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HORMONES, THE PERFECT STORM?Page 2 Article Two 16-6 The target cell concept. A hormone acts only on cells that have receptors specific to that hormone because the shape of the receptor de- termines which hormone can react with it. This is an exam- ple of the lock-and-key model of biochemical reaction. (1)
NEWSLETTER TITLEPage 4 Article Four—graphs Hormone Source Target Principle Action Growth hormone- Hypothalamus Adenohypophysis Stimulates secretion of releasing hormone (somatotrophs) growth hormone Growth hormone- Hypothalamus Adenohypophysis Inhibits secretion of inhibiting hormone (GIH) (somatotrophs) growth hormone ir somatostatin Corticotropin-releasing Hypothalamus Adenohypophysis Stimulates release of hormone (CRH) (corticotrophs) adrenocorticotropic hor- mone (ACTH) Thryotropin-releasing Hypothalamus Adenohypophysis Stimulates release of thy- hormone (TRH) (thyrotrophs) roid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Gonadotropin-releasing Hypothalamus Adenohypophysis Stimulates release of gon- hormone (GNRH) (gonadotrophs) adotropins (FSH and LH) Prolactin-releasing hor- Hypothalamus Adenohypophysis Stimulates secretion of mone (PRH) (corticotrophs) prolactin Prolaction-inhibiting hor- Hypothalamus Adenohypophysis Inhibits secretion of pro- mone (PIH) (corticotrophs) lactin Growth hormone (GH) Adenohypophysis General Promotes growth by stim- (somatotropin [STH]) (somatotrophs) ulating protein anabolism and fat mobilization Prolactin (PRL) Adenohypophysis Mammary glands Promotes milk secretion (lactogenic hormone) (lactotrophs) (alveolar secretory cells) Thyroid-stimulating hor- Adenohypophysis Thyroid glands Stimulates development mone (TSH)* (thyrotrophs) and secretion in the thy- roid gland Adrenocorticotropic hor- Adenohypophysis Adrenal cortex Promotes development mone (ACTH)* (corticotrophs) and secretion in the ad- renal cortex Follicle-stimulating hor- Adenohypophysis Gonads (primary sex or- Female- promotes devel- mone (FSH)* (gonadotrophs) gans) opments of ovarian folli- cle; stimulates estrogen secretion Male- promotes develop- ment of testis; stimulates sperm production Luteinizing hormone (LH) Adenohypophysis Gonads Female- triggers ovula- * (gonadotrophs) tion; promotes develop- ment of corpus luteum Male- stimulates produc- tion of testosterone Antidiuretic hormone Neurohypophysis Kidney Promotes water retention (ADH) by kidney tubules Oxytocin (OT) Neurohypophysis Uterus and mammary Stimulates uterine con- glands tractions; stimulates ejec- tion of milk into mamma- ry ducts Triiodothyronine (T3) Thyroid gland (follicular General Increase rate of metabo- cells) lism Tetraiodothyronine (T4) Thyroid gland (follicular General Increase rate of metabo- or thyroxine cells) lism (usually converted to T3 first) Calcitonin (CT) Thyroid gland Bone tissue Increases calcium stor- (parafollicular cells) age in bone, lowering blood calcium levels
VOLUME 1, ISSUE 1 Page 5Parathyroid hormone Parathyroid glands Bone tissue and kidney Increases calcium remov-(PTH) or parathormone al from storage in bone and produces the active form of vitamin D in the kidneys, increasing ab- sorption of calcium by intestines and increasing blood calcium levelsAldosterone Adrenal cortex (zona glo- Kidney Stimulates kidney tubules merulosa) to conserve sodium, which, in turn, triggers the release of ADH and the resulting conserva- tion of water by the kid- neyCortisol (hydrocortisone) Adrenal cortex (zona fas- General Influences metabolism of ciculata) food molecules; in large amounts, it has an anti- inflammatory effectAdrenal androgens Adrenal cortex (zona re- Sex organs, other effec- Exact role uncertain, but ticularis) tors may support sexual func- tionAdrenal estrogens Adrenal cortex (zona re- Sex organs Thought to be physiologi- ticularis) cally insignificantEpinephrine (adrenaline) Adrenal medulla Sympathetic effectors Enhances and prolongs the effects of the sympa- thetic division of the auto- nomic nervous systemNorepinephrine Adrenal medulla Sympathetic effectors Enhances and prolongs the effects of the sympa- thetic division of the auto- nomic nervous systemGlucagon Pancreatic islets (alpha a General Promotes movement of cells or A cells) glucose from storage and into the bloodInsulin Pancreatic islets (beta b Pancreatic cells and other Can have general effects cells or B cells) effectors in the body, but primary role seems to be regula- tion of secretion of other pancreatic hormonesSomatosatin Pancreatic islets (delta d Pancreatic cells and other Can have general effects cells or D cells) effectors in the body, but primary role seems to be regula- tion of secretion of other pancreatic hormonesPancreatic polypeptide Pancreatic islets Intestinal cells and other Exact function uncertain, (pancreatic polyperptide effectors but seems to influence [PP] or F cells absorption in the diges- tive tract