School Committee and Board of Trustee:
A Comparative Study in Indonesia and New Zealand
(A Paper of Educational Management)
: Purnama Syae Purohman
This paper will compare society participation in schooling system in New
Zealand and Indonesia, between school’s board of trustee and school committee.
School’s Board of Trustee plays important role in school management inside and
outside the school. School Committee performances in Indonesia plays minor role in
schools, as school staff dominated the school’s management.
What is School’s Board of Trustee. School’s Board of Trustee is a new
institution resulted from 1989 educational reform in New Zealand. It replaces School
Committee. School Committee usually used to assist financial aspects of schooling.
School’s Board of Trustee more than that. It plays important role to develop school
perfectly with strong independency, on behalf of parents, staffs, and students.
School’s Board of Trustee (SBT) role quite wide started from arranging school charter,
school vision, school mission, and hire staffs in the school, manage school policies
and manage school finances. Membership of SBT selected with democratic ways.
General Election held to choose members of SBT involving parents, and staffs as can
be viewed at Parkland School site http://www.parkland.school.ac.nz.
Most of school in New Zealand are government schools with a few private
schools, and integrative schools. Integrative schools are private schools that funded
and managed by government but they still free to preserve their unique characteristics
like religion based schools. Purely private schools exist rarely to serve middle and up
classes pupil. SBT selected from representatives of parents or not parent, staff, and
student (above 9 years old).
Criteria of SBT Memberships
3 – 7 parents selected from election process
One School headmaster
One School staff (generally teacher)
One Student (selected by students)
One appointed member
Four persons selected by school owner (at integrated school)
Election of SBT Members generally held every three years. Student
representative annually selected with the constituent age from 9 years above. SBT
regulated that appointed members must be lesser than selected members. Every
student from 9 – 20 years old have a right to select and be selected as student
representative in SBT. His/her position is equal with other members but prohibited to
be chairperson of SBT, like the school headmaster and staff.
SBT member election processes from school staff conducted by all of school
staffs. The timing is Similar with the election of parents’ representatives’ process.
Staff functions as SBT member actively work in all school aspects; he/she is not
representative of staff only in SBT.
Criteria of SBT members regulated by the Education Act 1989 as described below:
1. Good behaviour, and have ability to work hard.
SBT member must be represented of (1) diverse races or socio-economical of
school and pupil; (ii) fact that population proportion of male and female are
equal; (iii) characteristics of school, institution and administrator, and; (iv)
another community character (geographic or anything else) served by the
Member of SBT must be experienced and skilled in management area.
2. Institution or individual of SBT, when appointed or elected must referred to part 1
Duty and Responsibility of SBT
1. Work together with headmaster, consultate with staffs, parents, communities. And
2. Arrange educational objectives anf strategic direction of schools.
3. Supervise progress and deliver progress report to parents/student guards by
conducting daily target and student achievement records.
4. Make decision about school financial management.
5. Choose the headmaster and support human development of all staffs.
6. Supervise staff managements, properties, finances, curricullum, and administration
For elementary school level, SBT duty as cited from New Zealand National
Administration Guidelines: “to develop and perform instructional program and
learning by priority to improve numeracy and literacy capabilities, especially for first
grade until fourth grade learner at elementary school”.
Headmaster functioned as chief executive of SBT. SBT fully dominated to control
school management, and headmaster fully dominated to manage school and perform
exact daily administration (“boards govern, principals manage”).
(1) Headmaster is a chief executive of SBT when related with monitoring and
managing the school.
(2) Except determined new law order, general law in New Zealand order differently,
so headmaster (a) Work in accordance with general policy direction, and
(b) As cited from (a), headmaster possessed fully authorization to manage
school as determined by daily administration practices.
School’s Board of Trustee arrange School's Charters which describe:
1. (Who we are?) Mission, values and vision;
2. (Where will we go?) Aim, direction, goal and priority.
3. (How to reach it?) Target, Objectives, Strategy and Action to improve student
attainment, by arrange annual planning.
Structure of Association
SBT at school level required to join in NZSTA (New Zealand School
Trustee’s Association). A formal organization constructed to support performances of
all members of SBT at local and national level. NZSTA support all performances
problems such as held Trustee Development Program. Trustee development program
is gradual training and educational performed by NZSTA to improve capability of
SBT members in skill upgrading. Recorded more than 2.500 schools joined with
NZSTA, including 18.000 persons of SBT members, or about 88% from all members
of SBT. NZSTA is non-profit organization with charitable trust status, trusted to
manage grant management.
promote managemen of school in New Zealand.
National/local level of representation and advocation all related with SBT
To support comprehensive services by assisting SBT’s work.
To promote and to facilitate Profesional Development Training for SBT members
on-going by education and training.
Indonesian Shool Committee
School Committte cited from Indonesian Act No, 25 at 2000 about National
Development Program 2000 – 2004. Then specifically described by National Ministry
of Education Decree (No. 44/U/2002) about School Committee and Education
Council. School Committee also accommodated by National Education System Act
No. 20 at year 2003. School Committee in Indonesia managed by Ministry of
Education and Culture by General Directorate of Basic Education Management.
In Indonesian case, before school committee previously known Persatuan
Orangtua Murid dan Guru (POMG)/Association of Students’ parents and teachers and
Badan Pembantu Penyelenggara Pendidikan (BP3) /Educational Performance
Assistency Body. This two association support and aid school performance in
educational process. Practically both associations centrally managed by central
government and merely help funding problems of schools.
School Committee is an independent body to facilitate society participation in
educational unit to enhance the quality, efficiency and education for all in educational
managements, as cited from Kepmendiknas No. 044/U/2002.
School Committee empowerment in Indonesian case related with community
empowerment for schooling. School Committee is a lower structure at school level.
National level has National Education Council. There are exist Provincial Education
Council, Municipality/Regency level of Education Council. Kecamatan/District level
of Education Council form Communication Forum of School Committee at District
School Committee have a right to manage curriculum of educational unit, with
supervision from educational office. As ruled in National Education System article 38
verses 2, and article 56. According to that articles society participation in school
committee to improve educational quality services, started from planning, controlling
and evaluation. It have independence role to suggest some considerations, directions,
supports and monitors of schools. Government Regulation (No. 17 at 2010) about
Management and Performance of Education.
Counclusion and Suggestions
1. School’s Board of Trustee is an independent body represented stakeholders
concern about school quality in student educational services. It powerful in
school management, finance, and administration in accordance with the need
for qualified school.
2. School’s Board of Trustee assisted by New Zealand School’s Trustee
Association to provide assistance to present school management.
3. Committee not fully worked as hoped by society and ideally needed by
national Act, unless at a few schools in Indonesia. Regulation about School
Committee in National Act is too wide, hard to applied because it will be
interrelated with the importance, tasks, and responsibilities of some sides like
central government, local government, and other education stakeholders.
1. School Committee still underdeveloped, unless at some best practices at some
schools. The duty and responsibility of School Committee must be detailed
and easy to implemented.
2. There is the need to organize school committee at national level and other
level, because educational council not efficient, and until now National
Council of Education doesn’t exist. I suggest to organize School Committee
Association at national level, provincial level, and regency/municipality level.
This organization must be free from political interests of political parties.
3. At Regency/Municipality level must be facilitated School Committee “call
center” that can be contacted by telephone/e-mail/faximile. Call center persons
deeply understand about school management and school committee duty and
responsibility. The organization must be independently managed by members.
Funding can be gained from government, sponsors, and members contribution.
Association websites support information and communication of all members.
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