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Techniques and principles in language teaching

Techniques and principles in language teaching

Techniques and principles in language teaching



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    Techniques and principles in language teaching Techniques and principles in language teaching Presentation Transcript

    • Techniques and PrinciplesTechniques and Principles in Language Teachingin Language Teaching Yueh-chiu Helen WangYueh-chiu Helen Wang
    • IntroductionIntroduction  The actions are the techniquesThe actions are the techniques and the thoughts are theand the thoughts are the principles. It is important toprinciples. It is important to recognize that methods linkrecognize that methods link thoughts and actions becausethoughts and actions because teaching is not entirely aboutteaching is not entirely about one or the other.one or the other.
    •  You have thoughts about yourYou have thoughts about your subject matter—what languagesubject matter—what language is, what culture is—and aboutis, what culture is—and about your students—who they are asyour students—who they are as learners and how it is they learn.learners and how it is they learn. You have also have thoughtsYou have also have thoughts about yourself as a teacher andabout yourself as a teacher and what you can do to help yourwhat you can do to help your students learn.students learn.
    •  It is very important for you toIt is very important for you to become aware of the thoughtsbecome aware of the thoughts that guide your actions in thethat guide your actions in the classroom.classroom.
    •  Everyone knows that being aEveryone knows that being a good teacher means givinggood teacher means giving positive feedback to studentspositive feedback to students and being concerned about theirand being concerned about their affective side on their feelings.affective side on their feelings.
    •  Learning to listen to themselvesLearning to listen to themselves is part of lessening their relianceis part of lessening their reliance on the teacher. The teacher willon the teacher. The teacher will not always be there. Also, theynot always be there. Also, they will be encouraged to formwill be encouraged to form criteria for correcting theircriteria for correcting their mistakes—for monitoring theirmistakes—for monitoring their own progress.own progress.
    •  Observing a class will give youObserving a class will give you a greater understanding of aa greater understanding of a particular method and will giveparticular method and will give you more of an opportunity toyou more of an opportunity to reflect on your own practicereflect on your own practice than if you were to simply read athan if you were to simply read a description of it.description of it.
    • Ten questionsTen questions  1. What are the goals of1. What are the goals of teachers who use this method?teachers who use this method?  2. What is the role of the2. What is the role of the teacher? What is the role of theteacher? What is the role of the students?students? 3. What are some3. What are some characteristics of thecharacteristics of the teaching/learning process?teaching/learning process?
    •  4. What is the nature of student-4. What is the nature of student- teacher interaction? What is theteacher interaction? What is the nature of student-studentnature of student-student interaction?interaction?  5. How are the feelings of the5. How are the feelings of the students dealt with?students dealt with?  6. How is language viewed?6. How is language viewed? How is culture viewed?How is culture viewed?
    •  7. What areas of language are7. What areas of language are emphasized? What languageemphasized? What language skills are emphasized?skills are emphasized?  8. What is the role of the8. What is the role of the students’ native language?students’ native language?  9. How is evaluation9. How is evaluation accomplished?accomplished?
    •  10. How does the teacher10. How does the teacher respond to student errors?respond to student errors?
    • The Grammar-TranslationThe Grammar-Translation MethodMethod  The Grammar-TranslationThe Grammar-Translation Method was called the ClassicalMethod was called the Classical Method since it was first used inMethod since it was first used in the teaching of the classicalthe teaching of the classical languages, Latin and Greeklanguages, Latin and Greek (Chastian, 1988).(Chastian, 1988).
    •  This method was used for theThis method was used for the purpose of helping studentspurpose of helping students read and appreciate foreignread and appreciate foreign language literature. Throughlanguage literature. Through the study of the grammar of thethe study of the grammar of the target language, students wouldtarget language, students would become more familiar with thebecome more familiar with the grammar of their nativegrammar of their native language and that this familiaritylanguage and that this familiarity with the grammar of their nativewith the grammar of their native
    •  language better. Finally, it waslanguage better. Finally, it was thought that foreign languagethought that foreign language learning would help studentslearning would help students grow intellectually.grow intellectually.
    • PrinciplesPrinciples  Learning a foreign language isLearning a foreign language is to be able to read literatureto be able to read literature written in it. Literary language iswritten in it. Literary language is superior to spoken language. Ifsuperior to spoken language. If students can translate from onestudents can translate from one language into another, they arelanguage into another, they are considered successful languageconsidered successful language learners.learners.
    •  The ability to communicate inThe ability to communicate in the target language is not a goalthe target language is not a goal of foreign language instruction.of foreign language instruction.  The primary skills to beThe primary skills to be developed are reading anddeveloped are reading and writing. Little attention is givenwriting. Little attention is given to speaking and listening andto speaking and listening and almost none to pronunciation.almost none to pronunciation.
    •  The teacher is the authority inThe teacher is the authority in the classroom. It is verythe classroom. It is very important that students get theimportant that students get the correct answer.correct answer.  Learning is facilitated throughLearning is facilitated through attention to similarities betweenattention to similarities between the target language and thethe target language and the native language.native language.
    •  Deductive application of anDeductive application of an explicit grammar rule is a usefulexplicit grammar rule is a useful pedagogical technique.pedagogical technique.  Language learning providesLanguage learning provides good mental exercise.good mental exercise.
    •  Students should be conscious ofStudents should be conscious of the grammatical rules of thethe grammatical rules of the target language.target language.
    •  There is little student initiationThere is little student initiation and little student-studentand little student-student interaction.interaction.  There are no principles of theThere are no principles of the method which relate to students’method which relate to students’ feelings.feelings.
    •  Vocabulary and grammar areVocabulary and grammar are emphasized. Reading andemphasized. Reading and writing are the primary skills thatwriting are the primary skills that the students work on.the students work on.
    • The role of the students’The role of the students’ native languagenative language  The meaning of the targetThe meaning of the target language is made clear bylanguage is made clear by translating the students’ nativetranslating the students’ native language. The language that islanguage. The language that is used in class is mostly theused in class is mostly the students’ native language.students’ native language.
    • How is evaluationHow is evaluation accomplished?accomplished?  Written tests in which studentsWritten tests in which students are asked to translate from theirare asked to translate from their native language to the targetnative language to the target language or vice versa are oftenlanguage or vice versa are often used.used.
    • How does the teacherHow does the teacher respond to student errors?respond to student errors?  Having the students get theHaving the students get the correct answer is consideredcorrect answer is considered very important.very important.
    • The Direct MethodThe Direct Method  The Direct Method has one veryThe Direct Method has one very basic rule: No translation isbasic rule: No translation is allowed. Meaning is to beallowed. Meaning is to be conveyed directly in the targetconveyed directly in the target language through the use oflanguage through the use of demonstration and visual aids.demonstration and visual aids.
    • PrinciplesPrinciples  The reading skill will beThe reading skill will be developed through practice withdeveloped through practice with speaking. Language is primarilyspeaking. Language is primarily speech. Culture consists ofspeech. Culture consists of more than the fine arts(e.g. themore than the fine arts(e.g. the students study geography andstudents study geography and cultural attitudes).cultural attitudes).
    •  Objects (e.g. realia or pictures)Objects (e.g. realia or pictures) present in the immediatepresent in the immediate classroom environment shouldclassroom environment should be used to help studentsbe used to help students understand the meaning.understand the meaning.  The native language should notThe native language should not be used in the classroom.be used in the classroom.
    •  The teacher shouldThe teacher should demonstrate, not explain ordemonstrate, not explain or translate. It is desirable thattranslate. It is desirable that students make a directstudents make a direct association between the targetassociation between the target language and meaning.language and meaning.
    •  Students should learn to think inStudents should learn to think in the target language as soon asthe target language as soon as possible. Vocabulary ispossible. Vocabulary is acquired more naturally ifacquired more naturally if students use it in full sentencesstudents use it in full sentences rather than memorizing wordrather than memorizing word lists.lists.
    •  The purpose of languageThe purpose of language learning is communication.learning is communication.  Pronunciation should be workedPronunciation should be worked on right from the beginning ofon right from the beginning of language instruction.language instruction.
    •  Self-correction facilitatesSelf-correction facilitates language learning.language learning.  Lessons should contain someLessons should contain some conversational activity—someconversational activity—some opportunity for students to useopportunity for students to use language in real contexts.language in real contexts. Students should be encouragedStudents should be encouraged to speak as much as possible.to speak as much as possible.
