Section 1: Building a Nation
The Era of Good Feelings
The War of 1812 resulted with the
Republicans in control of the government.
Republican candidate, James Monroe, won
the 1816 presidential election in a
This was a huge defeat for the Federalist
Party and in a few years the party had
major belief was
A local newspaper
coined this new sense
of national unity as the
“Era of Good
Monroe was reelected
Building the National
was a growing belief that
the federal government should
increase economic prosperity.
This belief came from different
regions. Three major
Congressional members who
favored federal action were Henry
Clay, John C. Calhoun, and
Spoke for the people
located in the West.
Better roads and canals
to transport goods from
one region to another.
Wanted the three regions
of the country to trade
with one another
John C. Calhoun
Spoke for the people in
Believed in the idea of
Opposed tariffs because
they raised the price of
goods that southerners
A supporter of
high tariffs as a
way of protecting
The Second Bank of the
Due to the Bank of the
United States’ charter
running out, the economy
In 1816, a second Bank
of the United States was
This control of the money
supply gave a boost to
The Tariff of 1816
After the War of 1812, British
manufacturers wanted to sell their
products to the United States.
The British had established factories to
produce goods at a lower price than the
The British’s ability to sell goods below
market price drove several American
businesses out of business.
answered the angry
business owners with the Tariff of
Protective tariffs on foreign textiles,
iron, leather goods, paper, and
Even higher tariffs were passed by
Congress in 1818 and 1824.
Popular in the North.
Resented in the South.
Clay’s American System
American System- high tariffs
and a federal program of public
works that would help the three
The wealth produced by tariffs
would allow northerners to buy
farm products from the West
Government revenue would be
used to build up the
infrastructure in the South and
Roads, bridges, and canals.
The South was not convinced.
Section 2: Dealing with other
Relations with Spain.
At the time of the War of
1812, Spain controlled more
territory in the Americas than
any other European country.
However, this power was
Spain’s control was especially
weak in Florida. They weren’t
stopping of slave escapes to
the Seminole Nation.
Andrew Jackson (soon to be
7th president) was sent by
the U.S. to recapture the
He captured the escaped
Seminole villages, seized
two Spanish towns, and
caused the governor to
It was clear that Spain could
not protect Florida.
Spain ceded Florida to the
United States in the Adams Onis treaty of 1819.
Spanish Colonies win
The American and French revolutions
were inspiring movements in almost all
Spanish colonies. There was an
uncontrollable tension calling for change
in Latin America.
In 1821 Spain agreed to Mexico’s
By 1825, most areas in Latin America
had thrown off European rule.
President Monroe and his
Secretary of State, John Quincy
Adams, were concerned that
several European powers would
assist Spain to regain its
United States and Britain
wanted to remain trading
partners with Latin America.
The doctrine stated that
European countries could not
settle new colonies or try to
regain previous colonies. Any
attempt would be considered
―dangerous to our peace and
The Monroe Doctrine boosted
the influence of the United
States in the region.
Section 3: The Age of
John Quincy Adams and
Jackson in Conflict
Andrew Jackson was
a wealthy man when
he became President.
However, he began
life with very little.
He thought that
should participate in
American political life.
I am tough
The Election of 1824
Four people ran for President in 1824,
John Quincy Adams
NO candidate won a majority of
The choice was between Jackson and
John Quincy Adams.
Election had to be decided in the
House of Representatives.
Speaker of the House Henry Clay was
accused of making a “corrupt
bargain” with John Quincy Adams .
John Quincy Adams became
President. Clay became Sec. of State.
FYI: Another political party
developed…The AntiJacksons (called the Whigs)
The Presidency of John
Although John Quincy Adams
had ambitious plans, he
accomplished very little.
Supported Clay’s American System
and wanted the federal government
to play a larger role in supporting
He lacked the political skill to
push his programs through
John Quincy Adams only
served one term due to the fact
that he could never win the trust
of the American people.
Era in Politics
○ The right to vote
Voters chose the presidential electors
Democracy in the Age of Jackson
Ordinary people should vote in elections
and hold public office.
Did not trust the government
Supporters called themselves
Suspicious of banks
Place the state
Click on the state
New Political Party
The two party system returned after ending briefly
during the Era of Good Feelings.
Republican party was spilt:
- John Quincy Adams -> National Republicans
- Jackson -> Democrats
Jackson v. Clay
Jackson was victorious!
Two major political parties: Democrats and Whigs
○ The Whigs wanted the government to improve
the country’s economy. These were the rich
business people and southern farmers.
○ The Democrats included the average people,
frontier farmers as well as factory workers.
