Work to pay way out or escape after a year and a day
Section 2 The Church and Rise of Cities
Most people in Western Europe in the Middle Ages were Roman Catholic.
Religious and Economic Power People were constrained by the idea of punishment-hell, and reward-heaven. Clergy (church leaders) collected taxes and fiefs from Lords for performing various religious services-baptisms, weddings, church services, etc.
Church Political Power People who were excommunicated were left out of everything. Church officials advised kings and lords.
Church organization Pope Parish Priests Archbishops Bishops
Everyday Priests were in every community They performed various religious rites and took confessions from parishoners.
Monasteries and Convents Monasteries – Monks –developed better ways to farm; copied religious writings Convents- Nuns helped with education and health
Scholasticism Used reasoning to explain things that had always been explained by faith alone.
Trade and Towns People were beginning to feel safer. They opened up the ancient trade routes. European merchants bought and sold goods from afar. Towns began as manors became overcrowded; lords allowed serfs to buy freedom and move to towns.
Towns and Cities By 1300, there were some large cities. Paris had 300,000 people! (largest in world at that time)
Middle Class Develops Merchants Traders Craft workers Guilds of certain occupations began to: Set quality standards Set price controls Pay dues to support those of their number in need
Steps to Becoming a Guild Member Ages 8-14: Be an apprentice. Live with someone who can teach you the trade, but you are not paid a salary. You are there to learn. After apprenticeship: Become a journeyman. You are paid for your work, and eventually you create a reputation for yourself that makes you worthy of acceptance into the guild.
Overcrowding in Cities Extremely unsanitary conditions led to lots of disease, such as the Black Death, that ravaged Europe from 1347 to 1351. It was transmitted by fleas on rats.
Medieval Culture Large cathedrals built in gothic style Stained glass artwork Cathedral schools Chivalry- the code of good conduct for knights Troubadors- traveling entertainers who parlayed stories of great knights winning over beautiful ladies into music