The subject is who or what does the verb. I. Subject Pronouns:Singular: Plural:I WeYou YouHe, she, it(for things or animals) They II. The predicate is said to modify the subject. A predicate pronoun follows a linking verb and identifies the verb’s subject. III. A linking verb tells what the subject is. (Ex. Sod houses stayed cool in hot water.). IV. Interrogative Pronouns: Is used to introduce a question.Interrogative Pronouns UseWho, whom Refers to peopleWhat Refers to thingsWhich Refers to People or specific thingsWhose Indicates ownerships or relationships
Demonstrative Pronouns:• Points out a person, place, thing or idea. Singular Plural This These That Those
What is a pronoun? Is a word that isused in place of a noun or anotherpronoun.A subject pronoun: Is used as a subjectin a sentence or as a predicate pronounafter a linking verb.Pronouns as subjects: Use a subjectpronoun to substitute a subject.
Singular Plural My, mine Our, ours Your, yours Your, yours Her, hers, his, its Their, theirs•Possessive pronoun is a personal pronoun usedto show ownership or relationship.•Possessive Nouns= Form of a noun that showsownership or relationship.•Compound Nouns= Is made of two or morewords used together as a single noun.
•Personal Pronouns= They indicates persons,numbers and cases. (Singular form I, You, He/Plural form We, You and they).•Object Pronouns= It is used as a direct object,an indirect object, or an object of a preposition.(Singular me, you, him, her, it/Plural us you andthem).
•Possessive Pronouns= Is a personal pronounused to show ownership or a relationship.•Reflexive Pronouns= Refers to the subject anddirects the action of the verb back to thesubject.Ex. Houdini called himself a master escape.•Intensive Pronouns=Emphasizes a noun oranother pronoun in the same sentence. Ex. Youyourselves have seen magic shows on tv.
Indefinite Pronoun does not refer to a specific person, place, thing or idea.Singular Plural Singular or pluralAnother everyone Both Allanybody everything Few AnyAnyone Neither Many MostAnything nobody Several NoneEach No-one SomeEither NothingEverybody
Possessive pronoun is a personal pronoun used to show ownership or relationship. Singular Plural My, mine Our, ours Your, yours Your, yours Her, hers, Their, his, its theirs
I. Kind of Clauses:a. A clause is a group of words that containsa subject and a verb.b. Independent Clauses= Expresses acomplete thought. It can stand alone as asentence.c. Subordinate(dependent)Clauses=Contains a subject and a verb but does notexpress a complete thought.
Verb Is a word used to express an action, a condition or a state of being.Simple predicate Is the main word or words in the complete predicate.Sentence Is a group of words that expresses a complete thought.Basic parts of the sentence Subject and predicate.Simple subject Is the main word in a sentence. Is what the sentences is talking about.
Direct object Is a word or a group of words that names the receiver of the action of an action verb.Common Noun A general name for a person, place, thing or idea.Verb phrase Is made up of a main verb and one or more helping verbs.
Action verbs tell about something a person, animal, force of nature or thing can do or be.add imagine stayallow itch talkbake jog turnbang jump untiecall kick knit usechase land vanish visitdamage drop lock walkend march workescape mix yawnfasten name yellfix notice obey zipgather open zoomgrab passhang promisehug question reach rinse scatter
Linking verbs do not show action. Instead, they connect nouns and pronounsto other information in the sentence. Here are some examples:My sister is smart.The picture appeared blurry.Your supper smells delicious.The most common linking verbs are listed here:am be have/has might smellare become been have been soundare feel is prove staybeing get lie remain tasteappear grow look seem turn might be sit were
Helping verbs do not stand alone or express action.They are part of verb phrases that "help" the main verb.Helping verbs define the tense (past, present, future)or change the meaning of the main verb.Consider these examples:Do you need a tissue?We are helping the third-grade class.Hank might have been driving the wrong way.This list has commonly-used helping verbs:may being is does would willmight been was did have canmust am were should had shallbe are do could has
An adverb is a modifying part of speech. It describes verbs, other adverbs, adjectives, andphrases. They are used to describe how, where, when, how often and why something happens.Here are a few examples:Verb- The cat climbed quickly up the tree. (quickly describes how the cat climbed)Adverb- Mike worked very carefully on his paper. (very shows how carefully he worked) Adjective-She is nearly ready to go. (nearly tells to what extent she is ready)Adverbs of manner describe how something happens. Where there are two or more verbs in asentence, adverb placement affects the meaning. Some commonly used adverbs of mannerinclude: loudly carefully patiently correctly quickly eagerly quietly easily and well. fast
Consider the following example:She decided to write her paper. (no adverbs)She quickly decided to write her paper. (her decision was quick)She decided to write her paper quickly. (her writing was quick)
Adverbs of place describe where something happens. Most adverbs of place are also used as prepositions.Some commonly used examples include the following:abroadanywheredownstairsherehomeinnowhereoutoutsidesomewherethereundergroundupstairs.I wanted to go upstairs.She has lived in the city since June. (in the city – prepositional phrase)
Adverbs of purpose describe why something happens. Here are some commonexamples:soso thattoin order tobecausesinceaccidentallyintentionallyand purposely.Jenny walks carefully to avoid falling.Bob accidentally broke the vase.
