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School committee & school board of trustee a comparative study
School committee & school board of trustee a comparative study
School committee & school board of trustee a comparative study
School committee & school board of trustee a comparative study
School committee & school board of trustee a comparative study
School committee & school board of trustee a comparative study
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School committee & school board of trustee a comparative study

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  1. School Committee and Board of Trustee: A Comparative Study in Indonesia and New Zealand (A Paper of Educational Management) By : Purnama Syae Purohman Student ID : 2011280001 This paper will compare society participation in schooling system in New Zealand and Indonesia, between school’s board of trustee and school committee. School’s Board of Trustee plays important role in school management inside and outside the school. School Committee performances in Indonesia plays minor role in schools, as school staff dominated the school’s management. What is School’s Board of Trustee. School’s Board of Trustee is a new institution resulted from 1989 educational reform in New Zealand. It replaces School Committee. School Committee usually used to assist financial aspects of schooling. School’s Board of Trustee more than that. It plays important role to develop school perfectly with strong independency, on behalf of parents, staffs, and students. School’s Board of Trustee (SBT) role quite wide started from arranging school charter, school vision, school mission, and hire staffs in the school, manage school policies and manage school finances. Membership of SBT selected with democratic ways. General Election held to choose members of SBT involving parents, and staffs as can be viewed at Parkland School site http://www.parkland.school.ac.nz. Most of school in New Zealand are government schools with a few private schools, and integrative schools. Integrative schools are private schools that funded and managed by government but they still free to preserve their unique characteristics like religion based schools. Purely private schools exist rarely to serve middle and up classes pupil. SBT selected from representatives of parents or not parent, staff, and student (above 9 years old). Criteria of SBT Memberships - 3 – 7 parents selected from election process One School headmaster One School staff (generally teacher) One Student (selected by students) One appointed member Four persons selected by school owner (at integrated school) 1
  2. Election of SBT Members generally held every three years. Student representative annually selected with the constituent age from 9 years above. SBT regulated that appointed members must be lesser than selected members. Every student from 9 – 20 years old have a right to select and be selected as student representative in SBT. His/her position is equal with other members but prohibited to be chairperson of SBT, like the school headmaster and staff. SBT member election processes from school staff conducted by all of school staffs. The timing is Similar with the election of parents’ representatives’ process. Staff functions as SBT member actively work in all school aspects; he/she is not representative of staff only in SBT. Criteria of SBT members regulated by the Education Act 1989 as described below: 1. Good behaviour, and have ability to work hard.  SBT member must be represented of (1) diverse races or socio-economical of school and pupil; (ii) fact that population proportion of male and female are equal; (iii) characteristics of school, institution and administrator, and; (iv) another community character (geographic or anything else) served by the school.  Member of SBT must be experienced and skilled in management area. 2. Institution or individual of SBT, when appointed or elected must referred to part 1 rule above. Duty and Responsibility of SBT 1. Work together with headmaster, consultate with staffs, parents, communities. And society. 2. Arrange educational objectives anf strategic direction of schools. 3. Supervise progress and deliver progress report to parents/student guards by conducting daily target and student achievement records. 4. Make decision about school financial management. 5. Choose the headmaster and support human development of all staffs. 6. Supervise staff managements, properties, finances, curricullum, and administration affairs. For elementary school level, SBT duty as cited from New Zealand National Administration Guidelines: “to develop and perform instructional program and learning by priority to improve numeracy and literacy capabilities, especially for first grade until fourth grade learner at elementary school”. Headmaster Role Headmaster functioned as chief executive of SBT. SBT fully dominated to control school management, and headmaster fully dominated to manage school and perform exact daily administration (“boards govern, principals manage”). 2
  3. (1) Headmaster is a chief executive of SBT when related with monitoring and managing the school. (2) Except determined new law order, general law in New Zealand order differently, so headmaster (a) Work in accordance with general policy direction, and (b) As cited from (a), headmaster possessed fully authorization to manage school as determined by daily administration practices. School Charter School’s Board of Trustee arrange School's Charters which describe: 1. (Who we are?) Mission, values and vision; 2. (Where will we go?) Aim, direction, goal and priority. 3. (How to reach it?) Target, Objectives, Strategy and Action to improve student attainment, by arrange annual planning. Structure of Association SBT at school level required to join in NZSTA (New Zealand School Trustee’s Association). A formal organization constructed to support performances of all members of SBT at local and national level. NZSTA support all performances problems such as held Trustee Development Program. Trustee development program is gradual training and educational performed by NZSTA to improve capability of SBT members in skill upgrading. Recorded more than 2.500 schools joined with NZSTA, including 18.000 persons of SBT members, or about 88% from all members of SBT. NZSTA is non-profit organization with charitable trust status, trusted to manage grant management. NZSTA roles: 1. 