    •  Grammar should be taughtGrammar should be taught inductively. There may neverinductively. There may never be an explicit grammar rulebe an explicit grammar rule given.given.  Writing is an important skill, toWriting is an important skill, to be developed from thebe developed from the beginning of languagebeginning of language instruction.instruction.
    •  The syllabus is based onThe syllabus is based on situations or topics, not usuallysituations or topics, not usually on linguistic structures.on linguistic structures.  Learning another language alsoLearning another language also involves learning how speakersinvolves learning how speakers of that language live.of that language live.
    • What are the goals of teachersWhat are the goals of teachers who use the Direct Method?who use the Direct Method?  Teachers who use the DirectTeachers who use the Direct Method intend that studentsMethod intend that students learn how to communicate in thelearn how to communicate in the target language. In order to dotarget language. In order to do this successfully, studentsthis successfully, students should learn to think in theshould learn to think in the target language.target language.
    • What is the role of teacher?What is the role of teacher?  Although the teacher directs theAlthough the teacher directs the class activities, the student roleclass activities, the student role is less passive than in theis less passive than in the Grammar-Translation Method.Grammar-Translation Method. The teacher and the studentsThe teacher and the students are more like partners in theare more like partners in the teaching/learning process.teaching/learning process.
    • What are some characteristics ofWhat are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process?the teaching/learning process?  Teachers believe students needTeachers believe students need to associate meaning and theto associate meaning and the target language directly.target language directly. Students speak in the targetStudents speak in the target language a great deal andlanguage a great deal and communicate as if they were incommunicate as if they were in real situations. The syllabus isreal situations. The syllabus is based upon situations or topics.based upon situations or topics.
    • What is the nature of student-What is the nature of student- teacher interaction?teacher interaction?  The initiation of the interactionThe initiation of the interaction goes both ways, from teacher togoes both ways, from teacher to students and from student tostudents and from student to teacher, although the latter isteacher, although the latter is often teacher-directed.often teacher-directed.
    • How are the feelings of theHow are the feelings of the students dealt with?students dealt with?  There are no principles of theThere are no principles of the methods which relate to thismethods which relate to this area.area.
    • How is language viewed?How is language viewed?  Language is primarily spoken,Language is primarily spoken, not written.not written.
    • What areas of language areWhat areas of language are emphasized?emphasized?  Vocabulary is emphasized overVocabulary is emphasized over grammar.grammar.
    • What is the role of theWhat is the role of the students’ native language?students’ native language?  Students’ native languageStudents’ native language should not be used in theshould not be used in the classroom.classroom.
    • How is evaluationHow is evaluation accomplished?accomplished?  The students might beThe students might be interviewed orally by the teacherinterviewed orally by the teacher or might be asked to write aor might be asked to write a paragraph about something theyparagraph about something they have studied.have studied.
    • How does the teacherHow does the teacher respond to student errors?respond to student errors?  The teacher, employing variousThe teacher, employing various techniques, tries to get studentstechniques, tries to get students to self-correct wheneverto self-correct whenever possible.possible.
    • The Audio-Lingual MethodThe Audio-Lingual Method  The Audio-Lingual Method, likeThe Audio-Lingual Method, like the Direct Method, is also anthe Direct Method, is also an oral-based approach. However,oral-based approach. However, it is very different in that theit is very different in that the Audio-Lingual Method drillsAudio-Lingual Method drills students in the use ofstudents in the use of grammatical sentence patterns.grammatical sentence patterns.
    •  It also,unlike the Direct Method, hasIt also,unlike the Direct Method, has a strong theoretical base ina strong theoretical base in linguistics and psychology. It haslinguistics and psychology. It has principles from behavioralprinciples from behavioral psychology (Skinner, 1957)werepsychology (Skinner, 1957)were incorporated. It was thought that theincorporated. It was thought that the way to acquire the sentence patternsway to acquire the sentence patterns of the target language was throughof the target language was through conditioning—helping learners toconditioning—helping learners to respond correctly to stimuli throughrespond correctly to stimuli through shaping and reinforcement.shaping and reinforcement.
    •  Learners could overcome theLearners could overcome the habits of their native languagehabits of their native language and from the new habitsand from the new habits required to be target languagerequired to be target language speakers.speakers.
    • The Audiolingual MethodThe Audiolingual Method  The Audio-lingual Method, likeThe Audio-lingual Method, like the Direct Method, is also anthe Direct Method, is also an oral-based approach. However,oral-based approach. However, it is very different in that theit is very different in that the Audio-Lingual Method drillsAudio-Lingual Method drills students in the use ofstudents in the use of grammatical sentence patterns.grammatical sentence patterns.
    •  It was thought that the way toIt was thought that the way to acquire the sentence patterns of theacquire the sentence patterns of the target language was throughtarget language was through conditioning—helping learners toconditioning—helping learners to respond correctly to stimuli throughrespond correctly to stimuli through shaping and reinforcement.shaping and reinforcement. Learners could overcome the habitsLearners could overcome the habits of their native language and form theof their native language and form the new habits required to be targetnew habits required to be target language speakers.language speakers.
    • PrinciplesPrinciples  Language forms do not occur byLanguage forms do not occur by themselves; they occur mostthemselves; they occur most naturally within a context.naturally within a context.
    •  The native language and theThe native language and the target language have separatetarget language have separate linguistic systems. They shouldlinguistic systems. They should be kept apart so that thebe kept apart so that the students’ native languagestudents’ native language interferes as little as possibleinterferes as little as possible with the students’ attempts towith the students’ attempts to acquire the target language.acquire the target language.
    • The language teacher’s roleThe language teacher’s role  One of the language teacher’sOne of the language teacher’s major roles is that of a model ofmajor roles is that of a model of the target language. Teachersthe target language. Teachers should provide students with ashould provide students with a good model. By listening to howgood model. By listening to how it is supposed to sound,it is supposed to sound, students should be able tostudents should be able to mimic the model.mimic the model.
    •  Language learning is a processLanguage learning is a process of habit formation. The moreof habit formation. The more often something is repeated, theoften something is repeated, the stronger the habit and thestronger the habit and the greater the learning.greater the learning.
    •  It is important to preventIt is important to prevent learners from making errors.learners from making errors. Errors lead to the formation ofErrors lead to the formation of bad habits. When errors dobad habits. When errors do occur, they should beoccur, they should be immediately corrected by theimmediately corrected by the teacher.teacher.
    •  The purpose of languageThe purpose of language learning is to learn how to uselearning is to learn how to use the language to communicate.the language to communicate.
    •  Particular parts of speechParticular parts of speech occupy particular ‘slots’ inoccupy particular ‘slots’ in sentences. In order to createsentences. In order to create new sentences, students mustnew sentences, students must learn which part of speechlearn which part of speech occupies which slot.occupies which slot.
    •  Positive reinforcement helps thePositive reinforcement helps the students to develop correctstudents to develop correct habits.habits.
    •  Students should learn toStudents should learn to respond to both verbal andrespond to both verbal and nonverbal stimuli.nonverbal stimuli.
    •  Pattern practice helps studentsPattern practice helps students to form habits which enable theto form habits which enable the students to use the patterns.students to use the patterns.
    •  Students should ‘overlearn’,Students should ‘overlearn’, learn to answer automaticallylearn to answer automatically without stopping to think.without stopping to think.
    •  The teacher should be like anThe teacher should be like an orchestra leader—conducting,orchestra leader—conducting, guiding, and controlling theguiding, and controlling the students’ behavior in the targetstudents’ behavior in the target language.language.
    •  The major objective of languageThe major objective of language teaching should be for studentsteaching should be for students to acquire the structuralto acquire the structural patterns; students will learnpatterns; students will learn vocabulary afterward.vocabulary afterward.
    •  The learning of a foreignThe learning of a foreign language should be the samelanguage should be the same as the acquisition of the nativeas the acquisition of the native language. The rules necessarylanguage. The rules necessary to use the target language willto use the target language will be figured out or induced frombe figured out or induced from examples.examples.
    •  The major challenge of foreignThe major challenge of foreign language teaching is gettinglanguage teaching is getting students to overcome the habitsstudents to overcome the habits of their native language.of their native language.
    •  Speech is more basic toSpeech is more basic to language than the written form.language than the written form. The ‘natural order’ –the orderThe ‘natural order’ –the order children follow when learningchildren follow when learning their native language—of skilltheir native language—of skill acquisition is: listening,acquisition is: listening, speaking, reading, and writing.speaking, reading, and writing.
