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  • 1. The 1 st Civilizations of the Americas Chapter 2.1
  • 2. Most Common View
    • Hunters crossed a land bridge from Asia to America near the end of the last Ice Age.
  • 3. Important Civilizations Developed in the Americas
    • Olmecs
      • Earliest known
      • Lived along the Gulf of Mexico
      • Carved huge stone heads
  • 4. Imp. Civilizations, cont.
    • Mayas
      • rain forests of Guatemala and Mexico
      • Developed concept of Zero
      • Priests & nobles at the top of society; laborers & farmers at the bottom
  • 5. Imp. Civilizations, cont.
    • Aztecs
      • Central Mexico@Lake Texcoco; capital-Tenochtitlan
      • Constructed causeways and chinampas (floating gardens)
      • Society: Emperor, Priests & nobles, warriors, merchants & artisans, farmers, slaves
  • 6. Imp. Civilizations, cont.
    • Incas
      • W. Coast of S. America
      • Built huge system of roads
      • Kept numerical gov’t and trade records w/ a quipu
      • Thought of emperor as a god
  • 7. Native American Cultures Chapter 2.2
  • 8. Early Cultures of N. America
    • Southwest-
      • Hohokams dug irrigation ditches for farming the desert
      • Anasazis built large houses of adobe ( sun dried) brick
  • 9. Culture Areas
    • Northwest-
      • Families held potlatch ceremonial dinners to show off their wealth.
  • 10. Culture Areas
    • Southeast
      • Warm, moist climate great for fishing and farming; the Natchez were in this area
  • 11. Culture Areas
    • Arctic
      • Groups like the Inuits hunted seals in the arctic waters. They used all of the seal, including the meat, skin, fat, and bone.
  • 12. Culture Areas
    • Intermountain
      • Groups like the Utes lived in cold, dry conditions unsuitable for farming. They gathered roots and hunted mountain sheep.
  • 13. Culture Areas
    • Great Plains
      • The Cheyennes and other groups relied on the buffalo for basic needs
  • 14. What did they have in common?
    • A deep respect for nature, including animals and the forces of nature…They believed that people must adapt to the natural world to maintain balance.
  • 15. In common…cont.
    • Ceremonies @harvest
      • The Pueblo groups had Kachinas, spirits believed to bring good harvests, represented by masked dancers @ their harvest ceremonies.
  • 16. Iroquois Confederacy
    • The Eastern Woodlands of NY were home to the Iroquois, the “People of the Long House.”
  • 17. Iroquois Women
    • Owned the household property
    • Planted and harvested the crops
    • Chose clan leaders
  • 18. League of Iroquois
    • Led by 50 Iroquois sachems (tribal leaders)
    • An alliance of the 5 Iroquois nations to end fighting between them
  • 19. Trade Networks of Africa and Asia Chapter 2.3
  • 20.
    • During the Middle Ages, the center of all trade was in the Arab world.
  • 21.
    • Most Arab merchants practiced the religion of Islam. Followers of Islam are called Muslims.
  • 22.
    • Muslims followed the teachings of Muhammad as they still do today. These teachings are found in the Quran .
  • 23.
    • As they traded and made their annual pilgrimage (hajj) to Mecca, their religion spread, also.
  • 24.
    • As Muslims traded with others in Africa, the Middle East, and Asia, they began the 1 st global age.
  • 25.
    • The most famous trade route, although quite dangerous, was the Silk Road, which linked China with the Middle East.
  • 26.
    • Initially, the Chinese were reluctant to trade with outsiders. It was an isolated empire.
  • 27.
    • When the new emperor Zheng He came to power in 1402, he sent traders to Southeast Asia, Arabia, and Africa.
  • 28.
    • Later emperors reverted to the closed door idea.
  • 29.
    • In Africa the city-states in the East and the kingdoms of the West were the centers for trade. In between lay the great Sahara Desert.
  • 30.
    • To the East was Zimbabwe, Kilwa, and Sofala. They spoke Swahili, and they were the ports that exported African gold, ivory, and hardwood to India and China.
  • 31.
    • To the West were the gold rich empires of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai.
  • 32.
    • The most important city was Timbuktu. It was the seat of culture and education, and the home of the most famous West African ruler, Mansa Musa.
  • 33. Tradition and Change in Europe Chapter 2.4
  • 34. Jews and Christians
    • Both believed in one God, who determined their laws and moral behaviors.
  • 35.
    • Early Jewish (Hebrew or Israelite) law began with the 10 Commandments.
  • 36.
    • Christians followed the teachings of Jesus, who they believed was the Messiah(Savior) promised to the Jews.
  • 37.
    • During the time of the Roman Empire, Christians began sending missionaries throughout Europe to teach about Jesus.
  • 38. Greeks and Romans
    • Greeks practiced direct democracy , with ordinary citizens voting.
  • 39.
    • Romans began as republic , with citizens choosing representatives to govern them.
  • 40.
    • Two things that helped the Roman Empire spread:
      • Law - all were equal under the law
      • Language -Latin connected people from diverse regions. It is the basis for Romance languages today.
  • 41. The Crusades and Trade
    • The “Holy Wars” between Christians and Muslims lasted about 200 years, from 1100 to 1300.
  • 42.
    • European Christians gathered new ideas, new goods, and new technologies that they wanted to have back home.
  • 43. During the Renaissance
    • Gutenberg invented the printing press. More people had the opportunity to read.
  • 44.
    • European rulers developed powerful monarchies, but couldn’t control Muslim and Italian merchants of the Mediterranean area.
  • 45.
    • They sought new trade routes to Africa and Asia.