2. 3. 4. promote managemen of school in New Zealand. National/local level of representation and advocation all related with SBT To support comprehensive services by assisting SBT’s work. To promote and to facilitate Profesional Development Training for SBT members on-going by education and training. Indonesian Shool Committee School Committte cited from Indonesian Act No, 25 at 2000 about National Development Program 2000 – 2004. Then specifically described by National Ministry of Education Decree (No. 44/U/2002) about School Committee and Education Council. School Committee also accommodated by National Education System Act No. 20 at year 2003. School Committee in Indonesia managed by Ministry of Education and Culture by General Directorate of Basic Education Management. In Indonesian case, before school committee previously known Persatuan Orangtua Murid dan Guru (POMG)/Association of Students’ parents and teachers and 3
  4. Badan Pembantu Penyelenggara Pendidikan (BP3) /Educational Performance Assistency Body. This two association support and aid school performance in educational process. Practically both associations centrally managed by central government and merely help funding problems of schools. School Committee is an independent body to facilitate society participation in educational unit to enhance the quality, efficiency and education for all in educational managements, as cited from Kepmendiknas No. 044/U/2002. School Committee empowerment in Indonesian case related with community empowerment for schooling. School Committee is a lower structure at school level. National level has National Education Council. There are exist Provincial Education Council, Municipality/Regency level of Education Council. Kecamatan/District level of Education Council form Communication Forum of School Committee at District School Committee have a right to manage curriculum of educational unit, with supervision from educational office. As ruled in National Education System article 38 verses 2, and article 56. According to that articles society participation in school committee to improve educational quality services, started from planning, controlling and evaluation. It have independence role to suggest some considerations, directions, supports and monitors of schools. Government Regulation (No. 17 at 2010) about Management and Performance of Education. Counclusion and Suggestions Conclusion 1. School’s Board of Trustee is an independent body represented stakeholders concern about school quality in student educational services. It powerful in school management, finance, and administration in accordance with the need for qualified school. 2. School’s Board of Trustee assisted by New Zealand School’s Trustee Association to provide assistance to present school management. 3. Committee not fully worked as hoped by society and ideally needed by national Act, unless at a few schools in Indonesia. Regulation about School Committee in National Act is too wide, hard to applied because it will be interrelated with the importance, tasks, and responsibilities of some sides like central government, local government, and other education stakeholders. Suggestions 1. School Committee still underdeveloped, unless at some best practices at some schools. The duty and responsibility of School Committee must be detailed and easy to implemented. 2. There is the need to organize school committee at national level and other level, because educational council not efficient, and until now National Council of Education doesn’t exist. I suggest to organize School Committee Association at national level, provincial level, and regency/municipality level. 4
  5. This organization must be free from political interests of political parties. 3. At Regency/Municipality level must be facilitated School Committee “call center” that can be contacted by telephone/e-mail/faximile. Call center persons deeply understand about school management and school committee duty and responsibility. The organization must be independently managed by members. Funding can be gained from government, sponsors, and members contribution. Association websites support information and communication of all members. References Brooking, K. (2004). ”Board of Trustees' Selection Practices of Primary School Principals in New Zealand”. New Zealand Journal of Teachers' Work. Vol. 1. Issue 1. 27-34. 2004. Chapman, P. (2006). In Search of Effective Principal Appraisal. A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Master of Education at Victoria University of Wellington. Graney, K. (2009). Approach to Literacy (Reading) Teaching in New Zealand Primary Schools. Lectures at Massey University. Hawke, G. (2002). ”Education Reform: New Zealand experience”. NZ Trade Working Paper No 20. New Zealand Institute of Economic Research (Inc). Irvine, P. (2005). Productive School Governance: Success Case Studies from New Zealand. Lindberg, K. (2006). Role of Principal as Chief Executive of Board or How well informed is your board?. www.nzsta.org.nz/.../Role%20of%20Principal%20as%20CEO.doc Retrieved May 2, 2012 Modul II: Penguatan Kelembagaan Komite Sekolah. 2012. Jakarta: Kementrian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, Dirjen Pendidikan Dasar, Kegiatan Pembinaan Dewan Pendidikan/Komite Sekolah yang terbina. New Zealand in Profile. 2012. http://www.stats.govt.nz/ Retrieved April 2, 2012. New Zealand School Trustees Association Incorporate Constitution 2011. Petunjuk Teknis Pemberdayaan Komite Sekolah tahun 2007 – 2009. 2007. Dirjen Manajemen Pendidikan dasar dan Menengah. Kementrian Pendidikan Nasional. Statistics New Zealand. Population Clock as at Wednesday, 02 May 2012 at 02:35:09 pm. http://www.stats.govt.nz/ Retrieve April 2, 2012. The New Zealand Education System: An Overview. 2008. Ministry of Education New 5
  6. Wylie, C.. (1997). The Role of New Zealand School Boards in 1997: Reports to the New Zealand School Trustees Association. Wellington. New Zealand Council for Educational Research. Wylie, C. (1999). Ten Years On: How School Views Educational Reform. Wellington: New Zealand Council for Educational Research. 6

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