Jackson’s supporters wanted to make the
voting system more democratic:
○ Eliminated the caucus system
Political candidates chosen by
○ Created nominating conventions
Delegates selected a party’s
candidate based on the people’s vote
Jackson did the best in the West and
Victory for the ―common man‖
―It was the People’s day, and the People’s
President, and the People would rule.‖
The Spoils of Victory
―To the victor go the spoils…‖
Jackson replaced some
government officials with his
He believed that he was
expanding democracy by
Section 4: Indian Removal
Native American of
lived east of MS
○ Many were
farmers or lived
Conflict over land
Native Americans lived on
The Indian Removal Act (1830)
carried out by President
Jackson to help the U.S.
Remove Native Americans from
land east of the Mississippi
Relocate them to the ―Indian
Territory‖—land west of the
Mississippi River, present day
Removal of Choctaws
○ The Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek of
○ Unfair to Natives
○ Still had their land in 1837 (Jackson’s
○ President Martin Van Buren forced the
Cherokees (and other eastern tribes) to
○ Trail of Tears- Lots of suffering and
thousands died along the trips westward
Trail of Tears
Black Hawk War
Who was involved?
(led by Black Hawk)chief of the Sauk,
Fox, and Kickapoo
tribes against the
The Native Americans had land in Illinois and
In the 1820’s, the U.S. took it away. They forced
Black Hawk’s people to sign treaties giving up
Black Hawk began raiding white settlements.
U.S. troops (General Henry Atkinson) pursued
Black Hawk surrendered, but Atkinson's men
opened fire anyway, killing 200 women, children
Black Hawk was captured and imprisoned for a
year. Then he rejoined the remnants of his tribe
on a reservation in Iowa.
Did you know…
enlisted in an Illinois
militia unit during the
Black Hawk War. He
became a captain, but
did not see action.
Also fought in the war.
Section 5: State’s Rights and
The Bank War
The Second Bank of the United States earned
strong support from business people.
On the other hand, many Americans disliked the
Bank. They opposed the way the bank restricted
loans made by state banks. This limited the
amount of money the banks could lend, which
angered farmers and merchants.
The Bank’s most powerful enemy was
Andrew Jackson, who called the Bank ―the
In this cartoon, President Jackson battles the
Bank of the United States and its branches.
The Bank’s president, Nicholas Biddle, was
having Congress renew the Bank’s charter.
―The Bank. . . Is trying to kill me, but I will kill it!‖ –
○ Although many Americans thought Jackson took too
much power as President, most agreed with his
veto of the bank, and he won reelection in 1832.
John c. Calhoun ->VP
○ Shortly after he was reelected he decided to ―kill the
○ He withdrew all government deposits and the bank
was forced to shut down.
and John C.
Calhoun were once
opponents in a
quarrel over states’
rights, or the right of
the states to limit the
power of the federal
The Nullification Crisis
The South was still upset about the high
tariffs that were put into place in 1828.
The South responded by trying to nullify
They said states had a right to nullify, or cancel,
a federal law it considered unconstitutional.
Some southern states wanted to secede, or
break away from the U.S.
There was a conflict over how much power the
federal government should have.
Arguments for Nullification
John C. Calhoun
○ The union grew from an agreement between the
various states. Each state kept certain powers.
○ If the federal government could enforce this unjust
law, could it also use its power to end slavery?
Arguments against Nullification
Senator Daniel Webster
○ The Unites States had been formed by the entire
American people, not states.
The Vice President Resigns
his office of Vice
Van Buren became
President in 1833.
I am the new
South Carolina Threatens to
Secede passed a new law to try to solve the
problem in the South.
It was a lower tariff.
It did not please the South.
South Carolina voted to nullify the tariffs.
They also warned the federal govt. not to use
force to impose the tariffs.
Jackson was furious. He issued a
―Proclamation to the People of South Carolina.‖
It said that the Union could not be dissolved.
Unable to win support from other states, South
Carolina then repealed its tariff nullification.
The End of the Jackson Era
Jackson retired from office after two terms.
Martin Van Buren
He had been Jackson’s Secretary of State, and
later, Vice President.
Elected in 1836 over the Whig party
○ The Whigs were a group of people who disliked
Jackson and had tried to prevent any candidate
from receiving a majority of electoral votes.
○ However, Van Buren received a majority of both the
electoral and the popular vote.
The Panic of 1837
During his term in office, a
○ Hundreds of banks went
The people who had supported
Jackson turned against Van Buren
and the Whigs gained ground
The Election of 1840
Van Buren vs. William Harrison
○ Harrison won!
○ Slogan: Tippecanoe and Tyler,
The Whigs were in power and the
Age of Jackson was over.