    •  Language cannot be separatedLanguage cannot be separated from culture. Culture is not onlyfrom culture. Culture is not only literature and the arts, but alsoliterature and the arts, but also the everyday behavior of thethe everyday behavior of the people who use the targetpeople who use the target language. One of the teacher’slanguage. One of the teacher’s responsibilities is to presentresponsibilities is to present information about that culture.information about that culture.
    • The nature of student-teacherThe nature of student-teacher interactioninteraction  Most of the interactions isMost of the interactions is between teacher and studentsbetween teacher and students and is initiated by the teacher.and is initiated by the teacher.
    • How is language viewed?How is language viewed?  Everyday speech is emphasizedEveryday speech is emphasized in the Audio-lingual Method.in the Audio-lingual Method. The level of complexity of theThe level of complexity of the speech is graded, so thatspeech is graded, so that beginning students arebeginning students are presented with only simplepresented with only simple patterns. Culture consists of thepatterns. Culture consists of the everyday behavior and lifestyleeveryday behavior and lifestyle of the target language speakers.of the target language speakers.
    • What areas of language areWhat areas of language are emphasized?emphasized?  Vocabulary is kept to aVocabulary is kept to a minimum while the students areminimum while the students are mastering the wound systemmastering the wound system and grammatical patterns.and grammatical patterns.
    •  The oral/aural skills receiveThe oral/aural skills receive most of the attention.most of the attention. Pronunciation is taught from thePronunciation is taught from the beginning, often by studentsbeginning, often by students working in language laboratoriesworking in language laboratories on discriminating betweenon discriminating between members of minimal pairs.members of minimal pairs.
    • The role of the students’The role of the students’ native languagenative language  The target language is used inThe target language is used in the classroom, not the students’the classroom, not the students’ native language.native language.
    • How is evaluationHow is evaluation accomplished?accomplished?  Students might be asked toStudents might be asked to distinguish between words in adistinguish between words in a minimal pair, for example, or tominimal pair, for example, or to supply an appropriate verb formsupply an appropriate verb form in a sentence.in a sentence.
    • How does the teacherHow does the teacher respond to student errors?respond to student errors?  Student errors are to be avoidedStudent errors are to be avoided if at all possible through theif at all possible through the teacher’s awareness of whereteacher’s awareness of where the students will have difficultythe students will have difficulty and restriction of what they areand restriction of what they are taught to say.taught to say.
    • The role of instructionalThe role of instructional materialsmaterials  Instructional materials in theInstructional materials in the Audiolingual Method assist theAudiolingual Method assist the teacher to develop languageteacher to develop language mastery in the learner. Theymastery in the learner. They are primary teacher-oriented.are primary teacher-oriented.  Tape recorders and audiovisualTape recorders and audiovisual equipment often have centralequipment often have central roles in an audiolingual course.roles in an audiolingual course.
    • The decline of AudioligualismThe decline of Audioligualism  Audiolingualism reached itsAudiolingualism reached its period of most widespread useperiod of most widespread use in the 1960s and was appliedin the 1960s and was applied both to the teaching of foreignboth to the teaching of foreign language in the United Stateslanguage in the United States and to the teaching of Englishand to the teaching of English as a second or foreignas a second or foreign language.language.
    •  Audiolingualism stresses theAudiolingualism stresses the mechanistic aspects ofmechanistic aspects of language learning and languagelanguage learning and language use.use.
    • Total Physical ResponseTotal Physical Response (TPR)(TPR)  TPR is a language teachingTPR is a language teaching method built around themethod built around the coordination of speech andcoordination of speech and action; it attempts to teachaction; it attempts to teach language through physicallanguage through physical motor activity. Developed bymotor activity. Developed by James Asher, a professor ofJames Asher, a professor of psychology at San Jose Statepsychology at San Jose State University, California.University, California.
    •  He claims that speech directedHe claims that speech directed to young children consiststo young children consists primarily of commands, whichprimarily of commands, which children respond to physicallychildren respond to physically before they begin to producebefore they begin to produce verbal responses.verbal responses.
    •  Asher shares with the school ofAsher shares with the school of humanistic psychology ahumanistic psychology a concern for the role of affectiveconcern for the role of affective factors in language learning.factors in language learning.
    •  Asher has elaborated anAsher has elaborated an account of what he feelsaccount of what he feels facilitates or inhibits foreignfacilitates or inhibits foreign language learning. For thislanguage learning. For this dimension of his learning theorydimension of his learning theory he draws on three influentialhe draws on three influential learning hypotheses:learning hypotheses:
    •  1. There exists a specific innate1. There exists a specific innate bio-program for languagebio-program for language learning which defines anlearning which defines an optimal path for first and secondoptimal path for first and second language development.language development.  2. Brain lateralization defines2. Brain lateralization defines different learning functions indifferent learning functions in the left-and-right brainthe left-and-right brain hemispheres.hemispheres.
    •  3. Stress intervenes between3. Stress intervenes between the act of learning and what is tothe act of learning and what is to be learned; the lower the stress,be learned; the lower the stress, the greater the learning.the greater the learning.
    •  Listening should beListening should be accompanied by physicalaccompanied by physical movement. Speech and othermovement. Speech and other productive skills should comeproductive skills should come later.later.
    •  Asher sees TPR as directed toAsher sees TPR as directed to right-brain learning, whereasright-brain learning, whereas most second language teachingmost second language teaching methods are directed to left-methods are directed to left- brain learning. Asher hold thatbrain learning. Asher hold that the child language learnerthe child language learner acquires language throughacquires language through motor movement.motor movement.
    •  Similarly, the adult shouldSimilarly, the adult should proceed to language masteryproceed to language mastery through right hemisphere motorthrough right hemisphere motor activities, while the leftactivities, while the left hemisphere watches and learns.hemisphere watches and learns.
    • The objective of TPRThe objective of TPR  The objective of TPR is to teachThe objective of TPR is to teach oral proficiency at a beginningoral proficiency at a beginning level. Comprehension is alevel. Comprehension is a means to an end. The ultimatemeans to an end. The ultimate aim is to teach basic speakingaim is to teach basic speaking skills. TPR requires initialskills. TPR requires initial attention to meaning rather thanattention to meaning rather than to the form of items. Grammarto the form of items. Grammar is thus taught inductively.is thus taught inductively.
    •  Learners in TPR have theLearners in TPR have the primary roles of listener andprimary roles of listener and performer. They listenperformer. They listen attentively and respondattentively and respond physically to commands givenphysically to commands given by the teacher. Learners areby the teacher. Learners are also expected to recognize andalso expected to recognize and respond to novel combinationsrespond to novel combinations of previously taught items.of previously taught items.
    •  Learners monitor and evaluateLearners monitor and evaluate their own progress. They aretheir own progress. They are encouraged to speak when theyencouraged to speak when they feel ready to speak—that is,feel ready to speak—that is, when a sufficient basis in thewhen a sufficient basis in the language has been internalized.language has been internalized. The teacher plays an activeThe teacher plays an active and direct role in TPR.and direct role in TPR.
    • The Silent WayThe Silent Way  The Silent Way is the name of aThe Silent Way is the name of a method of a language teachingmethod of a language teaching devised by Caleb Gattegno.devised by Caleb Gattegno.
    •  It is based on the premise thatIt is based on the premise that the teacher should be silent asthe teacher should be silent as much as possible in themuch as possible in the classroom but the learnerclassroom but the learner should be encouraged toshould be encouraged to produce as much language asproduce as much language as possible.possible.
    •  Elements of the Silent Way,Elements of the Silent Way, particularly the use of colorparticularly the use of color charts and the coloredcharts and the colored Cuisenaire rods, grew out ofCuisenaire rods, grew out of Gattegno’s previous experienceGattegno’s previous experience as an educational designer ofas an educational designer of reading and mathematicsreading and mathematics programs.programs.
    • Learning hypothesesLearning hypotheses  1. Learning is facilitated if the1. Learning is facilitated if the learner discovers or createslearner discovers or creates rather than remembers andrather than remembers and repeats what is to be learned.repeats what is to be learned.  Learning is facilitated byLearning is facilitated by accompanying physical objects.accompanying physical objects.
    •  3. Learning is facilitated by3. Learning is facilitated by problem solving involving theproblem solving involving the material to be learned.material to be learned.
