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Middle Colonies New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware
Basic Differences from New England The Middle Colonies offered more diversity than the New England Colonies: They came from many places in addition to England, such as Germany, Ireland, Scotland, and The Netherlands They were not as confined to one religion as New England Puritans and a few other Protestant religions. There were Quakers, Jews, Catholics, Presbyterians, and others allowed in the Middle Colonies.
Basic Differences from New England Economically, most of the products that came out of New England were related to the sea and the forest. Shipbuilding and fishing are examples.
Basic Differences from New England The middle colonies had better soil and a little longer growing season. They grew cash crops that could be easily sold for food. They grew grains (wheat, rye, oats) so much they were called “Breadbasket colonies.”
Basic Differences from New England They had iron ore as a natural resource and skilled artisans to make several products such as nails, flints, guns, tools, and furniture hardware. Artisans also made clocks, watches, and glassware.
Basic Differences from New England Whereas NE’s population was concentrated in towns and villages, the Middle Colonies had small farms. Families were self-sufficient. Nearly everything they needed could be produced on the farm. They were more spread out and had fewer town meetings, but more legislative assemblies.
New York King Charles II wanted to have the Atlantic Coast shored up for England. New Amsterdam (today NYC) was already a busy trading center for furs and items produced in the other colonies, but it was under control of the Dutch, and named New Netherland.
The Dutch Governor, Peter Stuyvesant, was extremely unpopular. Even though he kept peace, order, and prosperity in a city that had quadrupled in population, the townspeople took no pity on their peg-legged veteran leader.
Leaders are not usually all bad or all good- Stuyvesant is a good example of this: He allowed an elected council, but did not want the advice of the people. He demanded that all should worship on Sunday, but did not allow Lutherans to congregate. He wanted to regulate the sale of alcohol, because he believed there was too much drunkenness. He wanted farm animals out of the streets. He insisted that Indians be treated fairly. He increased taxes on imports.
The English Takeover of New Netherland When King Charles II sent warships to the harbor, Stuyvesant wanted to fight them off, but he had neither the ammunition nor the support of his people. The English came in New Netherland Colony and renamed it New York. New Amsterdam became New York City.
New Jersey New York had become too large to govern. King Charles broke off New Jersey and turned it over to Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret. NJ turned out to be good farmland, but as a proprietary colony, it was not succeeding. It was made a royal colony, under direct control of the king, but the people still had voting rights and individual freedoms. King Charles II
Pennsylvania William Penn left his Anglican roots to become a Quaker in England. This might have meant his death or imprisonment, but King Charles owed his father money (well over $1 million in today’s money). When William’s father died, Charles allowed Penn some land for him to set up a colony. Penn set up Pennsylvania with a goal of religious freedom, equality, and peaceful, Christian living.
In an unusual move, he insisted on buying land from natives, rather than taking it. He won their respect. His views on religious tolerance drew people from all over Western Europe, including the “Pennsylvania Dutch.” (German-speaking) He seemed at odds with his views on equality, as slavery was allowed in PA.
Some of the Views of Penn and Quakers (Society of Friends) All are equal-gender, ethnicity, etc. Conscientious objectors to war Each person has an inherit Light and inner worth. Not ritualistic Do not take formal oaths
Other Ideas of Penn City of Philadelphia- means brotherly love-the City Hall w/ his statue is world’s 2nd tallest stone masonry bldg. Creation of a representative government for the colony Separation of powers in government is a concept we still use
Officially, the Quaker Oatmeal man isn’t William Penn, just a man in Quaker garb who symbolizes good, honest value.
Delaware Delaware was formed from the lower eastern counties of Pennsylvania. Delegates to the representative assembly found the travel too difficult, and were allowed to break away. Named for the local Delaware Indians and a Virginia governor named Lord de la Warr. Had been under control of Swedes and Dutch before it came under control of English.