The Variety of Teaching
Teaching method is ways of presenting
instructional materials or conducting instructional
teaching method to be used depends largely on the
information or skill that is being taught, and it may
also be influenced by the aptitude and enthusiasm
of the students.
Teaching method Refers to how you apply your way
of teaching Approaches to your day to day
instruction in front of your students.
The Variety of Teaching Method
There are 6 kinds of teaching method :
1. The Grammatical Translation Method
2. Direct Method
3. Audio Lingual Method
4. Task-Based Learning
5. Communicative Approach
6. Total Physical Response
1. The Grammatical Translation Method (GTM)
In the Grammar Method students learn the rules
of grammar together with a list of vocabulary
words or groups.
The words are then used as a phrase or sentence
based on rules that have been studied.
In this method, the mastery of the rules of
precedence than its application. Verbal skills,
such as pronunciation, not done.
The Characteristic of GTM
Teaching begins with the provision of the rules of
grammar, and grammar refers to the framework formal.
Vocabulary is taught depends on the selected text so
there is no continuity between the group or a
vocabulary list from one to another.
Memorization and translation is a prominent feature of
the activities, that is memorized and translate the
vocabulary and grammar rules.
Pronunciation is not taught or is restricted to a few
More emphasis on reading and writing rather than
listening and speaking.
2. Direct Method (DM)
Includes lots of oral interaction, spontaneous
use of language, no translation between the
first and second language, and little or no
analysis of grammar rules.
The direct method was an answer to the
dissatisfaction with the older grammar
translation method, which teaches students
grammar and vocabulary through direct
translations and thus focuses on the written
The Characteristic of DM
Teaching grammar by using an inductive
approach (i.E. Having learners find out rules
through the presentation of adequate linguistic
forms in the target language)
Centrality of spoken language (including a
Focus on question-answer patterns
3. Audio Lingual Method (ALM)
Audio-Lingual Method is an oral-based approach.
It drills students in the use of grammatical sentence
Conditioning → helping learners to respond correctly to
stimuli through shaping and reinforcement.
The development of language skills is a matter of habit
This method is said to result in rapid acquisition of
speaking and listening skills.
The Characteristic of AL Method
New vocabulary and structural patterns are presented through
Dialogs– learning through imitation and repetition
Grammar is induced from the examples.
Drills are used to teach structural patterns
Set phrases are memorised with a focus on intonation
Focus is on pronunciation
Correct responses are positively reinforced immediately
Speaking and listening competence preceded reading and writing
4. Task-Based Learning (TBL)
In TBL learning is promoted by giving students
tasks to complete while using the target language
(Lindsay and Knight 23).
The approach called task based learning is the
logical outcome of theories of second language
learning associated with the communicative
focuses on the use of authentic language and on
asking students to do meaningful tasks using the
TBL Based on three stages:
- Pre-task Phase –
introduction of topic/task/new words by teacher
Task Cycle -
students do the task, students prepare a report to class,
- Language Focus –
analysis of new features and practice.
The aim is to explore, listen and speak. Based on selfteaching. Grammar explained afterwards. Teacher is advisor
and initiator, students are explorers and investigators.
The Characteristic of TBL
Activities that involve real communication are
essential for language learning
Activities in which language is used for carrying out
meaningful tasks promote learning
Language that is meaningful to the learner supports
the learning process(Richards and Rogers 223)
This desire to make learning more student-centred is
reflected in widespread attempts
This method relies heavily on learners’ involvement
and their world knowledge.
5. Communicative Approach (CA)
Communicative teaching is based on the work of
sociolinguists who theorized that an effective knowledge
of a language is more than merely knowing vocabulary
and rules of grammar and pronunciation.
Communicative Method is an approach to the teaching of
second and foreign languages that
emphasizes interaction as both the means and the
ultimate goal of learning a language.
Emphasizes learning a language through genuine
The communicative approach is a flexible method rather
than a rigorously defined set of teaching practices.
The Characteristics of CA
Students learn grammar and vocabulary through context.
Students learn English in a way that allows them to use the language
in real life.
English students learn by complete immersion, by studying with
native English speakers.
There is little or no translation provided.
Students must communicate with their teacher and with each other in
Lessons always include pair or group work activities.
An emphasis on learning to communicate through interaction in the
The provision of opportunities for learners to focus, not only on
language but also on the learning process itself.
An attempt to link classroom language learning with language
activities outside the classroom.
6. Total Physical Response (TPR)
Total Physical Response (TPR) is a language
teaching method built around the coordination of
speech and action; it attempts to teach language
through physical (motor) activity.
The method relies on the assumption that when
learning a second or additional language, language
is internalized through a process of codebreaking
similar to first language development and that the
process allows for a long period of listening and
developing comprehension prior to production.
The Characteristics of TPR
Good language learners achieve fluency faster when they are immersed in
activities that involve them in situational language use;
Good language learners often start their language learning with a period of
silence as they watch the effect of language on others;
Good language learners show comprehension by successfully accomplishing
Good language learners focus on overall sentence meaning rather than a
sentence’s grammatical parts;
Good language learners make faster progress when the language of instruction
is consistent (though limited) on a daily basis, and
Good language learners make faster progress when the content involves
language that is clearly usable or valuable outside the classroom.
Harmer, Jeremy. (1991 ). The Practice of English Language
Teaching. Harlow: Longman House
Howatt, A.P.R. (1984). A History of English Language Teaching.
Oxford: Oxford UP