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  • 1. Chapter 10 Section 3
  • 2.
    • By 1784 Americans had established trade with China, and by the 1790’s, New Englanders traded all along the Pacific Northwest.
  • 3.
    • Traders also traded w/ the Barbary States, northern nations along the African continent.
  • 4. The problem was pirates!
  • 5. History of Barbary Trade
    • Pre-Revolution: Britain paid the tribute (bribes) that the Barbary nations demanded to keep pirates from stealing ships and cargo.
  • 6.
    • During American Revolution: France , our ally, paid the tribute.
  • 7.
    • Washington’s Presidency: Jefferson, Sec. of State, tried to get a coalition of nations together to quit paying the tribute.
  • 8.
    • They refused. Each country, including the U.S., paid.
  • 9.
    • Adams paid almost 1/5 of our entire budget to the corsairs, and still American sailors were kidnapped and ransomed!
  • 10.
    • When Jefferson became President, he quit paying.
  • 11.
    • Instead, he imposed his own blockade .
    • Congress would not declare war.
  • 12.
    • The Philadelphia ran aground on a sandbar off Tripoli. We surrendered the ship and 307 men.
  • 13.
    • He sent Lt. Stephen Decatur to burn our ship in the harbor.
  • 14.
    • They killed 20 pirates in 20 minutes, & escaped the harbor safely.
  • 15.
    • American ships bombarded Tripoli on several occasions, but when the marines hit, a treaty was reached.
  • 16.
    • After the War of 1812, during Madison’s Presidency, we were threatened by Algiers, and formally declared hostilities.
  • 17.
    • Decatur led an incredible attack that took 486 prisoners. No more tribute would ever be paid to the Barbary States.
  • 18. Other naval problems
    • Britain impressed U. S. sailors for service in their navy, and France also took ships.
  • 19.
    • Jefferson imposed the Embargo Act, (no foreign trade) hoping to cut off their supplies.
  • 20. $108 million
    • It hurt our economy more than it did theirs.
    $22 million EXPORTS
  • 21. Some Americans turned to smuggling.
  • 22.
    • Realizing the Embargo Act had failed, Congress replaced it w/ the Nonintercourse Act.
  • 23. America could trade w/ all except England and France.
  • 24. 1808
    • After Jefferson’s 2 terms, Madison (Rep.) became President.
  • 25. Section 4
    • Natives were unhappy w/ white settlers moving in.
  • 26. Section 4
    • Tecumseh and his brother, The Prophet, believed that whites were corrupting the culture and values of Indians.
  • 27. Section 4
    • They organized several tribes in resistance.
  • 28.
    • William Henry Harrison, Gov. of the Indiana Territory, defeated The Prophet at the Battle of Tippecanoe.
  • 29.
    • (Harrison later became our 9 th President)
  • 30. Building toward war w/Britain
    • They were helping the Indians
    • They would not respect our neutrality, and they did not jump at our trade offer.
  • 31. Building toward war w/Britain
    • War Hawks said Britain was treating us like a colony.
  • 32.
      • War Hawks were led by Henry Clay (Kentucky)
  • 33. Building toward war w/Britain
      • They wanted to take Canada and Florida.
      • They said settlers would be safe without Brits goading the Indians.
  • 34.
    • Congress declared war in June of 1812.
  • 35. Section 5
    • Reduced spending on the military during Jefferson’s administration left us needing volunteers.
  • 36.
    • The British navy was superior, but we had success w/ ships like the USS Constitution .
  • 37. The fight for Canada
    • Brock (Br.) suckered Hull (Am.) into retreat across the border from Detroit.
  • 38. The fight for Canada
    • Oliver Hazard Perry (Am) battled heroically at Lake Erie.
  • 39. His quote: We have met the enemy, and they are ours.
  • 40. The fight for Canada
    • Harrison pushed back Brits and Indian allies from Detroit to win the Battle of the Thames.
  • 41. To the South
    • The Cherokees helped Andrew Jackson’s troops defeat the Creeks at Horseshoe Bend.
  • 42. The British Advance on Washington
    • Brits came in from the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland. They set fire to the White House.
  • 43. The British Advance on Washington
    • Dolly Madison was able to save the portrait of George Washington before she fled to safety.
  • 44. The British Advance on Washington
    • They marched north to Baltimore and Ft. McHenry, where Frances Scott Key wrote “The Star Spangled Banner.”
  • 45. Meanwhile
    • Philadelphia-Richard Allen and Absalom James recruited men to fortify the city.
  • 46. Meanwhile
    • Hartford, Connecticut- Federalists met to protest war and possibly secede from the Union.
  • 47. A decisive victory, but two weeks late….
    • Andrew Jackson took Spanish Pensacola and Mobile to get ready for battle in New Orleans.
  • 48. A decisive victory, but two weeks late….
    • He enlisted help of Choctaws, African-Americans, and N.O. citizens to win big in the Big Easy.
  • 49. Treaty of Ghent ended the War
    • Nothing really settled
    • Canada still British
  • 50. Treaty of Ghent ended the War
    • The good thing-Americans felt they had gained respect as a nation and had a national pride
  • 51. Treaty of Ghent ended the War
    • Heroes like Harrison and Jackson later became Presidents
  • 52.
    • William Henry Harrison won the presidency in 1840 with the slogan, “Tippecanoe and Tyler Too.” This refers to his participation in the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. One year later, he died.
  • 53.
    • From then, until the election of Ronald Reagan in 1980, every president elected in a year ending in a zero died while serving their term.
  • 54. The years and presidents who suffered this curse were: 1840 (W Harrison - natural causes), 1860 (Lincoln - shot), 1880 (Garfield - shot), 1900 (McKinley - shot), 1920 (Harding - natural causes), 1940 (F Roosevelt - natural causes) and 1960 (Kennedy - shot). Interestingly, an assassination attempt was aimed at Reagan - had it succeeded, he would have died before the end of his first term.