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Teaching grammar
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Teaching grammar

Teaching grammar

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  • 1. Presented by: Dr. Mamdoah M. Subahi
  • 2. Grammar is :……………………… - partly the study of what forms (or structure) are possible in a language. - a description of rules that govern how language sentences are formed. - the study of syntax and morphology of sentences. Syntax is the system of rules that cover the order of words in a sentence. Morphology is the system of rules that cover the formation of words. The pioneer Definition Grammar is a description of the rules for forming sentences, including an account of the meaning that these forms convey.
  • 3. Kinds ( approaches) of Grammar What are some of the kinds (approaches) of Grammar?
  • 4. 2- Historical Grammar Changes in word and sentence constructions in a language over the years, e.g. how old English, middle English and modern English differ from one another.
  • 5. 3- Comparative Grammar 4- Functional Grammar This Grammar investigates how words and word order are used in social contexts to get messages across.
  • 6. 6- Grammar translation As its name suggests, took grammar as the starting point for instruction. Grammar –Translation courses followed a grammar syllabus and lessons typically began with an explicit
  • 7. There are four common grammatical theories which are: 1- Traditional Grammar. 2- Immediate constituent Grammar. 3- Tagmemic Grammar. 4- Transformational Grammar
  • 8. It had the tendency to plan for language instead of just reporting how it actually goes. Traditional grammars established the famous”8” parts of speech: Verb, Adverb, Noun, pronoun, adjective, Preposition, conjunction and interjection. It also categorizes the words within a certain sentence into subject,
  • 9. It assumes that every English sentence can be divided into two units; each unit can be divided into further two, and so on till the word level is reached.
  • 10. According to the tagmemic grammar there are two bases for classification: inflectional and functional. Inflectional or”morphological”: A word is a noun if it can talk the plural morpheme. A word is a verb if it can take (ing) or the past morpheme. A word is an adjective if it can take (er or est). Functional or “syntactic” classes are determined by the function of a
  • 11. This grammar is the modern linguistic theory. It is represented as a reaction to all previous grammar theories. Its main notions are: A- Every sentence has a deep structure and a surface structure. B- The deep structure is turned into a surface one through optional and obligatory transformational rules. C- Grammar accounts for all linguistic facts explicity without leaving some facts to the reader’s intelligence. D- This grammar is supposed to be formal, e.g. symbolized and quasi mathematical because it uses symbols,
  • 12. 1- Deductively: Here you start with the presentation of a rule and followed by examples in which the rule applied. 2- Inductively: Here you start with some examples from which a rule is inferred
  • 13. Step 1: The Grammar Structure: 3 steps for an easy grammar lesson
  • 14. Step 2: Practice the structure
  • 15. Step 3
  • 16. 1- Lexical errors 2- Grammar errors 3- Discourse errors 4- Pronunciation errors (in spoken language)
  • 17. 2- Grammar errors: Mistakes in verb form and tense. E.g. The door bell rangs. We speaked. Or mistakes in sentence structure. E.g. was four o’clock, where is the subject of the clause (It) has been left out.
  • 18. 3- Discourse errors: 4- Pronunciation errors (in spoken language)
  • 19. There are some grammatical drills that help pupils to be familiar with grammar and develop there accuracy and fluency.
  • 20. 2-Meaningful drills: Pupils cannot perform these drills without knowing the meaning of the new language because they focus on content instead of the form. Such as, restatement drill, rejoined drill, question and answer drill and
  • 21. 3- Communicative drills
  • 22. What are tests? What are the two most famous grammar tests?
  • 23. Tests are: means of providing both teacher and learner with feed back. There are many types of grammar testing: