Conflict presentation

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Conflict presentation

  1. 1. Erwin Abad Department of Health
  2. 2.   A process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about. Arises from disagreements over the goals to attain or methods to be used to accomplish those goals.
  3. 3.    Traditional – early approach that assumes all conflict is bad. Human Relations – argues that conflict is a natural occurrence in all groups and organizations. Interactionist – encourages conflict on the grounds that a harmonious, peaceful, tranquil and cooperative group is prone to becoming static and non-responsive to needs for change and innovation.
  4. 4.    Task Conflict – relates to the content and goals of the work. Relationship Conflict – focuses on interpersonal relationships. Process Conflict – relates to how the work gets done.
  5. 5. Stage I: Potential Opposition or Incompatibility Presence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise. Sources of Conflict 1. Structural Factors 2. Personal Factors 3. Communication
  6. 6. Structural ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Size and specialization of jobs Jurisdictional clarity/ambiguity Member/goal incompatibility Leadership styles (close or participative) Reward systems (win-lose) Dependence/interdependence of groups Personal Variables ◦ Differing individual value systems ◦ Personality types Communication ◦ Semantic difficulties, misunderstandings, and “noise”
  7. 7. Stage II: Cognition and Personalization If the conditions in Stage I affect something that one party cares about, then the potential for opposition or incompatibility becomes actualized.
  8. 8. Perceived Conflict Awareness by one or more parties of the existence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise. Felt Conflict Emotional involvement in a conflict creating anxiety, tenseness, frustration, or hostility.
  9. 9. Stage III: Intentions Intervene between people perceptions and emotions and their behavior. 5 Conflict handling Intentions 1 Competing ( assertive and uncooperative) 2 Collaborating ( assertive and cooperative) 3 Avoiding (unassertive and uncooperative) 4 Accommodating (unassertive and cooperative) 5 Compromising (midrange on both assertiveness and cooperativeness)
  10. 10. Competing  A desire to satisfy one’s interests, regardless of the impact on the other party to the conflict. Collaborating  A situation in which the parties to a conflict each desire to satisfy fully the concerns of all parties. Avoiding  The desire to withdraw from or suppress a conflict. Accommodating  The willingness of one party in a conflict to place the opponent’s interests above his or her own. Compromising  A situation in which each party to a conflict is willing to give up something.
  11. 11. Direct conflict management approaches are based on the relative emphasis that a person places on assertiveness and cooperativeness. Assertiveness ◦ Attempting to satisfy one’s own concerns. Cooperativeness ◦ Attempting to satisfy the other party’s concern.
  12. 12. The issue of “who wins?” Lose-lose conflict ◦ Occurs when nobody gets what he or she wants. ◦ Avoidance, accommodation or smoothing, and compromise are forms of lose-lose conflict. Win-lose conflict ◦ One part achieves its desires at the expense and to the exclusion of the other party’s desires. ◦ Competition and authoritative command are forms of win-lose conflict. Win-win conflict ◦ Both parties achieve their desires. ◦ Collaboration or problem solving are forms of winwin conflict.
  13. 13. Stage IV: Behavior where conflicts become visible and statements, actions and reactions made by the conflicting parties.
  14. 14. Conflict Resolution Techniques Problem solving • Superordinate goals • Expansion of resources • Avoidance • Smoothing • Compromise • Authoritative command • Altering the human variable • Altering the structural variables • Communication • Bringing in outsiders • Restructuring the organization • Appointing a devil’s advocate •
  15. 15. Stage V: Outcomes The action-reaction interplay between conflicting parties results in consequences. Outcomes may be functional in that conflict results in improvement in groups performance, or dysfunctional in that it hinders group performance.
  16. 16. Functional Outcomes from Conflict ◦ Increased group performance ◦ Improved quality of decisions ◦ Stimulation of creativity and innovation ◦ Encouragement of interest and curiosity ◦ Provision of a medium for problem-solving ◦ Creation of an environment for self-evaluation and change Creating Functional Conflict ◦ Reward dissent and punish conflict avoiders.
  17. 17. Dysfunctional Outcomes from Conflict ◦ Development of discontent ◦ Reduced group effectiveness ◦ Retarded communication ◦ Reduced group cohesiveness ◦ Infighting among group members overcomes group goals
  18. 18.   Process in which two or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree on the exchange rate for them. Process in which two or more parties attempt to reach an acceptable agreement in a situation characterized by some level of disagreement.
  19. 19. Distributive – negotiation that seeks to divide up a fixed amount of resource; win-lose situation. Integrative – negotiation that seeks one or more settlements that can create a win-win solution.
  20. 20. Bargaining Characteristic Distributive Characteristic Integrative Characteristic  Available resources Fixed amount of resources to be divided Variable amount of resources to be divided  Primary motivations I win, you lose I win, you win  Primary interests Opposed to each other Convergent or congruent with each other  Focus of relationships Short term Long term
  21. 21. What are the different strategies involved in negotiation? Distributive negotiation  Focuses on positions staked out or declared by the conflicting parties.  Parties try to claim certain portions of the existing pie. Integrative negotiation  Sometimes called principled negotiation.  Focuses on the merits of the issues.  Parties try to enlarge the available pie.
  22. 22. BATNA The Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement; the lowest acceptable value (outcome) to an individual for a negotiated agreement.
  23. 23. The Role of Personality Traits in Negotiation ◦ Traits do not appear to have a significantly direct effect on the outcomes of either bargaining or negotiating processes. Gender Differences in Negotiations ◦ Women negotiate no differently from men, although men apparently negotiate slightly better outcomes. ◦ Men and women with similar power bases use the same negotiating styles. ◦ Women’s attitudes toward negotiation and their success as negotiators are less favorable than men’s.
  24. 24. Mediator A neutral third party who facilitates a negotiated solution by using reasoning, persuasion, and suggestions for alternatives. Arbitrator  A third party to a negotiation who has the authority to dictate an agreement. Conciliator  A trusted third party who provides an informal communication link between the negotiator and the opponent. Consultant   An impartial third party, skilled in conflict management, who attempts to facilitate creative problem solving through communication and analysis.
  25. 25. References: - Robbins, Stephen, Organizational Behavior, 11th Edition - Medina, Robert, PhD, Human Behavior in Organization - Newstrom, John, Organizational Behavior – Human Behavior at Work - Santos, Emmanuel, Organization and Management
  26. 26. Thank you!!!
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