Teaching writing

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Teaching writing

  1. 1. Teaching Writing prepared by: Jaser bin Mohammad Al-Sha’alani East Supervision Center 1426/1427AH/ 1
  2. 2. Outcome: Students engage in a “writing process” to write for a number of different purposes. 0.1 Teachers teach students the stages of the writing process. 0.2 Directed teaching of writing occurs daily and includes implementing preplanned mini-lessons focusing on teaching students a variety of aspects of each stage of the writing process. 0.3 Teachers develop and implement an efficient classroom management system for supporting each student in the various stages of the writing process. 0.4 Teachers support all students with personalized scaffolding strategies, as needed, in the prewriting stage, including identifying reason for writing, choosing a topic, identifying audience, determining form, etc.
  3. 3. 0.5 Teachers support all students with personalized scaffolding strategies, as needed, in the drafting stage, including finding, ordering, and selecting information about which to write, etc. 0.6 Teachers support all students with personalized scaffolding strategies, as needed, in the revising (for clarity) stage, including choice of grammar, determining amount of information, presenting information in different way, use of graphics, etc 0.7 Teachers support all students with personalized scaffolding strategies, as needed, in the publishing stage, including making final copy, selecting a way to share with intended audience (e.g., bookshelves, author’s chair/share, bulletin boards, “binding”, etc.). 0.8 Students are given routine opportunities to discuss their writing with their peers/others/intended audience. 0.9 Each student has a writing portfolio that contains at least 5 publications representing different forms. All 5 publications have evidence of progress through each phase of the writing process.
  4. 4. Why teach writing? Reading Improvement Required Communication Influence Others Thought Clarification
  5. 5. Purposes of Writing To record events To explain To hypothesize To persuade To invite a response To predict To command, direct, or request To amuse, entertain To narrate To invent To inform To find out To invite reflection To summarize To comment or give an opinion Dancing with the Pen
  6. 6. STAGES OF THE WRITING PROCESS ~ PREWRITING ~ ~ DRAFTING ~ ~ REVISING ~ ~ PROOFREADING ~ ~ PUBLISHING ~
  7. 7. Prewriting The writer establishes and clarifies a purpose of writing, brainstorms possible topics, collects pertinent materials, identifies an audience, chooses an appropriate form of writing, and establishes an initial organizational strategy. The teacher helps students select topics, encourages them to talk to generate ideas and language about the topic, provides resources, suggestions, and materials and discusses appropriate format and audience.
  8. 8. INSPIRATION FOR TOPIC IDEAS •PERSONAL INTERES T INVENTORIES •CL ASS INTERES T INVENTORIES •MAGAZINES, NEWSPAPERS, PERIODICAL S •RADIO, T V, INTERNET •INTERVIEWS •DREAMS, MEMORIES, EXPERIENCES •LITERATURE RESPONSE •DISCUSSION, BRAINS TORMING, ROLE PL AYING, IMAGINATION
  9. 9. • • • • • • • BRAINSTORMING FREE WRITING TOPIC OR WORD CHARTS LISTS JOURNALLING WEBBING MAPPING • • • • • CLUSTERING IMAGE STREAMING VISUALIZATION FAST WRITING GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS • THINKING • DAYDREAMING
  10. 10. PREWRITING STRATEGIES ~ Graphic Organizers – brainstorming webs, mind maps, and other charts that help organize thoughts and ideas ~ ~ Come Aboard a R.A.F.T. – Role, Audience, Format, Topic ~ ~ Descriptive Word Prompters ~ ~ Five Senses Chart ~ ~ Handprint Organizer ~
  11. 11. Drafting The writers express ideas in an uninterrupted flow while keeping the purpose and audience in mind. They get information on paper, concentrate on content and explore topic possibilities. Invented spellings, blanks, cross-outs, and abbreviations are acceptable. The teacher offers encouragement, helps organize information, gives assistance focusing on the topic, provides enough time and structure to ensure students get off to a good start.
  12. 12. What is the purpose for writing this piece? What will my audience want to know about this topic? How can I best arrange my information? What main ideas do I want to present? What details will support my main ideas? What will make a good lead to catch the reader’s attention? How can I end the piece effectively? -Gary R. Muschia