    • Theory of language andTheory of language and learninglearning  The sentence is the basic unit ofThe sentence is the basic unit of teaching, and the teacherteaching, and the teacher focuses on propositionalfocuses on propositional meaning, rather thanmeaning, rather than communicative value. Studentscommunicative value. Students are presented with the structuralare presented with the structural patterns of the target languagepatterns of the target language and learn the grammatical rulesand learn the grammatical rules of the language through largelyof the language through largely inductive processes.inductive processes.
    •  Gattegno sees vocabulary as aGattegno sees vocabulary as a central dimension of languagecentral dimension of language learning and the choice oflearning and the choice of vocabulary as crucial.vocabulary as crucial.
    •  Gattegno looked at languageGattegno looked at language learning from the perspective oflearning from the perspective of the learner by studying the waythe learner by studying the way babies and young childrenbabies and young children learn.learn.
    •  The teacher points to five blocksThe teacher points to five blocks of color without saying anything.of color without saying anything. The blocks of color representThe blocks of color represent the sounds of five Englishthe sounds of five English vowels close to the five simplevowels close to the five simple vowels of Portuguese.vowels of Portuguese.
    • PrinciplesPrinciples  The teacher should start withThe teacher should start with something the students alreadysomething the students already know and build from that to theknow and build from that to the unknown. Languages share aunknown. Languages share a number of features, soundsnumber of features, sounds being the most basic.being the most basic.
    •  Language learners areLanguage learners are intelligent and bring with themintelligent and bring with them the experience of alreadythe experience of already learning a language. Thelearning a language. The teacher should give only whatteacher should give only what help is necessary.help is necessary.
    •  Language is not learned byLanguage is not learned by repeating after a model.repeating after a model. Students need to develop theirStudents need to develop their own ‘inner criteria’ forown ‘inner criteria’ for correctness—to trust and to becorrectness—to trust and to be responsible for their ownresponsible for their own production in the targetproduction in the target language.language.
    •  Students’ actions can tell theStudents’ actions can tell the teacher whether or not theyteacher whether or not they have learned.have learned.
    •  The teacher makes use of whatThe teacher makes use of what students already know. Thestudents already know. The more the teacher does for themore the teacher does for the students what they can do forstudents what they can do for themselves, the less they will dothemselves, the less they will do for themselves.for themselves.
    •  Learning involves transferringLearning involves transferring what one knows to newwhat one knows to new contexts.contexts.  Reading is worked on from theReading is worked on from the beginning but follows from whatbeginning but follows from what students have learned to say.students have learned to say.
    •  Silence is a tool. It helps toSilence is a tool. It helps to foster autonomy, or the exercisefoster autonomy, or the exercise of initiative. It also removes theof initiative. It also removes the teacher from the center ofteacher from the center of attention so he can listen to andattention so he can listen to and work with students. The teacherwork with students. The teacher speaks, but only whenspeaks, but only when necessary.necessary.
    •  Meaning is made clear byMeaning is made clear by focusing students’ perceptions,focusing students’ perceptions, not through translation.not through translation.  Students can learn from oneStudents can learn from one another. The teacher’s silenceanother. The teacher’s silence encourages group cooperation.encourages group cooperation.
    •  Student attention is a key toStudent attention is a key to learning.learning.  Students should engage in aStudents should engage in a great deal of meaningfulgreat deal of meaningful practice without repetition.practice without repetition.  Language is for self-expression.Language is for self-expression.
    •  The teacher can gain valuableThe teacher can gain valuable information from studentinformation from student feedback.feedback.
    • What are the goals of teachersWhat are the goals of teachers who use the Silent Way?who use the Silent Way?  Students should be able to useStudents should be able to use the language for self-expressionthe language for self-expression —to express their thought,—to express their thought, perception, and feelings.perception, and feelings.
    • What is the role of teacher?What is the role of teacher?  The teacher is a technician orThe teacher is a technician or engineer.engineer.  The teacher should respect theThe teacher should respect the autonomy of the learners in theirautonomy of the learners in their attempts at relating andattempts at relating and interacting with the newinteracting with the new challenges.challenges.
    • What is the role of theWhat is the role of the students?students?  The role of the students is toThe role of the students is to make use of what they know, tomake use of what they know, to free themselves of anyfree themselves of any obstacles that would interfereobstacles that would interfere with giving their utmost attentionwith giving their utmost attention to the learning task.to the learning task.
    • What are some characteristics ofWhat are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process?the teaching/learning process?  Students begin their study of theStudents begin their study of the language through its basiclanguage through its basic building blocks, its sounds.building blocks, its sounds.  This provides valuableThis provides valuable information for the teacher andinformation for the teacher and encourages students to takeencourages students to take responsibility for their ownresponsibility for their own learning.learning.
    • What is the nature of student-What is the nature of student- teacher interaction?teacher interaction?  For much of the student-teacherFor much of the student-teacher interaction, the teacher is silent.interaction, the teacher is silent.  Student-student verbalStudent-student verbal interaction is desirable (studentsinteraction is desirable (students can learn from one another) andcan learn from one another) and is therefore encouraged.is therefore encouraged.
    • How are the feelings of theHow are the feelings of the students dealt with?students dealt with?  The teacher constantlyThe teacher constantly observes the students. Whenobserves the students. When their feelings interfere, thetheir feelings interfere, the teacher tries to find ways for theteacher tries to find ways for the students to overcome them.students to overcome them.
    • How is language viewed?How is language viewed?  Languages of the world share aLanguages of the world share a number of features. However,number of features. However, each language also has its owneach language also has its own unique reality since it is theunique reality since it is the expression of a particular groupexpression of a particular group of people.of people.
    • How is culture viewed?How is culture viewed?  Their culture, as reflected inTheir culture, as reflected in their own unique world view, istheir own unique world view, is inseparable from their language.inseparable from their language.
    • What areas of language areWhat areas of language are emphasized?emphasized?  Since the sounds are basic toSince the sounds are basic to any language, pronunciation isany language, pronunciation is worked on from the beginning.worked on from the beginning.
    • What language skills areWhat language skills are emphasized?emphasized?  All four skills are worked onAll four skills are worked on from the beginning of thefrom the beginning of the course, although there is acourse, although there is a sequence in that students learnsequence in that students learn to read and write what theyto read and write what they already produced orally.already produced orally.
    • What is the role of theWhat is the role of the students’ native language?students’ native language?  Meaning is made clear byMeaning is made clear by focusing the students’focusing the students’ perceptions, not by translation.perceptions, not by translation.
    • How is evaluationHow is evaluation accomplished?accomplished?  The teacher’s silence frees himThe teacher’s silence frees him to attend to his students and toto attend to his students and to be aware of these needs.be aware of these needs.
    • How does the teacherHow does the teacher respond to student errors?respond to student errors?  Student errors are seen as aStudent errors are seen as a natural, indispensable part ofnatural, indispensable part of the learning process. Errors arethe learning process. Errors are inevitable since the students areinevitable since the students are encouraged to explore theencouraged to explore the language.language.
    • DesuggestopediaDesuggestopedia  In order to make better use ofIn order to make better use of our reserved capacity, theour reserved capacity, the limitations we think we havelimitations we think we have need to be ‘desuggested.’need to be ‘desuggested.’  Desuggestopedia, theDesuggestopedia, the application of the study ofapplication of the study of suggestion to pedagogy, hassuggestion to pedagogy, has been developed to helpbeen developed to help studentsstudents
    •  eliminate the feeling that theyeliminate the feeling that they cannot be successful or thecannot be successful or the negative association they maynegative association they may have toward studying and, thus,have toward studying and, thus, to help them overcome theto help them overcome the barriers to learning.barriers to learning.
    • PrinciplesPrinciples  Learning is facilitated in aLearning is facilitated in a cheerful environment. Thecheerful environment. The classroom is bright and colorful.classroom is bright and colorful.  Students can learn from what isStudents can learn from what is present in the environment,present in the environment, even if their attention is noteven if their attention is not directed to it (‘Peripheraldirected to it (‘Peripheral learning).learning).
    •  If students trust and respect theIf students trust and respect the teacher’s authority, they willteacher’s authority, they will accept and retain informationaccept and retain information better. (The teacher speakerbetter. (The teacher speaker confidently.)confidently.)
    •  The teacher gives the studentsThe teacher gives the students the impression that learning thethe impression that learning the target language will be easy andtarget language will be easy and enjoyable.enjoyable.