Adverbs of frequency describe how often something happens. The followingadverbs are commonly used in this way:alwayseveryneveroftenrarelyseldomsometimesand usually.Mackenzie gets a ride from her brother every day.The fish usually swims near the top of its tank.
Adverbs of time describe when something happens. Theseexamples are commonly used: after recently already soon during then. finally tomorrow just when last while later and yesterday next nowHe came home before dark.It will be too dark to play outside soon.Jessica finished her supper first.Andy left school early.
Gerund= Is a verb form that ends in ing andacts as a noun.
A preposition describes a relationship betweenother words in a sentence. In itself, a word like"in" or "after" is rather meaningless and hard todefine in mere words. For instance, when youdo try to define a preposition like "in" or"between" or "on," you invariably use yourhands to show how something is situated inrelationship to something else. Prepositions arenearly always combined with other words instructures called prepositional phrases.
Prepositional phrases can be made up of amillion different words, but they tend to bebuilt the same: a preposition followed by adeterminer and an adjective or two, followedby a pronoun or noun (called the object of thepreposition). This whole phrase, in turn, takeson a modifying role, acting as an adjective oran adverb, locating something in time andspace, modifying a noun, or telling when orwhere or under what conditions somethinghappened.
Consider :You can sit before the desk (or in front ofthe desk). The professor can sit on the desk(when hes being informal) or behind thedesk, and then his feet are under the deskor beneath the desk. He can stand besidethe desk (meaning next to the desk), beforethe desk, between the desk and you, oreven on the desk (if hes really strange). Ifhes clumsy, he can bump into the desk ortry to walk through the desk (and stuffwould fall off the desk).
Passing his hands over the desk or resting hiselbows upon the desk, he often looks acrossthe desk and speaks of the desk or concerningthe desk as if there were nothing else like thedesk. Because he thinks of nothing except thedesk, sometimes you wonder about the desk,whats in the desk, what he paid for the desk,and if he could live without the desk. You canwalk toward the desk, to the desk, around thedesk, by the desk, and even past the deskwhile he sits at the desk or leans against thedesk.
Prepositions= Shows the relationship betweena noun or pronoun and another word in asentence. English speakers use prepositions inboth formal and everyday communication.Without them, the English language wouldsound short and choppy.
Prepositions connect nouns, pronouns, and phrases with other words ina sentence. It gives information about location, direction, space, or time.Prepositions are usually part of a phrase because they often have anoun or pronoun after them. Here are two examples of prepositions insentences.The dog jumped over the fence.I will go to the doctor.The main job of prepositions is to create relationships between words.How is the dog related to the fence? It jumped over the fence. How am Irelated to the doctor? I am going to the doctorPrepositional phrases can also act like adverbs or adjectives. Rememberthat adverbs describe verbs (actions and being), and adjectives describenouns and pronouns (ideas, people, places, and things).
As an adverb - The children crossed the street withcaution.The prepositional phrase "with caution" describesthe way the children crossed the street.As an adjective - He lives in the house with thered roof.The prepositional phrase "with the red roof"describes the house in a specific way.
List of the Most Common Prepositions A through D E through M N through R S through W aboard about except near save above excepting next since absent excluding across of than after following off through against for on till along from on top of times alongside onto to amid in opposite toward amidst in front of out of towards among inside outside anti instead of over under around into underneath as past unlike at like per until atop plus up before mid upon behind minus regarding below round versus beneath via beside besides with between within beyond witho but by concerning considering despite down during
The GerundRecognize a gerund when you see one.Every gerund, without exception, ends in ing. Gerunds are not, however, all that easy to identify.The problem is that all present participles also end in ing. What is the difference?Gerunds function as nouns. Thus, gerunds will be subjects, subject complements, direct objects, indirectobjects,and objects of prepositions.Present participles, on the other hand, complete progressive verbs or act as modifiers.Read these examples of gerunds:Since Francisco was five years old, swimming has been his passion.Swimming = subject of the verb has been.Franciscos first love is swimming.Swimming = subject complement of the verb is.Francisco enjoys swimming more than spending time with his girlfriend Diana.Swimming = direct object of the verb enjoys.Francisco gives swimming all of his energy and time.Swimming = indirect object of the verb gives.When Francisco wore dive fins to class, everyone knew that he was devoted to swimming.Swimming = object of the preposition to.These ing words are examples of present participles:One day last summer, Francisco and his coach were swimming at Daytona Beach.Swimming = present participle completing the past progressive verb were swimming.A great white shark ate Franciscos swimming coach.Swimming = present participle modifying coach.Now Francisco practices his sport in safe swimming pools.Swimming = present participle modifying pools.