  13. 13.  Revising  The writers narrow down topics, eliminate irrelevant writing, reorganize writing, write additional drafts, and research information. Content quality, clarity, smooth flowing ideas, and descriptive language is emphasized. Teachers encourage peer revision sessions and encourage students to talk to other students about their writing and add, cut, and reorder their writing.
  14. 14. REVISING METHODS A.R.R.R. Adding, Rearranging, Removing, Replacing .R.A.G Read Around Group .A.R.M.S Add, Remove, Move Around, Substitute
  15. 15. Proofreading/Editing Writers should correct mechanical errors (spelling, punctuation, and capitalization). Writing should be read aloud before the final copy is made. An editing checklist is .a good tool Teachers should encourage peer proofreading, provide vocabulary, give instruction of specific skills, help students evaluate their writing, and encourage students to consult reference materials.
  16. 16. Teach basic editing conventions to students and encourage them to use them in editing. Teach popular acronyms such as: C Capitalization O Organization P Punctuation/Paragraphs S Sentences/Spelling Use editing checklists
  17. 17. Publishing Writers make their final copies and share their finished work. Writers feel that their writing is important when they share. Teachers should encourage students to share by reading aloud, publishing, organizing a class book, making their own books, displaying final drafts, and sharing with bulletin boards, electronic bulletin boards, multimedia presentations, newsletters, newspapers, oral presentations, journals, etc.
  18. 18. 10 Rules for Writers 1. Write. 2. Write. 3. Write often. 4. Write about anything. 5. Write about everything. 6. Write about what you see. 7. Write about what you learn. 8. Write about what you think. 9. Write about what you read. 10. WRITE!!! Virginia DeBolt, 1998
  19. 19. Types of Writing • Controlled Writing • Guided Writing • Free Writing
  20. 20. A- Controlled Writing • To teach pupils the mechanics of writing accuracy and readiness for further writing activities. • Controlled completely by teacher . • ( handwriting,copying,dictation and spelling )
  21. 21. 1- Handwriting • The teacher must take into consideration the following points : • He must show young learner how to hold the pen or pencil and how to sit correctly. • He has to show them the formation of letters and words( left to right on straight horizontal lines)
  22. 22. Handwriting • Pupils are told to use pencil. • The teacher should write a model on the board. • He has to go round pupils to check.
  23. 23. 2- Copying • The purposes of this activity are: • To reinforce previously learned words and patterns. • To draw pupils’ attention to punctuation marks • To train them further in handwriting.
  24. 24. 3- Dictation • More difficult than copying. • Brief and familiar. • Not beyond the pupils’ comprehension. • Simple words and patterns
  25. 25. Dictation • A short paragraph,a dialogue or a passage. • Procedures: • • • • • preparation The teacher reads and pupils listen. The teacher dictates slowly and clearly. Each sentence has to be repeated. Punctuation marks should be dictated.
  26. 26. Dictation • • • • • • Difficult words can be written on the board. The teacher reads once more. Pupils may check or exchange. Correction Pupils write mis-spelled words. The teacher summarizes the most common errors.
  27. 27. B- Guided Writing • Provide graded guidance in vocabulary and structures so that pupils will not make many mistakes . • 1- Controlled composition Directed composition • Keywords-expressions-a model with directions for rewriting.
  28. 28. Guided Writing • 2- Semi-controlled composition Guided composition • Pupils can add ideas/constructions. • New words and topics provided by the teacher.
  29. 29. Guided Writing • Procedures: • Be sure that the pupils understand the model • Encourage them to ask. • Feedback • Underline mistakes (symbols) • Write the correct form and ask them to correct themselves.
  30. 30. Guided Writing • Common mistakes should be discussed with the class.
  31. 31. C-Free Writing • • • • • Originality/ Freedom/Qualified. Rules of writing Qualities of a good paragraph Meaningful and interesting Descriptive or narrative topics or letter writing.
  32. 32. Free Writing • Steps: • • • • • • 1- Preparation : Introduce the subject,clarify difficulties Necessary outlines,vocabulary,expressions Discussion Questions Draft
  33. 33. Free writing • 2- Writing : • In the classroom • Move to give help
  34. 34. Free Writing • • • • 3- Correcting : Circle or underline Abbreviations Qualities of a good paragraph
  35. 35. Free Writing • 4- Re-learning : • Reviews with the class the common mistakes.

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