    •  The students choose newThe students choose new names and identities and feelnames and identities and feel less inhibited since theirless inhibited since their performance is really that of aperformance is really that of a different person.different person.
    •  The dialogue that students learnThe dialogue that students learn contains language they can usecontains language they can use immediately. Songs are usefulimmediately. Songs are useful for ‘freeing the speech muscles’for ‘freeing the speech muscles’ and evoking positive emotions.and evoking positive emotions.
    •  Fine art provides positiveFine art provides positive suggestions for students.suggestions for students.  One way that meaning is madeOne way that meaning is made clear is through native languageclear is through native language translation.translation.
    •  Communication takes place onCommunication takes place on ‘two planes’: on one the‘two planes’: on one the linguistic message is encoded;linguistic message is encoded; and on the other are factorsand on the other are factors which influence the linguisticwhich influence the linguistic message. On the consciousmessage. On the conscious plane, the learner attends to theplane, the learner attends to the language; on the subconsciouslanguage; on the subconscious plane, the music suggests thatplane, the music suggests that learning is easy and pleasant.learning is easy and pleasant.
    •  When there is a unity betweenWhen there is a unity between conscious and subconscious,conscious and subconscious, learning is enhanced.learning is enhanced.
    •  A calm state, such as oneA calm state, such as one experiences when listening to aexperiences when listening to a concert, is ideal for overcomingconcert, is ideal for overcoming psychological barriers and forpsychological barriers and for taking advantage of learningtaking advantage of learning potential.potential.
    •  The fine arts (music, art, andThe fine arts (music, art, and drama) enable suggestions todrama) enable suggestions to reach the subconscious. Thereach the subconscious. The arts should, therefore, bearts should, therefore, be integrated as much as possibleintegrated as much as possible into the teaching process.into the teaching process.
    •  The teacher should help theThe teacher should help the students ‘activate’ the materialstudents ‘activate’ the material to which they have beento which they have been exposed. Novelty aidsexposed. Novelty aids acquisition.acquisition.
    •  Music and movement reinforceMusic and movement reinforce the linguistic material. If theythe linguistic material. If they trust the teacher, they will reachtrust the teacher, they will reach this state more easily.this state more easily.
    •  In an atmosphere of play, theIn an atmosphere of play, the conscious attention of theconscious attention of the learner does not focus onlearner does not focus on linguistic forms, but rather onlinguistic forms, but rather on using the language. Learningusing the language. Learning can be fun.can be fun.
    •  Errors are corrected gently, notErrors are corrected gently, not in a direct, confrontationalin a direct, confrontational manner.manner.
    • What are the goals of teachersWhat are the goals of teachers who use Desuggestopedia?who use Desuggestopedia?  Teachers hope to accelerate theTeachers hope to accelerate the process by which students learnprocess by which students learn to use a foreign language forto use a foreign language for everyday communication. Ineveryday communication. In order to do this, more of theorder to do this, more of the students’ mental powers muststudents’ mental powers must be tapped.be tapped.
    • What is the role of teacher?What is the role of teacher?  The teacher is the authority inThe teacher is the authority in the classroom. In order for thethe classroom. In order for the method to be successful, themethod to be successful, the students must trust and respectstudents must trust and respect her. Once the students trust theher. Once the students trust the teacher, they can feel moreteacher, they can feel more secure. If they feel secure, theysecure. If they feel secure, they can be more spontaneous andcan be more spontaneous and less inhibited.less inhibited.
    • What are some characteristics ofWhat are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process?the teaching/learning process?  The posters are change everyThe posters are change every few weeks to create a sense offew weeks to create a sense of novelty in the environment.novelty in the environment. Students select target languageStudents select target language names and choose newnames and choose new occupations. During the courseoccupations. During the course they create whole biographies tothey create whole biographies to go along with their newgo along with their new identities.identities.
    • What is the nature of student-What is the nature of student- teacher interaction?teacher interaction?  The teacher initiates interactionsThe teacher initiates interactions with the whole group of studentswith the whole group of students and with individuals right fromand with individuals right from the beginning of a languagethe beginning of a language course.course.
    • How are the feelings of theHow are the feelings of the students dealt with?students dealt with?  If students are relaxed andIf students are relaxed and confident, they will not need toconfident, they will not need to try hard to learn the language.try hard to learn the language. It will just come naturally andIt will just come naturally and easily.easily.
    • How is language viewed?How is language viewed?  Language is the first two planesLanguage is the first two planes in the two-plane process ofin the two-plane process of communication. In the secondcommunication. In the second plane are the factors whichplane are the factors which influence linguistic message.influence linguistic message.
    • How is culture viewed?How is culture viewed?  The culture which students learnThe culture which students learn concerns the everyday life ofconcerns the everyday life of people who speak the language.people who speak the language. The use of fine arts is alsoThe use of fine arts is also important in Desuggestopedicimportant in Desuggestopedic classes.classes.
    • What areas of language areWhat areas of language are emphasized?emphasized?  Vocabulary is emphasized.Vocabulary is emphasized. Grammar is dealt with explicitlyGrammar is dealt with explicitly but minimally.but minimally.
    • What language skills areWhat language skills are emphasized?emphasized?  Speaking communicatively isSpeaking communicatively is emphasized. Students alsoemphasized. Students also read in the target language (forread in the target language (for example, dialogs) and write (forexample, dialogs) and write (for example, imaginativeexample, imaginative compositions).compositions).
    • What is the role of theWhat is the role of the students’ native language?students’ native language?  Native-language translation isNative-language translation is used to make the meaning ofused to make the meaning of the dialog clear. The teacherthe dialog clear. The teacher also uses the native language inalso uses the native language in class when necessary.class when necessary.
    • How is evaluationHow is evaluation accomplished?accomplished?  Evaluation usually is conductedEvaluation usually is conducted on students’ normal in-classon students’ normal in-class performance and not throughperformance and not through formal tests, which wouldformal tests, which would threaten the relaxedthreaten the relaxed atmosphere consideredatmosphere considered essential for acceleratedessential for accelerated learning.learning.
    • How does the teacherHow does the teacher respond to student errors?respond to student errors?  Errors are corrected gently, withErrors are corrected gently, with the teacher using a soft voice.the teacher using a soft voice.
    • Community LanguageCommunity Language Learning Method (CLL)Learning Method (CLL)  It takes its principles from moreIt takes its principles from more general Counseling-Learninggeneral Counseling-Learning approach developed by Charlesapproach developed by Charles A. Curran.A. Curran.  Curran believed that a way toCurran believed that a way to deal with the fears of students isdeal with the fears of students is for teachers to becomefor teachers to become ‘language counselors.’‘language counselors.’
    •  By understanding students’By understanding students’ fears and being sensitive tofears and being sensitive to them, he can help studentsthem, he can help students overcome their negative feelingsovercome their negative feelings and turn them into positiveand turn them into positive energy to further their learning.energy to further their learning.
    • PrinciplesPrinciples  Building a relationship with andBuilding a relationship with and among students is veryamong students is very important.important.  Any new learning experienceAny new learning experience can be threatening. Whencan be threatening. When students have an idea of whatstudents have an idea of what will happen in each activity, theywill happen in each activity, they often feel more secure.often feel more secure.
    •  Language is for communication.Language is for communication.  The superior knowledge andThe superior knowledge and power of the teacher can bepower of the teacher can be threatening. If the teacher doesthreatening. If the teacher does not remain in the front of thenot remain in the front of the classroom, the threat is reducedclassroom, the threat is reduced and the students’ learning isand the students’ learning is facilitated.facilitated.
    •  The teacher should be sensitiveThe teacher should be sensitive to students’ level of confidenceto students’ level of confidence and give them just what theyand give them just what they need to be successful.need to be successful.  Students feel more secure whenStudents feel more secure when they know the limits of anthey know the limits of an activity.activity.
    •  Teacher and students are wholeTeacher and students are whole persons. Sharing about theirpersons. Sharing about their learning experience allowslearning experience allows learners to get to know onelearners to get to know one another and to build community.another and to build community.
    •  Guided by the knowledge thatGuided by the knowledge that each learner is unique, theeach learner is unique, the teacher creates an acceptingteacher creates an accepting atmosphere. Learners feel freeatmosphere. Learners feel free to lower their defenses and theto lower their defenses and the learning experience becomeslearning experience becomes less threatening.less threatening.