Copy out the following passage. Underlinethe subject(nouns/pronouns) and circle the predicate.• The heavy seas were breaking over the stone jetty. It battered the ship through the narrow entrance to the inner harbour. Her captain was exhausted. The brave man had been standing on the open bridge for many hours, steering the stricken ship to a safe mooring.
Conjunctions= Connects words or groups of words. Coordinating Conjunctionsand but or yet for nor so A conjunction is a joiner, a word that connects Definition (conjoins) parts of a sentence. Coordinating Conjunctions The simple, little conjunctions are called coordinating conjunctions (you can click on the words to see specific descriptions of each one): (It may help you remember these conjunctions by recalling that they all have fewer than four letters. Also, remember the acronym FANBOYS: For-And-Nor-But-Or- Yet-So. Be careful of the words then and now; neither is a coordinating conjunction, so what we say about coordinating conjunctions roles in a sentence and punctuation does not apply to those two words.)
• When a coordinating conjunction connects two independent clauses, it is often (but not always) accompanied by a comma:• Ulysses wants to play for UConn, but he has had trouble meeting the academic requirements.• When the two independent clauses connected by a coordinating conjunction are nicely balanced or brief, many writers will omit the comma:• Ulysses has a great jump shot but he isnt quick on his feet.• The comma is always correct when used to separate two independent clauses connected by a coordinating conjunction. See Punctuation Between Two Independent Clauses for further help.• A comma is also correct when and is used to attach the last item of a serial list, although many writers (especially in newspapers) will omit that final comma:• Ulysses spent his summer studying basic math, writing, and reading comprehension.
When a coordinating conjunction is used to connect all theelements in a series, a comma is not used:• Presbyterians and Methodists and Baptists are theprevalent Protestant congregations in Oklahoma.A comma is also used with but when expressing a contrast:• This is a useful rule, but difficult to remember.In most of their other roles as joiners (other than joiningindependent clauses, that is), coordinating conjunctions canjoin two sentence elements without the help of a comma.• Hemingway and Fitzgerald are among the Americanexpatriates of the between-the-wars era.• Hemingway was renowned for his clear style and hisinsights into American notions of male identity.
Conjunction AND• a. To suggest that one idea is chronologically sequential to another: "Tashonda sent in her applications and waited by the phone for a response."• b. To suggest that one idea is the result of another: "Willie heard the weather report and promptly boarded up his house."• c. To suggest that one idea is in contrast to another (frequently replaced by but in this usage): "Juanita is brilliant and Shalimar has a pleasant personality.
Conjunction AND• d. To suggest an element of surprise (sometimes replaced by yet in this usage): "Hartford is a rich city and suffers from many symptoms of urban blight."• e. To suggest that one clause is dependent upon another, conditionally (usually the first clause is an imperative): "Use your credit cards frequently and youll soon find yourself deep in debt."• f. To suggest a kind of "comment" on the first clause: "Charlie became addicted to gambling — and that surprised no one who knew him."
BUT• To suggest a contrast that is unexpected in light of the first clause: "Joey lost a fortune in the stock market, but he still seems able to live quite comfortably."• To suggest in an affirmative sense what the first part of the sentence implied in a negative way (sometimes replaced by on the contrary): "The club never invested foolishly, but used the services of a sage investment counselor."
BUT• To connect two ideas with the meaning of "with the exception of" (and then the second word takes over as subject): "Everybody but Golden breath is trying out for the team."
OR• To suggest that only one possibility can be realized, excluding one or the other: "You can study hard for this exam or you can fail."• To suggest the inclusive combination of alternatives: "We can broil chicken on the grill tonight, or we can just eat leftovers.
OR• To suggest a refinement of the first clause: "Smith College is the premier all-womens college in the country, or so it seems to most Smith College alumnae."• To suggest a restatement or "correction" of the first part of the sentence: "There are no rattlesnakes in this canyon, or so our guide tells us."
OR• To suggest a negative condition: "The New Hampshire state motto is the rather grim "Live free or die."• To suggest a negative alternative without the use of an imperative (see use of and above): "They must approve his political style or they wouldnt keep electing him mayor."
