Could possibly be: • Written • Oral • A photo • A video • An historic map • Museum artifacts
Account provided after the fact by someone who was not actually there…usually based on primary sources • Textbooks • Encyclopedias • Biographies • Articles/blogs written by historians • Museum interpretations
Is it authentic- is it truthful? Is it what it claims to be? • Is it a primary source? • Is it actually from the time period? • Who is giving the information? What is his/her point of view? • Would that person or organization have a particular bias? • You can get flawed information if you do not check your sources!
Do NOT use wikipedia!!! EVER! Look for .edu at the end of a web address. It may not be 100% accurate, but it is probably a worthy source. Check the time frame of what you are studying. Let’s say you are studying the Civil War. Someone who is living today can not be an eyewitness to Civil War history, but he or she may have collected many primary source documents to tell the story. Some people are known for their research of certain time periods. Shelby Foote is a good example of an expert in researching history.
“And I really do think that the difficulty of research makes it more real to you than punching a thing to find out how many men were killed at this particular action.” Shelby Foote
Watch for bias! Does “Historyis written by the writer use wording the victors.” that shows a • Winston Churchill particular bias about a person or event? Would your textbook’s Differing political, explanation of the social, or economic Revolution be different if it were written by viewpoints may give British authors? different sides of an event.
Whose perspective tells the story? Is that important to understand- ing it?(Anonymous art sent to me, but useful for this discussion-AB.)
Cooking utensils Catalogs Children’s books Almanacs Old photos Farming utensils Office tools Even graveyards!
No, but our interpretations sometimes change, or maybe we get new evidence. Can you think of any examples in which most people thought a certain way about an event or person, but their perceptions changed? Why did this change happen?
Archaeologists study artifacts, the objects that humans have made. For instance they might dig in a kitchen midden, an area outside where a family used to prepare and eat meals. Layers of soil and rock which have mounted atop the area have much to reveal about the culture of the people. We usually think of middens to examine prehistoric people, but we can use them for more recent history, also. What kinds of things did they eat? What kinds of tools did they use to cook? What eating utensils did they use? What does the evidence tell us?
Absolute Chronology Relative Chronology • The EXACT time and • When an event occurred place of an event in relationship to other events. • This helps to establish correlations between events, cause and effect, or even lack of a connection between events. Think of the book If You Give a Mouse a Cookie, and you have the idea of cause and effect.