    •  The teacher understands whatThe teacher understands what the students say.the students say.  The students’ native language isThe students’ native language is used to make the meaning clearused to make the meaning clear and to build a bridge from theand to build a bridge from the known to the unknown.known to the unknown. Students feel more secure whenStudents feel more secure when they understand everything.they understand everything.
    •  The teacher asks the studentsThe teacher asks the students to form a semicircle in front ofto form a semicircle in front of the blackboard so they can seethe blackboard so they can see easily.easily.  Learning at the beginningLearning at the beginning stages is facilitated if studentsstages is facilitated if students attend to one task at a time.attend to one task at a time.
    •  The teacher encourages studentThe teacher encourages student initiative and independence, butinitiative and independence, but does not let student flounder indoes not let student flounder in uncomfortable silences.uncomfortable silences.  Students need quiet reflectionStudents need quiet reflection time in order to learn.time in order to learn.
    •  In groups, students can begin toIn groups, students can begin to feel a sense of community andfeel a sense of community and can learn from each other ascan learn from each other as well as the teacher.well as the teacher. Cooperation, not competition, isCooperation, not competition, is encouraged.encouraged.
    •  The teacher should work in aThe teacher should work in a non-threatening way with whatnon-threatening way with what the learner has produced.the learner has produced.  Developing a community amongDeveloping a community among the class members builds trustthe class members builds trust and can help to reduce theand can help to reduce the threat of the new learningthreat of the new learning situation.situation.
    •  Retention will best take placeRetention will best take place somewhere in between noveltysomewhere in between novelty and familiarity.and familiarity.
    • What are the goals of teachersWhat are the goals of teachers who use CLL Methods?who use CLL Methods?  Teachers who use theTeachers who use the Community language LearningCommunity language Learning Method want their students toMethod want their students to learn how to use the targetlearn how to use the target language communicatively.language communicatively.
    • What is the role of theWhat is the role of the teacher?teacher?  The teacher’s initial role isThe teacher’s initial role is primarily that of a counselor.primarily that of a counselor. Rather, it means that theRather, it means that the teacher recognizes howteacher recognizes how threatening a new learningthreatening a new learning situation can be for adultsituation can be for adult learners.learners.
    • What is the role of theWhat is the role of the students?students?  Initially the learners are veryInitially the learners are very dependent upon the teacher. It isdependent upon the teacher. It is recognized that as the learnersrecognized that as the learners continue to study, they becomecontinue to study, they become increasingly independent. CLTincreasingly independent. CLT methodologists have identified fivemethodologists have identified five stages in this movement fromstages in this movement from dependency to mutualdependency to mutual interdependency with the teacher.interdependency with the teacher.
    •  It should be noted that accuracyIt should be noted that accuracy is always a focus even in theis always a focus even in the first three stages; however, it isfirst three stages; however, it is subordinated to fluency.subordinated to fluency.
    • What are some characteristics ofWhat are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process?the teaching/learning process?  In a beginning class, which is whatIn a beginning class, which is what we observed, students typically havewe observed, students typically have a conversation using their nativea conversation using their native language. The teacher helps themlanguage. The teacher helps them express what they want to say byexpress what they want to say by giving them the target languagegiving them the target language translation in chunks. These chunkstranslation in chunks. These chunks are recorded, and when they areare recorded, and when they are replayed, it sounds like a fairly fluidreplayed, it sounds like a fairly fluid conversation.conversation.
    •  During the course of the lesson,During the course of the lesson, students are invited to say howstudents are invited to say how they feel, and in return thethey feel, and in return the teacher understands them.teacher understands them.
    •  According to Curran, there areAccording to Curran, there are six elements necessary for non-six elements necessary for non- defensive learning: security,defensive learning: security, aggression, attention, reflection,aggression, attention, reflection, and retention.and retention.
    • What is the nature of student-What is the nature of student- teacher interaction?teacher interaction?  The Community LanguageThe Community Language Learning Method is neitherLearning Method is neither student-centered, nor teacher-student-centered, nor teacher- centered, but rather teacher-centered, but rather teacher- student-centered. Teacher-student-centered. Teacher- student-centered, with bothstudent-centered, with both being decision-makers in thebeing decision-makers in the class.class.
    • How are the feelings of theHow are the feelings of the students dealt with?students dealt with?  Responding to the students’Responding to the students’ feelings is considered veryfeelings is considered very important in Counseling-important in Counseling- Learning. The teacher listensLearning. The teacher listens and responds to each commentand responds to each comment carefully. While security is acarefully. While security is a basic element of the learningbasic element of the learning process, the way in which it isprocess, the way in which it is provided will change dependingprovided will change depending upon the stage of learner.upon the stage of learner.
    • How is language viewed?How is language viewed?  Language is for communication.Language is for communication. Curran writes that ‘learning isCurran writes that ‘learning is persons, meaning that bothpersons, meaning that both teacher and students work atteacher and students work at building trust in one another andbuilding trust in one another and the learning process.the learning process.
    • How is culture viewed?How is culture viewed?  Curran believes that in this kindCurran believes that in this kind of supportive learning process,of supportive learning process, language becomes the meanslanguage becomes the means for developing creative andfor developing creative and critical thinking. Culture is ancritical thinking. Culture is an integral part of languageintegral part of language learning.learning.
    • What areas of language areWhat areas of language are emphasized?emphasized?  The most important skills areThe most important skills are understanding and speaking theunderstanding and speaking the language at the beginning, withlanguage at the beginning, with the reinforcement throughthe reinforcement through reading and writing.reading and writing.
    • What is the role of theWhat is the role of the students’ native language?students’ native language?  Where possible, literal nativeWhere possible, literal native language equivalents are givenlanguage equivalents are given to the target language wordsto the target language words that have been transcribed.that have been transcribed.
    • How is evaluationHow is evaluation accomplished?accomplished?  Although no particular mode ofAlthough no particular mode of evaluation is prescribed in the CLLevaluation is prescribed in the CLL Method, whatever evaluation isMethod, whatever evaluation is conducted should be in keeping withconducted should be in keeping with the principles of the method. Finally,the principles of the method. Finally, it is likely that teachers wouldit is likely that teachers would encourage their students to self-encourage their students to self- evaluate—to look at their ownevaluate—to look at their own learning and to become aware oflearning and to become aware of their own progress.their own progress.
    • How does the teacher respond toHow does the teacher respond to student errors?student errors?  Teachers should work with whatTeachers should work with what the learner has produced in athe learner has produced in a non-threatening way. One waynon-threatening way. One way of doing this is for the teacher toof doing this is for the teacher to repeat correctly what therepeat correctly what the student has said incorrectly.student has said incorrectly.
    •  The two most basic principles whichThe two most basic principles which underlie the kind of learning that canunderlie the kind of learning that can take place in the CLL Method aretake place in the CLL Method are summed up in the following phrases:summed up in the following phrases: (1) ‘Learning is persons,’ which(1) ‘Learning is persons,’ which means that whole-person learning ofmeans that whole-person learning of another language takes place best inanother language takes place best in a relationship of trust, support, anda relationship of trust, support, and cooperation between teacher andcooperation between teacher and students and among students. (2)students and among students. (2)
    •  ‘‘Learning is dynamic andLearning is dynamic and creative,’ which means thatcreative,’ which means that learning is a living andlearning is a living and developmental process.developmental process.
    • Communicative LanguageCommunicative Language TeachingTeaching  It became clear that communicationIt became clear that communication required that students performrequired that students perform certain functions as well, such ascertain functions as well, such as promising, inviting, and decliningpromising, inviting, and declining invitations within a social contextinvitations within a social context (Wilkins, 1976). In short, being able(Wilkins, 1976). In short, being able to communicate required more thanto communicate required more than linguistic competence; it requiredlinguistic competence; it required communicative competence (Hymes,communicative competence (Hymes, 1971)—knowing when and how to1971)—knowing when and how to say what to whom.say what to whom.
    •  Such observations contributedSuch observations contributed to a shift in the field in the lateto a shift in the field in the late 1970s and early 1980s from a1970s and early 1980s from a linguistic structure-centeredlinguistic structure-centered approach to a Communicativeapproach to a Communicative Approach (Widdowson, 1990).Approach (Widdowson, 1990).
