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To be able to communicate in the
To be able to use the language
spontaneously and orally
Develop the ability to think in the
Use the target language only
Rules of grammar are taught inductively
Speaking begin with systematic
attention to pronunciation
Only everyday vocabulary and
sentences are taught
New teaching points are
taught through modeling and
Both speech and listening
comprehension are taught
Correct pronunciation and
grammar are emphasized
Use the target language
Use the realia to enhance
students’ leaning motivation
Less attention on the grammatical
accuracy and reading skill
Students can’t apply the language
communicatively in real-life situations
Teacher may not be proficient in native
Teacher need to spend much time to
prepare teaching materials
Question and Answer Exercise
This approach is selected for practical and
For specific uses of the language in graduate
or scientific studies.
The approach is for people who do not travel
abroad for whom reading is the one usable
skill in a foreign language.
One of the most influential models of reading
in recent years has been the Psycholinguistic
Model described by Goodman and drawing
heavily on top-down processing.
It is based on a consideration of schema
theory which says that comprehension
depends on the activation of schemata.
These are pictures or frameworks of a
situation which help us to understand the
Study target language
Minimal attention is paid
to pronunciation and
Enhance reading and
Build up vocabulary
Learn some grammatical
Paying attention to
unfamiliar words which
are not relevant to the
purpose of reading
It is based on behaviorist theory -- From early
psychology in the 19th century , proposed by
John B Watson.
---Based on the proposition that all things which
organisms do -- including acting, thinking and
feeling—can and should be regarded as
Language learning is a habit-formation.
This method aims at using the target
language communicatively by intensive oral
drilling of basic sentence.
Spoken language comes before written
Mistakes should be avoided.
Structures are sequenced and taught one at a
Structural patterns are taught using
Little or no grammatical explanations are
Vocabulary is strictly limited and learned in
Everything is simply memorized and recite in
Target language is the Teacher cantered
only language to be used Short of learning
in the classroom.
Enhance speaking and
It didn’t teach
Suitable for beginning
Students may feel
practical command of the four
basic skills of a language
accuracy in both pronunciation
ability to respond quickly and
accurately in speech situations
Language teaching begins with the
spoken language. Material is taught
orally before it is presented in
The target language is the language
of the classroom
New language points are introduced
and practiced situationally
Grammar are taught from
simple to complex
Reading and writing are
introduced once a sufficient
lexical and grammatical basis
Bring the reality situation in
Hard to teach the grammar rules
from simple to complex
Turn students into parrots
Boring and reduce motivation
Demonstrate with teaching
Key word changed
Instruction is often individualized
Grammar-taught in either deductively or
Demands on teachers
Grammar teaching should be planned and
Necessary grammar instruction
Extensive exposure to instructed grammar
Group work and task performance
Learning step by
interest and need.
Developed by Charles Curran and his
associates in 1970s
The teacher can successfully
transfer his or her knowledge
and proficiency in the L2 to the
students; Specific purposes are
S stands for security
A stands for attention and
R stands for retention and
D represents discrimination
Whole person learning
Learning is dynamic and
Client-counselor and learnerknower relationships
Reflection and observation
Help students overcome their negative
Build good relationship with students
Wants students to be responsible for their
Emphasis of classroom interaction in
cooperation, not competition
Hard to control the learning
process if students are too
passive in learning
Hard to run the class for the
Small group and make sentences with the new
Students take turns reading the transcript
Teacher puts a picture of a person on the
blackboard and students ask questions of
that person as if they have just met him
Students reconstruct the conversation they
Students create a new dialog using words they
have learned to say during their conversation
It was developed by James Asher, a
professor of psychology at San Jose State
Based on the coordination of speech and
It is linked to the trace theory of memory,
which holds that the more often or
intensively a memory connection is traced,
the stronger the memory will be.
Second language learning is parallel to first
language learning and should reflect the same
Listening should develop before speaking.
Children respond physically to spoken
language, and adult learners learn better if they
do that too.
Once listening comprehension has been
developed, speech develops naturally and
effortlessly out of it.
Adults should use right-brain motor activities,
while the left hemisphere watches and learns .
Delaying speech reduces stress.
Lack of reading and
The Natural Approach was developed by Tracy
Terrell and Stephen Krashen, starting in 1977.
Natural Approach there is an emphasis on
exposure, or input, rather than practice .
Natural approach as an example of
Optimizing emotional preparedness for learning
A prolonged period of attention to what the
language learners hear before they try to
produce language .
Willingness to use written and other materials as
a source of comprehensible input.
Useful for beginning
Use visual aids and
Depend on learner
Hard to learn
Feedback of errors.
The goal of language teaching
is learner ability to
communicate in the target
Students regular work in groups or pairs to
transfer meaning in situations
Students often engage in role play or
Classroom materials and activities are often
Teacher’s role is primarily to facilitate
communication and secondarily to correct errors
Teacher should be able to use the target language
fluently and appropriately
For real communication,
students should know knowledge
of linguistic forms, background
Produce real language in daily
No environment of ESL
Ignore the training of reading and
Difficulty in evaluating students’
Hard for beginning level students to
express target language with foreigner
Picture strip story
TBLL was popularized by N.Prabhu while
working in Bangalore,India.
Prabhu figured out that his students could
learn language just as easily with a nonlinguistic problem as when they are
concentrating on linguistic questions.
The main focus of this approach is the task
while language is the means with which they
It focuses on the use of authentic language,
and to students doing meaningful tasks using
the target language .
The main idea of the task should be
completing a problem-solving aspect.
Assessment is primarily based on task
Hard for beginning learners.
Focus on meaning instead
Students may feel stress.
Occupy too much time in
Learn how to cooperate
Hard to manage the class.
Difficult to prepare the