had not been a slave. Henot been a slave. He had been a minister,had been a minister, and he later becameand he later became President of AlcornPresident of Alcorn University.University.
  22. 22. The Rise of Vigilante GroupsThe Rise of Vigilante Groups  These groups were radical in theirThese groups were radical in their way of thinkingway of thinking  The KKK (Ku Klux Klan) frightened,The KKK (Ku Klux Klan) frightened, threatened, and killed Africanthreatened, and killed African AmericansAmericans..
  23. 23. Ending Federal ReconstructionEnding Federal Reconstruction  Grant’s administration gained a reputationGrant’s administration gained a reputation for corruption.for corruption.  The 1876 election was decided byThe 1876 election was decided by Congress. Rutherford B. Hayes hadCongress. Rutherford B. Hayes had promised to end Reconstruction, so he gotpromised to end Reconstruction, so he got the votes needed.the votes needed.
  24. 24. A Cycle of PovertyA Cycle of Poverty  SharecroppingSharecropping  Freedmen and poor whites who went toFreedmen and poor whites who went to work on large plantationswork on large plantations  They rented and farmed a plot of landThey rented and farmed a plot of land  Planters provided seed, fertilizer, and toolsPlanters provided seed, fertilizer, and tools in return for a share of the crop at harvestin return for a share of the crop at harvest timetime
  25. 25. Getting around the 15Getting around the 15thth AmendmentAmendment  Southerners passedSoutherners passed poll taxes-poll taxes- requiring votersrequiring voters to pay a fee each time they voted.to pay a fee each time they voted.  They imposedThey imposed literacyliteracy teststests that required votersthat required voters to read and explain a section of the Constitution.to read and explain a section of the Constitution. A grandfather clause allowed someone whoseA grandfather clause allowed someone whose grandfather had voted to get around taking thegrandfather had voted to get around taking the test. Guess who was grandfathered in?test. Guess who was grandfathered in?  SegregationSegregation became the law in the Southbecame the law in the South  Law that would separate whites and blacksLaw that would separate whites and blacks
  26. 26. PlessyPlessy v. Fergusonv. Ferguson  The Supreme Court ruled thatThe Supreme Court ruled that segregation was legal as long assegregation was legal as long as facilities for blacks and whites werefacilities for blacks and whites were equal.equal.
  27. 27. South begins to industrialize bySouth begins to industrialize by the 1880’sthe 1880’s  Textile industry takes advantage of aTextile industry takes advantage of a resurgence of cotton productionresurgence of cotton production  Other industries take advantage of naturalOther industries take advantage of natural resourcesresources  Lumber millsLumber mills  Iron millsIron mills

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