Correlative ConjunctionsSome conjunctions combine with other words to form what are calledcorrelative conjunctions. They always travel in pairs, joining varioussentence elements that should be treated as grammatically equal.• She led the team not only in statistics but also by virtue of herenthusiasm.• Polonius said, "Neither a borrower nor a lender be."• Whether you win this race or lose it doesnt matter as long as you doyour best.Correlative conjunctions sometimes create problems in parallel form. ClickHERE for help with those problems. Here is a brief list of commoncorrelative conjunctions.• both . . . and• not only . . . but also• not . . . but• either . . . or neither . . . nor• whether . . . or• as . . . as
Using the Active Voice to Strengthen Your WritingWriting in the active voice means constructing sentenceswhere the subject “acts”:•I threw the ball.•You are making too much noise.•Ben will eat popcorn and watch a movie tomorrow evening.In each of these sentences, the subject (I, You and Benrespectively) performs the action of the verb (threw, making,will watch). The sentences are punchy, direct and make it clearwho’s doing what.SUBJECT+VERB+PREDICATE.
PASSIVE VOICE• The passive voice is used whenever the subject of the sentence is not actually performing the action of the verb. It can be used with inanimate objects (The car was started.) or it can be used to change the main focus of the sentence (The paper was written by Bob., rather than Bob wrote the paper.). There is a passive form of every verb tense in English. For a complete list of all the verb tenses in both active and passive, you can refer to that list at this web site.
PAST PARTICIPLE• Part #3 - Past Participle• The past participle is used in the formation of the perfect tenses, past and present, and in combination with progressive verbs, to form the majority of verb tenses in English. It is also used to form the passive form of all the verb tenses. The past perfect is used for activities that began and ended in the past in combination with the simple past (She had been to Europe several times before she went to Italy.), as well as for past time hypothetical situations (If I had won the lottery, I would have moved to Jamaica.). The present perfect is used for present time references (I have finished my homework.), for activities which began in the past, but continue into the present (I have lived here for 6 years.), and for the recent past with an unspecified time reference (I have found a new apartment.).
PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE• The past perfect progressive is also used for activities in the past, frequently with the simple past (I had been planning to leave when the boss called.). The present perfect progressive is used for activities which began in the past, and continue into the present (I have been speaking French for 10 years.).
Rules• The principal parts of the English verb are the base form, the simple past, and the past participle. For regular verbs, the simple past and the past participle are spelled the same and are created by adding -ed to the base form. However, there are many irregular verbs in English which do not conform to this pattern.
Rules• The additional forms of the verb in English are the -s form (3rd person singular present), and the present participle, which is created by adding -ing to the base form. There are no irregular forms of the present participle, so the spelling of any verb will adhere to the rules of spelling for regular inflection.
Rules• Verbs in English can be classified according to three different criteria: tense (present, past), aspect (perfect, progressive), and modality. There are only 2 true tenses in English, simple present and simple past, where the actual spelling of the word changes to reflect the change of tense.
Rules for Using the Principal Parts of the Verb• Part #2 - Simple Past• The simple past is used for just that, activities which began and ended in the past. This form is frequently used in historical writing (e.g., history textbooks). For regular verbs, the simple past is formed by adding -ed to the base form. Irregular verbs are included on another list at this web site.
Irregular VerbsBase Form Simple Past Tense Past ParticipleHit hit hitHold held heldHurt hurt hurtkeep kept keptkneel knelt kneltknit knit knitknow knew knowlay laid laidlead led ledleap leaped/leapt leaped/leaptlearn learned/learnt learned/learntleave left left
Irregular VerbsBase Form Simple Past Tense Past Participlelie lay lainlight lighted/lit lightedlose lost lostlose lost lostmake made mademean meant meantmeet met metmisspell misspelled/misspelt misspelled/misspeltmistake mistook mistakenmow mowed mowed/mown
Irregular VerbsBase Form Simple Past Tense Past Participleovertake overtook overtakenoverthrow overthrew overthrownpay paid paidplead pled pledprove proved proved/provenput put putquit quit quitread read readrid rid ridride rode riddenring rang rungrise rose risen
Irregular VerbsBase Form Simple Past Tense Past Participlesay said saidsee saw seenseek sought soughtsell sold soldsend sent sentset set setsew sewed sewed/sewnshake shook shakenshave shaved shaved/shavenshear shore shorn
Irregular VerbsBase Form Simple Past Tense Past Participleshear shore shornshed shed shedshine shone shoneshoe shoed shoed/shodshoot shot shotshow showed showed/shownshrink shrank shrunkshut shut shutsing sang sungsink sank sunksit sat satsleep slept slept