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Regime theory – International Regimes

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What is regime theory? …

What is regime theory?
What are international regimes?
What are different derivations of regime theory?
What are different critiques of regime theory?
What are the examples of international regimes?
Specific case study of international regimes?

Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Regime
Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons


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  • 1. p. 1Regime Theory | Becky Cooper , Abdul Adeel and Saskia Kawczynski | Political Science/Chair of International Relations Regime Theory Becky cooper, Abdul Basit Adeel, Saskia Kawczynski
  • 2. p. 2Regime Theory | Becky Cooper , Abdul Adeel and Saskia Kawczynski | Political Science/Chair of International Relations Regime Theory: • Regimes are “implicit or explicit principles, norms, rules and decision-making procedures around which actors’ expectations converge in a given area of international relations.” (Krasner, 1982) • In simple words: International Treaties, institıtions, agreements etc.
  • 3. p. 3Regime Theory | Becky Cooper , Abdul Adeel and Saskia Kawczynski | Political Science/Chair of International Relations Neo-liberal: • Regimes facilitate cooperation • States are Anarchic but they can share interests • Regime = Rational Relationship COOPERATION • Mutually beneficial agreements
  • 4. p. 4Regime Theory | Becky Cooper , Abdul Adeel and Saskia Kawczynski | Political Science/Chair of International Relations Realist: • Regimes reflect the distribution of power • Powerful Hegemon = Successful Regime • Regimes are put in place to secure States interests (economic/security) • Regimes such as IMF, General Agreement On Tariffs & Trade were implemented to Boost American hegemony?
  • 5. p. 5Regime Theory | Becky Cooper , Abdul Adeel and Saskia Kawczynski | Political Science/Chair of International Relations Constructivist: • Regimes can alter identities and intersts • Our decisions will not be the same Tomorrow • States have their own identities • Perception is key
  • 6. p. 6Regime Theory | Becky Cooper , Abdul Adeel and Saskia Kawczynski | Political Science/Chair of International Relations The Emergence: • To aid cooperation • To tackle specific International problems • To boost economic growth • IMF • 1944- Reconstruction of the Worlds payment system • Countries donated to a global Pool so other countries could loan • No authority over Domestic policies of members • Same set of policies for any situation
  • 7. p. 7Regime Theory | Becky Cooper , Abdul Adeel and Saskia Kawczynski | Political Science/Chair of International Relations Characteristics of international Regimes • International Regimes are created to tackle specific international problems. • They are composed of principles and norms. • They also consist of rules and procedures, which have to be in accordance with the principles and norms. • Rules and procedures convert the norms and principles into specific instructions. • Short: inter. Regimes are “stets of rules meant to govern international behavior” (Simmons+ Martin 2002).
  • 8. p. 8Regime Theory | Becky Cooper , Abdul Adeel and Saskia Kawczynski | Political Science/Chair of International Relations Distinction of International Regimes • International organizations and international Regimes are both international Institutions. • International organizations can function as actors in international politics and overstep boundaries of issue areas. • International regimes always relate to a specific issue. • They don’t have an administration or an office.
  • 9. p. 9Regime Theory | Becky Cooper , Abdul Adeel and Saskia Kawczynski | Political Science/Chair of International Relations Further Development of Regime Theory In the 1980s new Regimes Theories came up, which have to be differentiated from Keohane´s Regime Theory. The most important and influential ones are : 1. Hegemonic stability theory 2. Neoliberalism : game theory – concept 3. Two-level approach 4. Problem-oriented approach 5. The concept of epistemic communities
  • 10. p. 10Regime Theory | Becky Cooper , Abdul Adeel and Saskia Kawczynski | Political Science/Chair of International Relations 1. Hegemonic stability theory (HTS) • The formation and continued existence of international regimes depend on the international distribution of power. • Charles P. Kindelberger argues that international regimes can only exist under a hegemony of a state. • This state has to be willing and capable of forming international regimes and obtain the required power to enforce the regime regulations and control its compliance. • Thus if the hegomony is terminated, so are the emerged regimes .
  • 11. p. 11Regime Theory | Becky Cooper , Abdul Adeel and Saskia Kawczynski | Political Science/Chair of International Relations 2. Neoliberalism: Game Theory -Concept • It reprobates keohane´s perception that the “prisoners dilemma” is the only possible problem-concept of international relations. • With help of the game theory new problem constellations are being created that give us different probabilities of the formation of international regimes. • We distinguish between coordination games and the dilemma game. • Reason for the failure of international regimes lays in the difference of interests.