    •  CLT aims broadly to apply theCLT aims broadly to apply the theoretical perspective of thetheoretical perspective of the Communicative Approach byCommunicative Approach by making communicativemaking communicative competence the goal ofcompetence the goal of language teaching and bylanguage teaching and by acknowledging theacknowledging the interdependence of languageinterdependence of language and communication.and communication.
    • PrinciplesPrinciples  Whenever possible, ‘authenticWhenever possible, ‘authentic language’ –language as it islanguage’ –language as it is used in a real context—shouldused in a real context—should be introduced.be introduced.  Being able to figure out theBeing able to figure out the speaker’s or writer’s intentionsspeaker’s or writer’s intentions is part of being communicativelyis part of being communicatively competent.competent.
    •  The target language is a vehicle forThe target language is a vehicle for classroom communication, not justclassroom communication, not just the object of study.the object of study.  One function can have manyOne function can have many different linguistic forms. Since thedifferent linguistic forms. Since the focus of the course is on realfocus of the course is on real language use, a variety of linguisticlanguage use, a variety of linguistic forms are presented together. Theforms are presented together. The emphasis is on the process ofemphasis is on the process of communication rather than justcommunication rather than just mastery of language forms.mastery of language forms.
    •  Students should work withStudents should work with language at the discourse orlanguage at the discourse or suprasentential (above thesuprasentential (above the sentence) level. They mustsentence) level. They must learn about cohesion andlearn about cohesion and coherence, those properties ofcoherence, those properties of language which bind thelanguage which bind the sentences together.sentences together.
    •  Games are important becauseGames are important because they have certain features inthey have certain features in common with realcommon with real communicative events—there iscommunicative events—there is a purpose to the exchange.a purpose to the exchange. Also, the speaker receivesAlso, the speaker receives immediate feedback from theimmediate feedback from the listener on whether or not he orlistener on whether or not he or she has successfullyshe has successfully communicated.communicated.
    •  Students should be given anStudents should be given an opportunity to express their ideasopportunity to express their ideas and opinions.and opinions.  Errors are tolerated and seen as aErrors are tolerated and seen as a natural outcome of the developmentnatural outcome of the development of communication skills. Since thisof communication skills. Since this activity was working on fluency, theactivity was working on fluency, the teacher did not correct the student,teacher did not correct the student, but simply noted the error, which hebut simply noted the error, which he will return to at a later point.will return to at a later point.
    •  One pf the teacher’s majorOne pf the teacher’s major responsibilities is to establishresponsibilities is to establish situations likely to promotesituations likely to promote communication.communication.  Communicative interactionCommunicative interaction encourages cooperativeencourages cooperative relationships among students. Itrelationships among students. It gives students an opportunity togives students an opportunity to work on negotiating meaning.work on negotiating meaning.
    •  The social context of theThe social context of the communicative event iscommunicative event is essential in giving meaning toessential in giving meaning to the utterances.the utterances.  Learning to use language formsLearning to use language forms appropriately is an importantappropriately is an important part of communicativepart of communicative competence.competence.
    •  The teacher acts as a facilitatorThe teacher acts as a facilitator in setting up communicativein setting up communicative activities and as an advisoractivities and as an advisor during the activities.during the activities.  In communicating, a speakerIn communicating, a speaker has a choice not only abouthas a choice not only about what to say, but also how to saywhat to say, but also how to say it.it.
    •  The grammar and vocabularyThe grammar and vocabulary that the students learn followthat the students learn follow from the function, situationalfrom the function, situational context, and the roles of thecontext, and the roles of the interlocutors.interlocutors.
    •  Students should be givenStudents should be given opportunities to listen toopportunities to listen to language as it is used inlanguage as it is used in authentic communication. Theyauthentic communication. They may be coached on strategiesmay be coached on strategies for how to improve theirfor how to improve their comprehension.comprehension.
    • What are the goals ofWhat are the goals of teachers who use CLT?teachers who use CLT?  The goal is to enable studentsThe goal is to enable students to communicate in the targetto communicate in the target language. To do this studentslanguage. To do this students need knowledge of linguisticneed knowledge of linguistic forms, meanings, and functions.forms, meanings, and functions. Communication is a process;Communication is a process; knowledge of the forms ofknowledge of the forms of language is insufficient.language is insufficient.
    • What is the role of theWhat is the role of the teacher?teacher?  The teacher facilitates communication inThe teacher facilitates communication in the classroom. In this role, one of histhe classroom. In this role, one of his major responsibilities is to establishmajor responsibilities is to establish situations likely to promote communication.situations likely to promote communication. During the activities he acts as an adviser,During the activities he acts as an adviser, answering students’ questions andanswering students’ questions and monitoring their performance. He mightmonitoring their performance. He might make note of their errors to be worked onmake note of their errors to be worked on at a later time during more accuracy-basedat a later time during more accuracy-based activities. At other times he might beactivities. At other times he might be
    •  A ‘co-communicator’ engagingA ‘co-communicator’ engaging in the communicative activityin the communicative activity along with students (Littlewood,along with students (Littlewood, 1981).1981). 
    • What is the role of theWhat is the role of the students?students?  Students are, above all,Students are, above all, communicators. They are activelycommunicators. They are actively engaged in negotiating meaning—inengaged in negotiating meaning—in trying to make themselvestrying to make themselves understood and in understandingunderstood and in understanding others.others.  Since the teacher’s role is lessSince the teacher’s role is less dominant than in a teacher-centereddominant than in a teacher-centered method, students are seen as moremethod, students are seen as more
    •  Responsible managers of theirResponsible managers of their own learning.own learning.
    • What are some characteristics ofWhat are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process?the teaching/learning process?  The most obviousThe most obvious characteristics of CLT is thatcharacteristics of CLT is that almost everything that is done isalmost everything that is done is done with a communicativedone with a communicative intent. Students use theintent. Students use the language a great deal throughlanguage a great deal through communicative activities suchcommunicative activities such as games, role plays, andas games, role plays, and problem-solving tasks.problem-solving tasks.
    •  According to Morrow (inAccording to Morrow (in Johnson and Morrow, 1981),Johnson and Morrow, 1981), activities that are trulyactivities that are truly communicative have threecommunicative have three features in common: informationfeatures in common: information gap, choice, and feedback.gap, choice, and feedback.
    •  In communicative, the speakerIn communicative, the speaker has a choice of what she willhas a choice of what she will say and how she will say it.say and how she will say it. True communication isTrue communication is purposeful. A speaker can thuspurposeful. A speaker can thus evaluate whether or not hisevaluate whether or not his purpose has been achievedpurpose has been achieved based upon the information shebased upon the information she receives from his listener.receives from his listener.
    •  Another characteristic of CLT isAnother characteristic of CLT is the use of authentic materials. Itthe use of authentic materials. It is considered desirable to giveis considered desirable to give students an opportunity tostudents an opportunity to develop strategies fordevelop strategies for understanding language as it isunderstanding language as it is actually used.actually used.
    •  Finally, we noted that activitiesFinally, we noted that activities in CLT are often carried out byin CLT are often carried out by students in small groups. Smallstudents in small groups. Small numbers of students interactingnumbers of students interacting are favored in order to maximizeare favored in order to maximize the time allotted to each studentthe time allotted to each student for communicating.for communicating.
    • What is the nature of student-What is the nature of student- teacher interaction?teacher interaction?  The teacher may present someThe teacher may present some part of the lesson, such as whenpart of the lesson, such as when working with linguistic accuracy.working with linguistic accuracy. At other times, he is theAt other times, he is the facilitator of the activities, but hefacilitator of the activities, but he does not always himself interactdoes not always himself interact with the students.with the students.
    •  Students interact a great dealStudents interact a great deal with one another. They do thiswith one another. They do this in various configurations: pairs,in various configurations: pairs, triads, small groups, and wholetriads, small groups, and whole group.group.
    • How are the feelings of theHow are the feelings of the students dealt with?students dealt with?  One of the basic assumptions ofOne of the basic assumptions of CLT is that by learning toCLT is that by learning to communicate students will becommunicate students will be more motivated to study amore motivated to study a foreign language since they willforeign language since they will feel they are learning to dofeel they are learning to do something useful with thesomething useful with the language.language.
    • How is language viewed?How is language viewed?  Language is for communication.Language is for communication. Linguistic competence, theLinguistic competence, the knowledge of forms and theirknowledge of forms and their meanings, is just one part ofmeanings, is just one part of communicative competence.communicative competence. Another aspect ofAnother aspect of communicative competence iscommunicative competence is knowledge of the functionsknowledge of the functions language is used for.language is used for.
