Northern Postwar Problems Economic problems in the North: 800,000 Union soldiers were returning to the north where there were no jobs There was no longer a need for so many factories, so there were a lot of layoffs
Physicallynorthern farms and cities were hardly touched since most battles took place in the south
Southern Postwar Problems Financially the South was destroyed Confederate money was worthless The plantation economy which had depended mostly on slavery was now ended
Physically the South was Destroyed In some areas all homes, barns and bridges were destroyed. Mostof the south’s railroads were totally destroyed
Problems That Would Arise From The Ruins About 4 million former slaves were now free (“Freedmen”) but had little opportunity for jobs or any hope of providing for their families. Hundreds of thousands of veterans were also created by the war.
Early Steps Toward Reconstruction Lincoln’s Ten Percent Plan (1863) Under this plan, a southern state could form a new government after 10% of its voters swore an oath of loyalty to the United States.
The Freedmen’s Bureau Government agency formed to help former slaves Gave food and clothing to former slaves Helped them find jobs Helped poor whites as well Provided health care for more than 1 million people
The Freedmen’s Bureau’s Most Important Tasks Being involved in teaching former slaves and their children to read The agency laid the foundation for the South’s public school system It also created colleges for African Americans
Johnson’s Plan A majority of voters from each southern state had to pledge loyalty to the United States Each state also had to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment (1865) which had banned slavery throughout the nation
The South’s Black Codes African Americans couldn’t vote, own guns or serve on juries They could marry legally and own some kinds of property
Congress Takes Action Members of Congress known as Radical Republicans vowed to take control of Reconstruction Two main goals: They wanted to break the power of wealthy planters who had long ruled the South They wanted to ensure that freedmen received the right to vote
Republicans Start To Take Control They passed the Civil Rights Act (1866) however, fearing the Supreme Court would declare it unconstitutional, they proposed the 14th Amendment
14th Amendment Defined citizens as “all persons born or naturalized in the United States” Guaranteed citizens “equal protection of the laws” Forbade states to “deprive any person of life, liberty or property without due process of law”
Radical Reconstruction Under the Reconstruction Act (1867) Congress threw out any state’s government that did not ratify the 14th Amendment To rejoin the Union, states had to write new constitutions and ratify the 14th Amendment
Johnson Is Almost Impeached Republicans decided to remove Johnson from office after he tried to limit what they could do with Reconstruction They decided to impeach him, or bring formal charges against him.
Grant Is Nominated for PresidentRepublicans nominateUlysses S. Grant forPresident.Southerngovernments allowedAfrican American mento vote, and as aresult Grant easilywon the election.
The Fifteenth Amendment Proposed in 1869 Forbade any state to deny any citizen the right to vote because of “race, color, or previous condition of servitude”
Three Groups Step In As Leaders In The SouthFirst were the scalawags: Seen as traitors by some They were white businesspeople who had opposed secession in 1860 They wanted to forget the war and just rebuild the South.
Second, were the carpetbaggers: Northernerswho came to the south after the war hoping to get rich from the South’s miseryThird, were African Americans They became sheriffs, mayors, and legislators in the new government
The Rise of Vigilante Groups These groups were radical in their way of thinking The KKK (Ku Klux Klan) frightened, threatened, and killed African Americans that were not obedient.
A Cycle of Poverty Sharecropping Freedmen and poor whites who went to work on large plantations They rented and farmed a plot of land Planters provided seed, fertilizer, and tools in return for a share of the crop at harvest time
Life after Reconstruction Southerners passed poll taxes- requiring voters to pay a fee each time they voted. They imposed literacy tests that required voters to read and explain a section of the Constitution. Segregation became the law in the South Law that would separate whites and blacks
Plessy v. Ferguson The Supreme Court ruled that segregation was legal as long as facilities for blacks and whites were equal.
The Gettysburg Address Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.