  • 12. p. 12Regime Theory | Becky Cooper , Abdul Adeel and Saskia Kawczynski | Political Science/Chair of International Relations 3. The two- level approach • Distinguishes not only different interests of different states but different interest within one state. • The probability of international regimes depends not only if the interests of the joined states are compatible. • The intended regimes must also be compatible with the central interest of the society in the joined states. • International regimes are influenced at two levels.
  • 13. p. 13Regime Theory | Becky Cooper , Abdul Adeel and Saskia Kawczynski | Political Science/Chair of International Relations 4. Problem-oriented Approach • Shifts the emphasis to conflict management. • Conflicts are not specific injurious actions between two actors but rather incompatible differences in the positions of actors. • States create international regimes to resolve the conflicts in everybody's interest.
  • 14. p. 14Regime Theory | Becky Cooper , Abdul Adeel and Saskia Kawczynski | Political Science/Chair of International Relations 5. The concept of epistemic communities • Is a network of professionals with recognized knowledge and skill in a particular issue-area. • International regimes depend particularly on the distribution of knowledge in the problematic issue-area. • If the knowledge of cause and effect –coherence on a particular issue-area is non-consensual it decreases the probability of international regimes. • Especially significant in technical or very complex, multifaceted issue areas.
  • 15. p. 15Regime Theory | Becky Cooper , Abdul Adeel and Saskia Kawczynski | Political Science/Chair of International Relations RECAP : • What do we need those theories for ?
  • 16. p. 16Regime Theory | Becky Cooper , Abdul Adeel and Saskia Kawczynski | Political Science/Chair of International Relations Criticism of International Regimes • 1. Neorealistic criticism : developed by John Grieco in 1988. • The given regime theories underestimate the anarchistic structures of international politics. • Not only a problem of trust but also a problem of unequal distribution of gains. • States don’t act rational. • They are also concerned about the gains of the other state.
  • 17. p. 17Regime Theory | Becky Cooper , Abdul Adeel and Saskia Kawczynski | Political Science/Chair of International Relations Criticism • 2. Social constructive criticism: among others developed by Alexander Wendt 1992. • Regimes do not solely reflect the interests of states. • They are able to influence and even change these interests. • they are social institutions who enable debates and communication. • The process of cooperation tends to redefine and reconstruct prior identities.
  • 18. p. 18Regime Theory | Becky Cooper , Abdul Adeel and Saskia Kawczynski | Political Science/Chair of International Relations So, why not International Regimes? • What about anarchy? • Unequal distribution of gains • When hegemonic power declines, what happens to regime?
  • 19. p. 19Regime Theory | Becky Cooper , Abdul Adeel and Saskia Kawczynski | Political Science/Chair of International Relations REGIME THEORY EXEMPLES OF INTL. REGIMES
  • 20. p. 20Regime Theory | Becky Cooper , Abdul Adeel and Saskia Kawczynski | Political Science/Chair of International Relations Recap: • Regimes are “implicit or explicit principles, norms, rules and decision-making procedures around which actors’ expectations converge in a given area of international relations.” (Krasner, 1982) • In simple words: International Treaties, Organizations etc.
  • 21. p. 21Regime Theory | Becky Cooper , Abdul Adeel and Saskia Kawczynski | Political Science/Chair of International Relations Examples
  • 22. p. 22Regime Theory | Becky Cooper , Abdul Adeel and Saskia Kawczynski | Political Science/Chair of International Relations Case Study: • Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Regime • Aftermath of WW-II and death of millions due to the use of nuclear weapons • Treaty opened 1968 – Operational 1970 • Parties = 189 • Expectations: Pakistan, India, Israel, North Korea and South Sudan
  • 23. p. 23Regime Theory | Becky Cooper , Abdul Adeel and Saskia Kawczynski | Political Science/Chair of International Relations Case Study: • Non-proliferation of nuclear arsenal • Limiting the nuclear power to 5 and discouraging them to help other desiring states. • Disarmament of nuclear arsenal • Leaving no or least possible nuclear weapons available to use in future • Right to peaceful use nuclear technology • Use of civil nuclear technology for the benefit of mankind
  • 24. p. 24Regime Theory | Becky Cooper , Abdul Adeel and Saskia Kawczynski | Political Science/Chair of International Relations Working: • Setting of Rules • Rules concerning use of nuclear technology • Rules concerning transfer of nuclear technology from one state to other • Rules concerning cooperation between states in nuclear technology • International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) • Makes sure nuclear technology is used only for civil purposes • Facilitates and supervises civil nuclear use
  • 25. p. 25Regime Theory | Becky Cooper , Abdul Adeel and Saskia Kawczynski | Political Science/Chair of International Relations Outcome: • Success • Predictions of 25–30 nuclear weapon states within 20 years while established • Limited the total number to 9. • Reduction in global nuclear arsenal • Failure • 4 states gained nuclear power after the establishment of regime  Pakistan, India, North Korea, Israel (allegedly)
  • 26. p. 26Regime Theory | Becky Cooper , Abdul Adeel and Saskia Kawczynski | Political Science/Chair of International Relations CONCLUSION ANY QUESTIONS?