    •  Thus, learners need knowledgeThus, learners need knowledge of forms and meanings andof forms and meanings and functions. However, they mustfunctions. However, they must also use this knowledge andalso use this knowledge and take into consideration thetake into consideration the social situation in order tosocial situation in order to convey their intended meaningconvey their intended meaning appropriately.appropriately.
    • How is culture viewed?How is culture viewed?  Culture is the everyday lifestyleCulture is the everyday lifestyle of people who use theof people who use the language. There are certainlanguage. There are certain aspects of it that are especiallyaspects of it that are especially important to communication—important to communication— the use of nonverbal behaviorthe use of nonverbal behavior which might receive greaterwhich might receive greater attention in CLT.attention in CLT.
    • What areas of language areWhat areas of language are emphasized?emphasized?  Language functions might beLanguage functions might be emphasized over forms. Typically,emphasized over forms. Typically, a functional syllabus is used. Aa functional syllabus is used. A variety of forms are introduced forvariety of forms are introduced for each function. Only the simplereach function. Only the simpler forms would be presented at first, butforms would be presented at first, but as students get more proficient in theas students get more proficient in the target language, the functions aretarget language, the functions are reintroduced and more complexreintroduced and more complex forms are learned.forms are learned.
    • What language skills areWhat language skills are emphasized?emphasized?  Students work on all four skillsStudents work on all four skills from the beginning. Just as oralfrom the beginning. Just as oral communication is seen to takecommunication is seen to take place through negotiationplace through negotiation between speaker and listener,between speaker and listener, so too is meaning thought to beso too is meaning thought to be derived from the written wordderived from the written word through an interaction betweenthrough an interaction between the reader and the writer.the reader and the writer.
    • What is the role of theWhat is the role of the students’ native language?students’ native language?  Judicious use of the students’Judicious use of the students’ native language is permitted innative language is permitted in CLT. However, wheneverCLT. However, whenever possible, the target languagepossible, the target language should be used not only duringshould be used not only during communicative activities, butcommunicative activities, but also for explaining the activitiesalso for explaining the activities to the students or in assigningto the students or in assigning homework.homework.
    • How is evaluationHow is evaluation accomplished?accomplished?  A teacher evaluates not only theA teacher evaluates not only the students’ accuracy, but alsostudents’ accuracy, but also their fluency.their fluency.  A teacher can informallyA teacher can informally evaluate his students’evaluate his students’ performance in his role as anperformance in his role as an adviser or co-communicator.adviser or co-communicator.
    • How does the teacherHow does the teacher respond to student errors?respond to student errors?  Errors of form are toleratedErrors of form are tolerated during fluency-based activitiesduring fluency-based activities and are seen as a naturaland are seen as a natural outcome of the development ofoutcome of the development of communication skills.communication skills.
    • Content-based ApproachContent-based Approach  There are three moreThere are three more approaches that makeapproaches that make communication central: content-communication central: content- based instruction, task-basedbased instruction, task-based instruction, and participatoryinstruction, and participatory approach. The difference is aapproach. The difference is a matter of their focus.matter of their focus.
    •  CLT lessons centered on givingCLT lessons centered on giving students opportunities to practicestudents opportunities to practice using the communicative function ofusing the communicative function of making predictions. In this chapter,making predictions. In this chapter, the approaches we examine do notthe approaches we examine do not begin with functions or any otherbegin with functions or any other language items. Instead, they givelanguage items. Instead, they give priority to process overpriority to process over predetermined linguistic content.predetermined linguistic content.
    •  In these approaches rather thanIn these approaches rather than ‘learning to use English,‘learning to use English, ‘students use ‘English to learn it’‘students use ‘English to learn it’ (Howatt, 1984:279).(Howatt, 1984:279).
    •  Using content from otherUsing content from other disciplines in language coursesdisciplines in language courses is not a new idea. For years,is not a new idea. For years, specialized language coursesspecialized language courses have included content relevanthave included content relevant to a particular profession orto a particular profession or academic discipline.academic discipline.
    •  The special contribution ofThe special contribution of content-based instruction is thatcontent-based instruction is that it integrates the learning ofit integrates the learning of language with the learning oflanguage with the learning of some other content, oftensome other content, often academic subject matter. It hasacademic subject matter. It has been observed that academicbeen observed that academic subjects provide natural contentsubjects provide natural content for language instruction.for language instruction.
    •  Such observations motivated theSuch observations motivated the ‘language across the curriculum’‘language across the curriculum’ movement for native Englishmovement for native English speakers in England, which wasspeakers in England, which was launched in the 1970s to integratelaunched in the 1970s to integrate the teaching of reading and writingthe teaching of reading and writing into all other subject areas. Ofinto all other subject areas. Of course, when students studycourse, when students study academic subjects in a non-nativeacademic subjects in a non-native language, they will need a great deallanguage, they will need a great deal
    •  of assistance in understandingof assistance in understanding subject matter texts. Content-subject matter texts. Content- based instruction fits in with thebased instruction fits in with the other methods in this chapterother methods in this chapter where the selection andwhere the selection and sequence of language itemssequence of language items arise from communicativearise from communicative needs, not predetermined byneeds, not predetermined by syllabi.syllabi.
    • PrinciplesPrinciples  The subject matter content isThe subject matter content is used for language teachingused for language teaching purposes.purposes.  Teaching should build onTeaching should build on students’ previous experience.students’ previous experience.
    •  When learners perceive theWhen learners perceive the relevance of their language use,relevance of their language use, they are motivated to learn.they are motivated to learn. They know that it is a means toThey know that it is a means to an end, rather than an end inan end, rather than an end in itself.itself.
    •  The teacher ‘scaffolds’ theThe teacher ‘scaffolds’ the linguistic content, i.e. helpslinguistic content, i.e. helps learners say what it is they wantlearners say what it is they want to say by building together withto say by building together with the students a completethe students a complete utterance.utterance.
    •  Language is learned mostLanguage is learned most effectively when it is used as aeffectively when it is used as a medium to convey informationalmedium to convey informational content of interest to thecontent of interest to the students.students.
    •  Vocabulary is easier to acquireVocabulary is easier to acquire when there are contextual clueswhen there are contextual clues to help convey meaning.to help convey meaning.  When they work with authenticWhen they work with authentic subject matter, students needsubject matter, students need language support.language support.
    •  Learners work with meaningful,Learners work with meaningful, cognitively demanding languagecognitively demanding language and content within the context ofand content within the context of authentic material and tasks.authentic material and tasks.
    •  Communicative competenceCommunicative competence involves more than usinginvolves more than using language conversationally. Itlanguage conversationally. It also includes the ability to read,also includes the ability to read, discuss, and write about contentdiscuss, and write about content from other fields.from other fields.
    •  Another content-basedAnother content-based instruction ‘face,’ where contentinstruction ‘face,’ where content and language instruction haveand language instruction have been integrated, is the adjunctbeen integrated, is the adjunct model. Students enroll in amodel. Students enroll in a regular academic course. Inregular academic course. In addition, they take a languageaddition, they take a language course that is linked to thecourse that is linked to the academic course.academic course.
    •  In sheltered–language instruction inIn sheltered–language instruction in a second language environment,a second language environment, both native speakers and non-nativeboth native speakers and non-native speakers of a particular languagespeakers of a particular language follow a regular academicfollow a regular academic curriculum. For classes with non-curriculum. For classes with non- native speakers, however, ‘sheltered’native speakers, however, ‘sheltered’ instruction is geared to students’instruction is geared to students’ developing second languagedeveloping second language proficiency.proficiency.
    •  Sheltered-language instructorsSheltered-language instructors support that their students throughsupport that their students through the use of particular instructionalthe use of particular instructional techniques and materials. It offerstechniques and materials. It offers the significant advantage thatthe significant advantage that second language students do notsecond language students do not have to postpone their academichave to postpone their academic study until their language controlstudy until their language control reaches a high level.reaches a high level.
    •  In sum, what all modes of content-In sum, what all modes of content- based instruction have in common isbased instruction have in common is learning both specific content andlearning both specific content and related language skills. In content-related language skills. In content- based language teaching, the claimbased language teaching, the claim in a sense is that students get “twoin a sense is that students get “two for one”—both content knowledgefor one”—both content knowledge and increased language proficiency’and increased language proficiency’ (Wesche, 1993).(Wesche, 1993).